Skip to main content

Full text of "History of Lynn, Essex County, Massachusetts, including Lynnfield, Saugus, Swampscott, and Nahant"

See other formats


/fo 



.f^i 



LIBRARY 



OF THE 




DATE DUE 



































































































UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS 

AT 

AMHERST 



F 

74 

L98 

L5 

1890 

V.2 



/// 




Alonzo Lewis — At age of 37. Ai.onzo Liwis— At age of 63. 

Poet and Historian. 




Cii VKI I s r I^t'MMl . — \t age of 32 

1-ii^t l-yiiu I'rmtci. 

[Ar fxigf Z'iii.\ 



James R. Newhall — Atageof3Ji 

{«7) 




ST. MARGARET S CHURCH, KINGS LV.W, h.MGLANU. 




{See page vii.] ST. STEPUKN'S CHURCH, LYNN, MAbS. 




CITY HALL, LYNN, MASS. 




iSff /'afre7'it.\ TOWN HALL, KING'S LYNN, L.NULAND. 



(«3) 



■Ay 



o 


>-, 




1; 


2J 


<; 






r* 


t-i 


tn 


o 










rt 


o 


;/j 


^ 


t/j 


CA. 










rt 


o 






r' 


— 





< 






ei 


■^ 




CJ 


fci 


;q 


^ 


00 



JJ ^ 



•5^ 






:?.^ 



'' ' "^ 


Ii3 




r , : •'', g 






■ 


■fflv m ffiiil 




I™,. ' 


fli 




I' !':•'■ id 








liln 




1 ':!\ 

il 1 i 






1 %- 


j||«|B»!| 










:l ■ ' ■'- ' 


wBSSfUH 




J ,, 














'■■ ; ■ III/' '' ' 


s 


l! 1. 4# 




lllllllllilllllllllllliillllllUlililinilii 











, 1^ 


'*• 




fl 


ri 




^^^ 




w 












a .^ 








o c- 


ro 


"■I t- 


ri 


-•C 








•/ <, 
















•- il 












•^ 




^ 




ri 










fi 


2 


fi 


5 <u 




i; 5 

^o 




CN-^ 


,^ 


- tp 


n 














(J lU 




tc«i 




'^ s 
















(=5 •- 




. "O 




i 9 












1 — if 


O 










rt . 








c<5 








1) 




iJO 




.-o 


On 


- ^ 


*^ 


P <5 








P j: 




s U 




^ 




-^ c 




* ^ 
















o 




• *• 


OC 


t^— 1 








"+ 




fl 












•J ■ 




? Ji 












— <n 




^ 










I~^ 


»-* 




D 








c ^— 




X _^ 




vO r^ 




— ri 




• u 




>^ 4) 




U > 












<-; ~ 








« ■ 




o i* 
















"— > -* 


O 


1^1 




rj 




.o 








t: ri 




1- N 




OJ 


VT) 


2 ^ 




p.£ 




Is 




-^ 




^ 




s 


T}- 


^^ 




. a 




■* 



•rH 





I 

4^ 



o 

02 



O 
00 



t— i 
H 



HISTORY 



OF 



LYNN, 



ESSEX COUNTY, MASSACHUSETTS: 



INCLUDING 



Lynnfield, Saugus, Swampscott, and Nahant. 



VOLUME II 



1864-1893. 



BY 



^W.wV2J^<2ri,<0<C^ 



PUBLISHED BY 

Israel Augustus Newhall and Howard Mudge Newhall. 



Lynn, Mass. : 
the nichols press — thos. p. nichols. 

1897. 



^1 ^ 

NOTE. , o 



The volume of tlie History ok Lynn, by Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall, known 
as the 1865 Edition, embodies our history from the first settlement, in 1629, to 1864. . . An- 
other volume, by the last-named writer, bringing the history down to 1883, was published. . . 
The main body of the volume now in hand is this last-named work — with a Supplement con- 
tinuing the Annals on to 1890 — thus furnishing what is believed to be a complete History of 
I,YNN from its first settlement, in 1629 to 1890 — iwo hundred and sixty-one years. 

Indexes. —On page 295 commences a full Index of the preceding pages. On page 310 is 
the Index to the Pictorial Addenda. And at the close of the Supplement is the Index to that 
department. 

J. K. N. 
Lynn, 1890. 



The present book. Volume II, History of Lynn, is the same work described in the 
note above, with the addition of Annals to January 1,1893, notes having been left by the author, 
prepared to that date before his decease. 

This volume is published, as left by its author, and in the same form as the 1890 book, 
bringing the History to 1893, a period of two hundred and sixty-four years. His preface is 
left intact, and if the reader will substitute 1892 for 1882 on page iii, it will serve for this book. 

The Supplement begins on page 329, continuing the Annals from page 96. Its Index is on 
page 379. 

I. A. N. and H. M. N. 
Lynn, 1897. 



Copyright, 1897, by IsiiAEL Augustus and Howard Mudce Newhall. 



ERRATA. 

On page 57, line S, read 20,000,000 instead of 2,000,000. 

On page 107, line 12, read Thos. Hudson instead of Godson. 

On page 132, line 7, read eight instead of one. 

On page 134, last line, read July instead of June. 

On page 162. line 8, read January instead of March. 



55^7^3 



PREFACE. 



It may properly be remarked that the volume ni^w in the 
reader's hand, is intended in one sense to be complete in itself; 
that is, to embody a general view of our history, from the begin- 
ning of the settlement to the present time. Yet, so far as its 
record is in the form of annals, it is supplementary to the 1865 
edition of the History of Lynn ; and the reader as he proceeds 
will find many references to that work. This course was adopted 
for the purpose of economising in the matter of space, by avoiding 
repetition, and at the same time apprising the reader where further 
information upon a given topic might be found. For the same 
general purpose, also, occasional reference is made to the " Cen- 
tennial Memorial." And the writer is, on the whole, prepared to 
claim, with some confidence, that this volume, in connection with 
that of 1865, embodies a full and reliable history of the place 
from the first settlement, in 1629 down to 1882, with as few 
repetitions, reviews, or recapitulations as would be consistent 
with an intelligent and comprehensive view. 

There has been no waste space to be provided for ; and some 
things have been omitted with hesitancy, where the press of 
matter upon the writer's attention allowed him only the privilege 
of choice ; a privilege that he has always exercised in a manner 
that seemed most desirable for the reader. 

There is, in a work of this kind, far more danger of omission 
than redundancy. And it is almost certain that the reader will 

(iii) 



iv Preface. 

think of some topic which it appears to him has not been set 
forth with desirable fullness. But before concluding that there 
is an omission, accidental or intentional, it would be well to 
consider whether the matter is of general interest or of interest 
only to himself and perhaps a few others, or to any limited or 
particular class. 

While it has not been thought expedient, when speaking 
of persons, to extenuate in a degree to give false coloring to 
character, nothing has been set down in malice. The endeavor 
has been to give an honest and fair account of whoever and 
whatever has come under notice. 

With the reception of his former imperfect works by those 
whose opinions are of value, the writer has had abundant reason 
to be pleased ; and all courteous and well-intended suggestions 
have been gratefully received and duly considered. Whether 
his escape from criticism is attributable to excellence or insig- 
nificance is a question about which he need not trouble himself 
The unfledged critic, as every writer knows, often fancies that 
he has demolished an author when he has only amused him. 
And it is well for both writer and reviewer to bear in mind that 
no author can be written down by any pen but his own — nor 
written up, as to that matter. 

That the book is entirely free from error, is beyond the bound 
of expectation, though much care has been taken to have all the 
statements correct. It would be extreme arrogance to claim for it 
what perhaps no other printed book ever yet possessed — perfect 
accuracy. A word is said, on page 253, touching the duties and 
perplexities of authorship. And on page 251 an account is 
given of the different editions of the History of Lynn. The pres- 
ent volume corresponds in the size of page and general style 
with that of 1865, and both are stereotyped. 



CONTENTS 



I. Introduction : beginning on page 9 : 

This Section embraces remarks concerning the Northmen, 
and their supposed early visits to our coast, together with 
a brief notice of the Indians found here. 

II. Annals : beginning on page 17 : 

In this Section our history is brought forward, in the form 
of Annals, from 1864 to 1882, the 1865 edition having, in 
the same form, recorded events from the time of the first 
settlement, in 1629, to said year 1864. 

III. Biographical Sketches : beginning on page 97 : 

In this Section appear, alphabetically arranged, the names 
of more than two hundred individuals, some deceased, and 
some now living, who have been residents of Lynn, with 
sketches, more or less extended, of a large number who 
have in various ways become conspicuous. 

IV. Miscellaneous Notes : beginning on page 221 : 

This Section is devoted to a collection of detached topics 
connected with our history, chiefly illustrative of the condi- 
tion of things at various periods. 

V. Chronological Table : beginning on page 275 : 

This summary is full, and intended of itself to give a com- 
prehensive glance at our whole history, comprising notices 
of remarkable events and interesting occurrences, with 
details sufficient for a clear understanding. 

(V) 



V* 



Contents. 



VI. Conclusion: beginning on page 285 : 

In this Section appear compendious remarks of a somewhat 
desultory character, but pertinent and in accord with the 
general purpose of the volume. 

VII. The Index : occupying the closing pages of the volume : 
This contains all the personal names in the book, arranged 
alphabetically with the subjects. 

VIII. Pictorial Addenda : page 311. 




TERRITORIAL DIAGRAM OF ANCIENT LYNN. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Preceding the title-page are four pages of Illustrations, to wit : 

1. Market street, Lynn, (south-west side,) as it appeared 

in 1820. 

2. Town Hall, King's Lynn, England, and City Hall, Lynn, 

Mass. 

3. St. Margaret's Church, King's Lynn, England, and St. 

Stephen's, Church, Lynn, Mass. 

4. Two Portraits of Alonzo Lewis, one of Charles F. Lummus, 

and one of James R. Newhall. 

Respecting each of these a word or two may properly be said : 

Tlie View in Market Street gives, in two sections, the entire south-westerly side, as 
it was sixty years ago. This drawing, and several others in the present volume, were 
made by the skillful young draughtsman, William T. Oliver, of course from details 
furnished by older persons. In his grandfather's shop — indicated by 22 — William 
Lloyd Garrison worked at shoemaking. The writer well remembers the street as it 
was at that period, and can confidently attest to the remarkable fidelity of the picture. 

The Town Hall, and St. Margaret's Church, of Lynn, England, were carefully 
drawn, by Mr. Oliver, from photographs kindly sent to the writer by Solicitor J. J. 
Coulton. The Hall is ancient ; but the precise date of its erection seems doubtful. 
The style, in the main parts at least, will be recognized as early English; though 
additions have evidently been made, without a very careful eye to architectural unity. 
The front is composed of alternate squares of flint and freestone, the former beauti- 
fully squared and fitted. St. Margaret's was built about the year iioo, and hence is 
now near eight hundred years old. It was built by the first Bishop of Norwich, who 
also built the Cathedral at Norwich and Church of St. Nicholas at Yarmouth, to 
expiate his simony. It was from the wall of this ancient temple that the stone which 
with its friendly inscription rests in the vestibule of our St. Stephen's, was taken. 
See page 86 ; also page 76. Pictures of our own City Hall, and St. Step/ten's Church 

(Vii) 



Vlll 



Illustrations. 



accompany these, but it is unnecessary to go into details here, concerning them, and 
the reader is referred to pages 93 and 259. 

The Portraits to some extent speak for themselves. The beardless one of Mr. 
Lewis represents him at the age of 37, and is copied from one of Pendleton's litho- 
graphs, executed in 1831. Mr. L. himself considered it a good hkeness ; and as he 
showed it to the writer on the eve of the publication of his volume of poems, in 
which it appeared, and elicited the innocent remark that it certainly did the subject 
no injustice in the matter of personal appearance, he rather sharply intimated that 
the critic's own discernment was not above criticism. The bearded one, which repre- 
sents him at the age of 63, will be recognized by many who well remember him, as 
very accurate. The likeness of Mr. Lummus represents him at the age of 32. It is 
from a painting by Wheeler, who for some time made his home in Lynn — a good 
artist, but in some respects an erratic character. Mr. L. thought it a good likeness ; 
and so thought his friends. The remaining one of the four is from a daguerreotype 
taken at the age of 38. These Portraits as they appear all on one page, seem a little 
crowded, to be sure ; but then, in former years, the individuals not unfrequently 
stood " shoulder to shoulder " in their labors, though it will not be claimed that the 
air was invariably serene when the three met to make melody in the old Mirror 
office, fifty years ago. 

The other Illustrations, being generally accompanied by expla- 
nations, seem to need nothing beyond mere enumeration here. 

Autographs. A large number of fac-similes of interesting auto- 
graphs appear in our volume, any one of which may be readily 
found by referring to the index, under the head " Autographs." 



Autographs. (See Index, page 295.) 
Birth-place of Alonzo Lewis, 166. 
Burying-ground, first in Lynn, 291. 
Comet of 1S82, 283. 
Cottage in which Mr. Lewis died, 167. 
Cradle of Methodism — the old Johnson 

house. Market street, 315. 
Diagram, territorial, of old Lynn, vi. 
Dwelling-houses, early fashions of, 224, 

318, 319, 320. 
Enoch R. Mudge's villa, 321. 
Episcopal church, first in Lynn, 260. 
Exchange block, 317. 
First Parish meeting-houses, 31 J, 312, 

313- 
Hart or Haven house, (ancient) 224. 
Indian signatures to deed of Lynn, 16. 



Lewis, Alonzo, his birth-place, 166; the 
cottage in which he died, 167. 

Lover's Leap, 309. 

Lyceum building, 30. 

Odd Fellows' Hall, 55. 

Old Tunnel meeting-house, 312. 

Pumping engine house, 57. 

Rail-road stations. First in Lynn, 316; 
one of 1848, 40. 

Rebecca Nurse house, 318. 

Soldiers' monument, 59. 

Sweetser building, 317. 

View at Forest Place, 323. 

View at Lynnmere, (Mineral Spring) 325. 

View at residence of Jas. R. Newhall, 327. 

Witch House, 320. 

Witt's Rock, 309. 



HISTORY OF LYNN. 



INTRODUCTION. 

It has been a favorite custom with some New England histo- 
rical writers to claim that our coast was not only discovered 
but temporarily occupied, here and there, by the Northmen, or 
Vickings, not far from the year looo. Mr. Bancroft, however, 
rather treats the idea as fanciful ; and his opinion is certainly 
sufficient to justify grave doubts. But without occupying space 
to review the grounds on which of late much earnest disputation 
has been indulged in, we will quote from Mr. Lewis a passage 
that most concerns ourselves, and append to it a remark or two 
which discoveries made since he wrote seem to require : 

The Scandinavian manuscripts inform us that in the year 9S6, Eric the Red, an 
Icelandic prince, emigrated to Greenland. In his company was Bardson, whose son 
Biarne was then on a voyage to Norway. On his return, going in search of his 
father, he was driven far to sea, and discovered an unknown country. In the year 
1000, Leif, a son of Eric, pursued the discovery of the new country, and sailed along 
the coast as far as Rhode Island, where he made a settlement ; and because he found 
grapes there, he called it Vineland. In 1002, Thorwald, his brother, went to Vine- 
land, where he remained two years. 

It is very reasonable to suppose that these voyagers, in sailing along the coast, 
discovered Lynn, and it is even probable that they landed at Nahant. In 1004, we 
are informed that Thorwald, leaving Vineland, or Rhode Island, " sailed eastward, 
and then northward, past a remarkable headland, enclosing a bay, and which was 
opposite to another headland. They called it Kialarnes, or Keel-cape," from its 
resemblance to the keel of a ship. There is no doubt that this was Cape Cod. And 
as they had no map, and could not see Cape Ann, it is probable that the other head- 
land was the Gurnet. " From thence, they sailed along the eastern coast of the land 
to a promontory which there projected — probably Nahant — and which was every 

(9) 



lO Introduction. 

where covered with wood. Here Thorwald went ashore, with all his companions 
He was so pleased with the place, that he exclaimed : * Here it is beautiful ! and 
here I should like to fix my dwelling ! ' Afterwards, when they were prepared to go 
on board, they observed on the sandy beach, within the promontory, three hillocks. 
They repaired thither, and found three canoes, and under each three Skrellings — 
(Indians.) They came to blows with them, and killed eight of them, but the ninth 
escaped in his canoe. Afterwards a countless multitude of them came out from the 
interior of the bay against them. They endeavored to protect themselves by raising 
battle-screens on the ship's side. The Skrellings continued shooting at them for a 
while and then retired. Thorwald had been wounded by an arrow under the arm. 
When he found that the wound was mortal, he said, ' I now advise you to prepare 
for your departure as soon as possible ; but me ye shall bring to the promontory 
where I thought it good to dwell. It may be that it was a prophetic word which 
fell from my mouth, about my abiding there for a season. There ye shall bury me; 
and plant a cross at my head and also at my feet, and call the place Krossanes — 
[the Cape of the Cross] — in all time coming.' He died, and they did as he had 
ordered ; afterwards they returned." Aittiquitates Americana:, xxx. 

The question has arisen whether Krossanes was Nahant or Gurnet Point. There 
is nothing remarkable about the latter place, and though so long a time has passed, 
no person has thought it desirable to dwell there, but it is used as a sheep pasture. 
It is far otherwise with Nahant, which answers to the description well. An early 
writer says that it was "well wooded with oaks, pines, and cedars;" and it has a 
"sandy beach within the promontory." Thousands also, on visiting it, have borne 
witness to the appropriateness of Thorwald's exclamation — "Here it is beautiful ! 
and here I should like to fix my dwelling ! " 

This is pleasant reading, and it would be desirable to sustain 
the conclusions, or suppositions, if in honesty it could be done. 
It would be highly gratifying to our gentle neighbors of the 
peninsula to be assured that they have in keeping the dust of the 
distinguished Vicking chief, who was not only famous himself, 
but the head of a line which has given the world some of its 
most brilliant lights — among others the renov.rned sculptor Thor- 
wald. And the blissful faith, romantic and doubtful as it is, 
may, possibly, after all, be well founded, though if it should prove 
otherwise, the favored region has an abundance of other blessings 
to fall back upon. The authority on which the conclusions em- 
bodied in the above extract appear to rest, is a famous Danish 
work, published at Copenhagen, in 1837. It is a very learned 
work, but by an author who seems to have occasionally permitted 
his enthusiasm to get the better of his judgment ; for it is now 
generally conceded by the more keensighted class of antiquaries, 
that it advances theories that cannot be sustained. 

That the Vickings did visit lands far to the south of Greenland, 
is quite certain ; but whether they came within Massachusetts 



Introduction. ii 

ba3\ Vineyard sound, or the Narragansett waters, is doubted. 
The Vicking lodgment that received the name Vineland, is, in 
the foregoing extract, unhesitatingly placed in Rhode Island ; 
but it should be remarked that intelligent authorities have given 
it a very different location. Some have placed it as far north as 
Nova Scotia, or even Labrador, in which latter country dwelt 
theEsquimaux, who, according to Hartwig, were called Skrellen ■ 
gers, or screamers — not simply Indians, as the quotation has it. 
The evidence of the old mill at Newport, and the hieroglyphic 
rock at Dighton, has been ruled out ; and with it has gone 
much of the authority that attached to the great work which so 
unwarily adopted them as monuments of Vicking genius and 
handiwork. The mill was undoubtedly erected by an early 
settler, for the worthy purpose of grinding his neighbors' grists ; 
and the hieroglyphic adornments were most probably the work 
of some Indian, proud of his artistic acquirements or an aspirant 
for historic fame. It has been supposed that the Indians had 
no mode of writing, no way of expressing an idea by visible char- 
acters ; but recent examinations and discoveries have proved 
that the fact is otherwise. And by the way, speaking of the 
Newport mill and the Dighton rock inscription, it seems remark- 
able that no one appears to have observed that the two so differ 
in mechanical expression, if the term is allowable, that it is 
hardly possible they could have been the work of the same people. 
At all events, if these roving Northmen were here at the early 
period claimed it is evident that they did not brave the ocean 
terrors for any legitimate purposes of discovery, or with any 
tangible convictions touching the existence of unknown lands. 
They were adventurous freebooters, brave, reckless, barbarous ; 
bent on making themselves possessors of whatever they coveted, 
by force, fraud, or any other means suggested by their brutish 
genius. And so they pursued their savage career, occasionally 
driven from their contemplated course by the violence of the 
elements, but never from their purpose of rapine and murder by 
the gentler instincts of humanity. But yet it becomes us to be a 
little chary of our denunciations of these people, for they were 
our own forefathers. From their loins sprang the brave Saxons 
who have been so lauded as a race, and whose blood we so love 
to claim flows in our own veins. 



12 Introduction. 

A lively imagination will often make surprising discoveries, 
trace unexpected analogies, and form captivating theories, where 
we of the duller sort discern nothing unusual. And who that 
has reflected on the diversity of human minds has not felt almost 
hopelessly bewildered. There is as much difference among 
minds as among faces ; and would that there might be invented 
a mirror in which to trace our mental features as we do our 
physical, in the looking-glass. There is little difficulty in recog- 
nising- leading chafacteristics. We know the mathematical mind 
by its preciseness ; the poetical by its ready discernment and love 
of the beautiful ; the semi-preternatural by its delight in things 
striking and marvellous. Now, in our friend Lewis's mind were 
combined, in a somewhat peculiar manner, the two latter qualities 
indicated. He had poetical conception and a love of the marvel- 
lous ; and under their prompting, stimulated by the fascinations 
of historic imagery, without doubt wrote the foregoing paragraphs. 

It is quite interesting to observe with what avidity intelligent 
as well as untrained minds will accept any thing that tallies with 
their peculiar bent ; and quite as interesting to observe how the 
same minds will reject the most reasonable conclusions that do 
not accord with their ideal prepossessions. Then there are some 
who will believe any thing that requires the most feverish credu- 
lity to grasp, and others who will believe nothing that demands 
but a small degree of faith. We often treat with scorn and 
derision those much better and abler than ourselves simply be- 
cause we are incapable of comprehending their ideas, if ideas they 
have. As to that, however, most of us have ideas enough, such 
as they are, but fail to systematise and express them, when they 
happen to be of value, in a way to give force or even to be under- 
stood. Education helps to do something here. But then our 
gifts are various ; and with many the gift of slothfulness is so 
overwhelming that with the best of tools little work is done. It 
was not intended, however, to indulge in a sentimental strain, 
but rather, in a homely way, and as correlative to what has 
been said, to remark that it is really astonishing to observe 
how even accomplished scientists may be deceived and led to 
erroneous conclusions by baseless suggestions, adroitly made, 
in matters which they might be supposed constantly to hold in 
full survey. 



Introduction, 13 

In the writer's own experience there once occurred an incident 
so aptly illustrative of the point, that he would fain narrate it in 
this connection though he must do so with diffidence and morti- 
fication — diffidence lest he should be charged with vanity, and 
mortification at having been the apparent cause of disturbance 
in many worthy minds : When a young man, he one day hap- 
pened in the printing office of a friend, who saluted him with a 
" Come, write us something for tomorrow's paper." The reply 
was, "If you will hand me a stick and rule and show me to a 
case — [a request that all printers will understand] — I will set 
you up something without writing." The proposition was com- 
plied with, and a piece of perhaps half a column in length imme- 
diately set up and left without any further care. It purported to 
detail some wonderful changes going on among the heavenly 
bodies ; was simply in a sportive vein and expected to be so 
understood. Some of the statements were so glaringly inconsis- 
tent with established facts that it was astonishing to observe 
the manner in which it was received by even wary savants. 
It was copied throughout the country, and referred to in pulpit 
discourses; and a New York paper — the Commercial Adver- 
tiser, if we were rightly informed — stated that it was trans- 
lated into various languages and published all over Europe. 
The editor of the paper among other letters received one from 
Professor Olmstead of Yale College urgently requesting informa- 
tion respecting its origin, and adding that he had been seriously 
annoyed by the numerous letters he had received asking for 
explanations which he could not give, notwithstanding he had 
twice given notice through the New Haven papers that he knew 
nothing about it. It was subsequently announced that at the 
National Observatory, in Washington, it had been declared a 
romance. The affair finally died away, much to the relief of the 
innocent author. Yet there were some amusing things about 
it. , One of the most scholarly men in town, remarked, on reading 
it, that he had for several nights observed that Venus presented 
the remarkable appearance spoken of The ease with which 
even intelligent minds may be led astray, as illustrated by this 
incident, is instructive. However, it is claimed that every thing 
has its use ; and without the vein of credulity and habit of super- 
ficial observation the quack philosopher, the counterfeit philan- 



14 Introduction, 

thropist, and the patent medicine maker would not flourish as 
they do. 

Taking a step further down in the history of the territory we 
occupy, we come to the Indians. A great deal of virtuous senti- 
ment has been expended, we will not say wasted, upon them. 
That there were here and there noble spirits need not be ques- 
tioned ; for the Creator never left a people in so forlorn a condi- 
tion that there were not some among them in whose breasts faint 
glimmerings at least of his own divine light remained. But the 
great body of the red men were of an extremely low order — cruel 
and implacable — with little conception of a higher life, or of 
human progress ; ambitious only of triumph over enemies, of 
dexterity in physical torture, and the extension of tribal authority. 
Yet they were as susceptible as any other people to the redeem.- 
ing influences of the faith their invaders held. What they soon 
would have become had the settlers pursued a more kind and 
pacific, yea, honest course, must ever remain among the undeter- 
mined questions with which human history abounds. But as it 
was, they began rapidly to dwindle away ; for big guns and 
catechisms cannot alone save a people ; especially where new, 
alluring, and destructive vices press forward in their company. 

There were, indeed, but few Indians in and about Lynn at the 
time the settlers came, and not half a score who were above the 
common level. Montowampate, who lived on Sagamore Hill, 
was a chief who stood much on his dignity. He was married 
during the year in which the first settlers came, being then 
twenty years of age. The marriage was celebrated with much 
barbaric pomp. But a while after, the wife went on a visit to the 
home of her maidenhood, and when the time for her return came 
a difficulty arose between the husband and his father-in-law on a 
point of etiquette, that seemed to threaten serious consequences, 
to the young couple especially. Matters, however, were finally 
adjusted and the dusky bride returned to her allegiance. The 
great question of woman's rights was to some extent involved ; 
and duty, dignity, and love, seemed to hold as fitful sway in 
those untutored hearts as in hearts trained to more refined world- 
liness. Then there was Poquanum, or Black Will, who appears 
to have been shrewd, venturesome, and unscrupulous ; and by 
his sale of Nahant to farmer Dexter, for a suit of clothes, left the 



Introduction. 15 

town a legacy, in the shape of legal involutions which they would 
gladly have buried with him. 

But the pages of our 1865 volume contain so much of all that 
is known of the red men who pursued the game in our woods and 
the fish in our waters, that it would be almost impertinent to 
enlarge here. Before taking another step along in our history, 
however, let us say a word or two respecting Indian land titles, 
which seem to have been of a rambling, uncertain character. 
The settlers were generally willing to pay for what they occupied ; 
that is, pay something ; perhaps a hatchet or a hammer for 
forty acres ; and the pretended owners were seldom averse to 
selling ; indeed they were much too willing, for they would sell a 
tract over and over again as long as a purchaser could be found. 
Some of the chiefs claimed a right in the nature of eminent 
domain ; a right that seems usually to have been undisputed. 
The lands, however, were of little direct value to the Indians, for 
they were not an agricultural nor a pastoral people. The ques- 
tion of titles was long one of difficulty and dispute. By the spirit 
of the Charter it was plain enough that the settler could hold by 
occupation, subject to the native ownership. But perplexity in 
determining who the right owner was, often arose, for chiefships 
w^re so interwoven that nothing appeared clear. Governor 
Andros assumed that the signature of an Indian was of no more 
value than the scratch of a bear's claw — and he did what he 
could to make it so. But it is quite evident that the settlers held 
otherwise, or were at least anxious to guard against a contingency 
which they feared might arise. 

It was with this feeling, no doubt, that the people of Lynn, 
in 1686 — more than fifty years after the plantation was estab- 
lished — procured from the heirs of the deceased chief Wenepoy- 
kin, a release to them of all claim to the lands here, those heirs 
afifirming in their deed that their ancestor was the true and sole 
owner of " y^ land that y® towns of Lynn and Reading aforesaid 
stand upon, and notwithstanding y^ possession of y^ English, 
dwelling in those townships of Lynn and Reading aforesaid." 
These heirs, it would appear, claimed under the sovereignty 
of their ancestor, and did not admit that they had been legally 
dispossessed. The purchasing settlers probably did not much 
care v/hat they did claim, as the consideration was trifling, and 



l6 Introduction. 

they had no fear of the appearance of others, at that late period, 
with further claims. And the Indians must have seen of how little 
value the territory could in the future be to them. Yet to Lynn, 
this release might prove of the greatest value, in view of the 
position a new administration, might assume. The following are 
fac-similes of the Indian signatures to the deed. 



David Kunkshamooshaw and Abigail his wife, ^f 



t 



Cicely alias Su George 




^^^-^vb 



Mary Ponham alias Quonopohit. 

[James Quonopohit, Mary's husband, was a fair 

penman, and signed his name in full.] ^^^ 

INDIAN SIGNATURES TO THE DEED OF LYNN. 



Here we must bid adieu to our red brethren, ardently hoping 
that the remaining few of their forlorn and abused race may yet 
receive what is their just due, be sanctified and redeemed, and 
finally in the blissful land of reconciliation joyfully meet their 
arrogant supplanters, they too sanctified and redeemed by the 
same regerating love. 

Having thus in a necessarily brief and hence somewhat unsat- 
isfactory manner, spoken of the Northmen and the Indians, we 
come to greet the European settlers — our own forefathers. 
And here our " Introduction " may properly end, as in the fol- 
lowing pages, together with the volume which has gone before, 
many of the old worthies and their successors of every period 
down to the present, are summoned in to tell their own stories 
and illustrate their own times. 



ANNALS. 



[Note. These Annals are continued on from the History of Lynn, published in 
1865, in which they begin with the year 1629, the date of the commencement of the 
settlement.] 



1865 



Monday, April 3d, was a time of great rejoicing in Lynn, the 
news of the fall of Richmond, the head quarters of the revolted 
States, being then received. Bells were rung, cannon fired, flags 
raised, and bonfires kindled. Many buildings were beautifully 
illuminated, though the news was not fully confirmed till towards 
night. The Light Infantry company hastened to show their 
appreciation of the event, and were soon marching through the 
streets, with a band of music. Fireworks gleamed in every direc- 
tion, and the whole city seemed aroused. A bonfire blazed on 
Sadler's Rock the entire night ; and the material of which it was 
composed being heavy tarred paper its remains were clearly 
visible more than fifteen years after. Old High Rock, also, 
lighted up the adjacent country with her fiery crown. 

One week after the above day of rejoicing, namely, April 10, 
the people were again jubilant, and this time, over the crowning 
event of the war — the surrender of General Lee, commander 
of the Confederate forces. The weather, however, not being 
favorable, the proposed proceedings were somewhat abridged. 
A procession, composed of military and fire companies, various 
civic associations and patriotic individuals, moved through the 
thronged streets, with music and banners. One or two individu- 
als who were reputed to entertain secession views, or who had 
indulged in expressions favorable to the rebel cause, were visited 
with rough threats, and forced to display Union flags. It was 
proposed to hold a meeting, in the evening, in Lyceum Hall, for 
speeches and other congratulatory proceedings, but the exhausted 
condition of some of the leaders and the drenching rain made it 
expedient to dispense with that part of the programme. 

The conspicuous and rather picturesque little wooden building 
on the summit of High Rock, known as the Observatory, was 

(17) 2 



1 8 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 865. 

burned on the night of April 19; perhaps the work of some 
patriotic incendiary who took that way of celebrating the anni- 
versary of the first battle of the Revolution. 

News of the assassination of President Lincoln was received 
in Lynn on Saturday, April 15, and was followed by becom- 
ing demonstrations of profound sorrow. The Mayor issued a 
request that all business places should be closed at noon, which 
was readily complied with, and mourning drapery was freely 
displayed. The City Council convened early in the afternoon 
and adopted resolutions expressive of a deep sense of the nation's 
bereavement. On Sunday the churches were draped in mourn- 
ing, and appropriate services held. The city authorities attended 
the First Methodist church. 

At Swampscott, on the arrival of the news of the President's 
death, one individual, of alleged strong secession proclivities, was 
so indiscreet as to manifest his satisfaction in such strong terms 
as to kindle the wrath of his patriotic neighbors, who seized him, 
and after bedecking him with a coat of tar and feathers set him 
forth on a compulsory march through the town, bearing a Union 
flag, large numbers following in procession. He afterwards 
brought a civil suit for damages, persistently declaring that his 
expressions were misinterpreted, and recovered judgment for $800. 

There were five photographic establishments in Lynn, this year, 
at which were taken the aggregate number of 38.500 pictures. 

An idea of the extent of the lobster trade in this vicinity may 
be gathered from the fact that during the year ending May i, 
there were taken at Nahant 150.000, and at Swampscott 37.000, 
which were valued, as taken from the traps, at an average of six 
cents each. 

The fine mansion on Ocean street, for some time, and until 
his death, the summer residence of William H. Prescott, the his- 
torian, was destroyed by fire on Sunday morning. May 7. It 
belonged to the widow of the historian at the time of its destruc- 
tion, but was unoccupied. 

Mrs. Mary Kirby was killed by falling into a culvert on the 
Eastern railroad, near Market street, June 14. 

On Tuesday afternoon, June 20, the bodies of John S. Joyce, 
aged 12, and his sister Isabella, aged 14, were buried in one 
coffin, from St. Stephen's church, where they had been Sunday 
school scholars. These were the children whose terrible death 
sent such a thrill through the community. They were found 
murdered in a piece of woods, in West Roxbury, near Boston, 
whither they had gone for an afternoon's recreation. No trace 
of the murderer was discovered. 

Daniel Ames, of Lynn, in a sportive wrestling contest with 
Edward Gibson, at Nahant, June 17, received injuries from which 
he died two days after. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1865, I9 

Independence was this year celebrated, in Lynn, with more 
than usual pomp, all parties joining. There was a grand proces- 
sion, music, speeches, and in the evening a fine display of fire- 
works. A balloon ascension was to have taken place fi"om the 
Common, in the afternoon, but an unfavorable wind rendered it 
expedient to postpone that, till the sixth, when it took place in a 
manner highly satisfactory. 

The taxation of Lynn, this year, under the United States rev- 
enue laws, was $626,993.12, being chiefly, of course, on manufac- 
tures. There were then but about 20.000 inhabitants. 

In July, several sharks appeared in Lynn harbor, to the terror 
of bathers and boatmen. And it may be stated in this connec- 
tion that the ferocious species known as man-eaters, some times 
make their unwelcome visits to these waters. In 18 19 a boy 
was fishing near the mouth of Thomas Newhall's creek, so called, 
at Saugus river, when one of those desperate rovers suddenly 
sprang towards him with such a momentum as to ground him- 
self. The affrighted boy, by his shouts attracted the attention 
of a couple of men at work on the marsh, and they, hastening 
to the scene with their pitchforks, succeeded in despatching the 
monster. 

A considerable number of whales were observed at different 
times during the summer moving about in the offing. 

During this year there began to be seriously felt the need 
of a larger number of dwelling houses, especially those suitable 
for the accommodation of working people. Capitalists had in- 
vested so largely in government securities, and in enterprises 
promising greater returns — these being times rather fruitful of 
speculative schemes — comparatively little was devoted to the 
erection of tenement houses. A large number of workmen were 
obliged to come into town in the morning rail-road trains, labor 
during the day, and return to their distant homes by the evening 
trains. And the inconvenience was felt for several years. 

The number of individuals attached to the Sunday schools 
of the different religious societies in Lynn, this year, was as 
follows : First Methodist, 622,. St. Mary's (Roman Catholic,) 
500. First Universalist, 429. Boston Street Methodist, 322. 
St. Paul's, (Union Street,) Methodist, 300. First Congregational, 
283. High Street Baptist, 225. South Street Methodist, 213. 
Friends' 200. First Baptist, 190. Second Universalist, 190. 
Maple Street (Glenmere,) Methodist, 183. Central Congrega- 
tional (Silsbee Street,) 182, Christian, 160. Tower Hill Chapel, 
(Congregational,) 159. St. Stephen's, (Episcopal,) no. Ches- 
nut Street, (Congregational,) no. City Mission, "jt,. Unitarian, 
70. Third Baptist, (Wyoma,) 70. Second Advent, 30. These 
numbers include officers, teachers and pupils. 

Richard S. Fay, of Lynn, died in Liverpool, England, on the 



20 ANNALS OF LYNN — 1 865. 

6th of July. He owned and for a number of years occupied the 
celebrated Mineral Spring estate, in the northeasterly section 
of the city. Being a gentleman of culture and large means he 
highly enjoyed life in his romantic retreat, which he greatly 
improved and beautified. He was a graduate of Harvard, and 
for some years practised law. In agricultural pursuits he took 
great interest, imported improved stock, and engaged in many 
useful experiments. He was affable and generous, and merited 
and received the esteem of all classes. During the war he con- 
tributed largely for the Union cause. At the time of his death 
he had just completed a European tour, and was expecting to 
return in the steamer which brought the news of his death. The 
death stroke fell upon him while passing in the street. 

Edward Franker, well known as the proprietor of a large wool- 
en factory, near the site of the old iron works, in Saugus, died, 
August 14, at the age of 73. His death was very sudden, he 
having retired for his accustomed afternoon nap, and being found, 
a few hours after, in his room, dead. He was a native of Wilt- 
shire, England, and came to this country while quite a young 
man, to seek his fortune ; was very successful in his enterprises, 
after becoming able to begin business on his own account, and 
accumulated a large fortune. 

The number of apple trees in Lynn, this year, was 17.400 and 
of pear trees, 21.900 ; yet the aggregate value of the fruitage did 
not exceed ^16.000. 

On the morning of August 31, as a couple of gentlemen were 
passing from Market street towards Central square, they discov- 
ered that the inner clothing of a lady before them was on fire, 
and informed her of the fact in time, probably, to avoid serious 
injury to her person. How the fire was occasioned remained a 
mystery. 

There were this year owned in Lynn, 720 horses, the average 
value of each being ^140. 

During the month of August, the shoe business of Lynn 
exceeded that of any previous month. The total value was 
^1.200.000; and the internal revenue tax for the month was 
^77.099.62. Business was very active, and would have shown a 
still greater increase had it been possible to procure a sufficiency 
of material and workmen. 

Gen. Alonzo G. Draper, of Lynn, died on the night of Sept. 3, 
at Brazos de Santiago, Texas, at which post he had been in 
command. He was shot from his horse, while riding out, as was 
supposed by a stray ball from a great distance, no battle being 
in progress at the time, and lamented by his brethren in arms as 
a brave and efficient officer. His body was brought to Lynn, 
and buried in Pine Grove Cemetery, on the 27th, with becoming 
honors. He was a native of Brattleborough, Vt. 



ANNALS OF LYNN — 1 866. 21 

Very destructive fires raged in the woods of Lynn, Lynnfield, 
and Saugus, during September, the weather being unusually 
warm and dry. The woodlands hereabout, as well as in other 
parts of the country, have, from the period of the early settle- 
ments, been occasionally swept over by fire, which sometimes 
originated in the most unaccountable manner. In early colonial 
years severe laws were made against smoking tobacco in the 
woods, and various other precautions taken ; yet the fires would 
occur. Once in a while, it is possible, lightning may have been 
the cause of the mischief But recently a French philosopher has 
suggested that the globules of pitch which exude from the pines 
may sometimes act as burning lenses and so concentrate the 
sun's rays that they will produce flame. There is little doubt, 
however, that in these days the careless use of friction matches 
is the cause of many of these fires. Very few are aware of the 
rapidity with which a fire once lighted in the dry litter of a pine 
forest will spread and get beyond control. 

An extraordinary drought prevailed this year. It continued 
from July 25 to October 15 ; and had not been equalled for 
eighty-one years, as meteorologists claimed. 

The corner stone of the new City Hall, at the east end of the 
Common was laid on Tuesday, November 28, in presence of the 
Mayor, a committee of the City Council, and a small number 
of other spectators. There was no display. A proposition had 
been made to have the event marked by grand masonic ceremo- 
nies, but some of the old anti-masons energetically protesting, 
they were dispensed with. 

The number of deaths in the city during the year was 477. 

1866 

On the morning of February 5, Pranker's brick woolen factory, 
in Saugus, was nearly destroyed by fire. The town having no 
fire-engine, the flames had gained almost uncontrollable head-way 
before one could arrive from Lynn. 

Dr. Abram Gould, the oldest practising physician in Lynn, 
died, February 27, aged 58. He was a man of thorough educa- 
tion and much more than ordinary skill, and had gained an 
extensive practice. His residence was on Boston street, nearly 
opposite Cottage. 

On the afternoon of June 25, there was a heavy shower, which 
flooded the streets of Lynn, though Nahant and even Long Beach 
escaped the visitation. And on the afternoon of the 30th a 
copious shower took place in the eastern section of the city, 
while in the western there was scarcely a sprinkling. 

General Sherman passed through Lynn on the morning of 
July 16. An enthusiastic crowd rapidly collected in Central 
square, and most cordially greeted him. Some climbed upon 



22 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 86/. 

the cars in their eagerness to grasp the hand of the hero of the 
grand march through the very bowels of the rebelHous Confed- 
eracy. His stay, however, was but momentary. The day was 
excessively warm, the thermometer in the course of the forenoon 
reaching to lOO degrees, in the shade. 

A rattlesnake, measuring four feet in length, and having ten 
rattles — thereby showing his age to be thirteen years — was 
killed in Dungeon pasture, July 29. The reptile attempted to 
strike his assailant before being despatched. 

James R. Newhall succeeded Thomas B. Newhall as Judge of 
Lynn Police Court, his commission bearing date August 24. 

The Central Church edifice, on Silsbee street, was entirely 
consumed by fire early on Sunday morning, September 9. No- 
thing of value was saved. It was of wood, built in 1850, and 
was insured to the amount of $15,000, exclusive of $2,000 on the 
organ and $500 on the pastor's library. The structure being on 
elevated land and the spire tall, when the flames enwrapped the 
whole, the scene was very striking. 

On an evening in September, a lady, who was sitting at a 
window in a house on Ocean street, observed a brilliant meteor 
descend and strike near the house. She immediately went to the 
spot and discovered the strange visitant to be white and smelling 
strongly of sulphur. On being examined by an experienced natu- 
ralist of Boston it was pronounced to be a genuine aerolite. 

A great meteoric shower was predicted to take place on the 
night of November 12, and public notice was given that the 
church bells would be rung to awake the sleepers, if the celestial 
visitants appeared. But nothing unusual was observed here 
during that night, though the sky was very clear. In some 
parts of the world, however, especially in England, a brilliant 
display occurred, at about the time indicated. At Greenwich, 
some 12.000 meteors were seen on the morning of the 14th. At 
Washington, on the same day, at about noon, an extraordinary 
exhibition took place. In this vicinity, at about the time, an 
unusual number of " shooting stars " appeared. 

1867. 

A terrific snow storm occurred on the 17th of January. No 
storm within twenty-five years bore a comparison to it for severity, 
with the exception of that on the 18th of January, 1857, when 
the terrible shipwreck of the Tedesco, at Swampscott, took place, 
at which time the cold was more intense. The mail carrier 
between Lynn and Nahant, for ten years, failed in traversing 
his route only on the occurrence of these two storms. 

There was an exceedingly high tide on the 21st of January. 
It was higher than at any time since the awful night of April 15, 
185 1, when Minot's Ledge lighthouse was carried away. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 86/. 2$ 

On Sunday, March 24th, Rev. Mr. Woods of the Boston 
Street Methodist Society, and Rev. Mr. Biddle, of the First Uni- 
versahst, exchanged pulpits. The leading doctrines taught by 
these two divines being so directl}' opposite, a good deal of sur- 
prise was manifested, and not a little feeling on the part of some 
of the more rigid Methodists. While it was regarded by some 
as a commendable instance of christian courtesy, by others it was 
looked upon as a marked instance of waning denominational 
integrity. 

A strange reptile was killed near the head of Sluice pond, in 
May. It was something more than four feet in length, and in 
the largest part nearly as thick as a man's wrist. Its back was 
covered with a horny coat resembling that of a crocodile, the 
bone making a perceptible ridge. 

On the 27th of May, a man, in digging a post hole, in Summer 
street, exhumed some human bones, which were in such a posi- 
tion as to indicate that a body had been buried there, in a sitting 
posture. An arrow head and one or two implements and orna- 
ments were found with the bones, leading to the conclusion 
that they were Indian remains. 

The new house of worship of the First Baptist Society, a neat 
structure of wood, in Gothic style, on North Common street, 
corner of Park, was dedicated June 20. 

A beautiful mirage was observed from Long Beach, about 
noon, on Sunday, June 23. 

On the 24th of June — St. John's Day — 30.000 persons were 
carried over the Eastern Rail-road, without an accident. It was 
the day of the great masonic celebration, in Boston, when the 
new temple was dedicated. 

A balloon ascension was made from Lynn Common on the 
afternoon of the 4.th of July. The descent was into the water 
off Swampscott, but the excursionists escaped injury. 

Sagamore building. Union street, was nearly destroyed by fire 
on the night of July 13, it being the third time that it had come 
near being consumed. 

Immense quantities of mackerel appeared in the offing, in 
July, affording rare sport for amateur fishermen and profitable em- 
ployment for professional. A whale, some fifty feet in length, 
and two or three others somewhat smaller, were several times 
seen ranging about, evidently bent on securing their share. Sev- 
eral voracious horse-mackerel, with keen appetites, also made 
their appearance. 

A fire occurred in Wyoma village, on the morning of August 
3d, on the premises occupied by T. L. Brown and Company, for 
the wool-pulling business. Property to the value of ^18.000 was 
destroyed. 

A swing-tail shark, fifteen feet in length, was taken off Swamp- 



24 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 86/. 

scott, in a net, August lo, and sold to Professor Agassiz for 
fifty dollars. 

On the morning of Aug. lo, a flock of flying-fish, some twenty 
in number, appeared off Nahant, darting about and eliciting much 
observation, such visitors being very uncommon in this region ; 
some even declaring that they were never seen here before. 

A sun-fish, of the estimated weight of two hundred pounds, 
was observed sunning himself near Egg Rock, in August. 

The encampment of the Second Brigade of Massachusetts 
Volunteer Militia, commenced at Swampscott, on the 3d of Sept. 
and continued five days. 

A Second Advent Camp Meeting, so called, that is a camp 
meeting of those who believed that the second advent of our Lord 
would surely take place this year, commenced in Lynn, Sept. 10, 
and continued a week. On the last day of the meeting consid- 
erable excitement prevailed, as some of the more sanguine were 
confidently expecting that before another day the Son of Man 
would visibly appear. 

Avis Keene, widow of Josiah Keene, died in Lynn, Oct. 13, 
aged 87. She was an accepted preacher of the Friends' society 
for some sixty years ; was a graceful and influential speaker, and 
by her blameless life, amiable disposition, and active charities, 
endeared herself to a very extensive circle of those who did not 
as well as those who did come within the sphere of her public 
ministrations. 

Richard Gregg, a sober, industrious man, aged 62, was killed 
on the Eastern Rail-road, near the Pleasant street crossing, on 
the evening of Oct. 17. He was walking towards home, on the 
track, and was struck by a locomotive, which broke his skull and 
caused immediate death. 

An interval of beautiful Indian summer, of more than ordinary 
duration, was experienced in October. 

The new City Hall, at the eastern end of the Common — the 
site being at the time about the centre of the city, both geograph- 
ically and as regards population — was dedicated on Saturday, 
Nov. 30. The whole day, was very generally spent as a holiday. 
Crowds were in the streets, and about the building from morning 
till near midnight. The day was pleasant, so far as a clear sky 
and sunlight could make it so, but otherwise so far as a boister- 
ous northwest wind and clouds of dust could make it. 

The tower and other parts of the building were decorated with 
flags, and the Lynn band was in attendance to dispense their 
enlivening music at suitable intervals. A good deal of care was 
taken to have as large a number of the elderly men present as 
possible, and as many as seventy, whose births dated back to 
the last century, were gathered, Epes Mansfield, born in 1783, 
being the oldest. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 86/. 25 

A little before noon, the exercises commenced in the vestibule, 
with a prayer offered by Rev. J. W. F. Barnes, of the First 
Methodist Church. Mayor Roland G. Usher then delivered an 
Address, which was followed by a Poem by Cyrus M. Tracy. 
The Tablet, facing the main entrance, was then unveiled. Next 
came a brief address, retrospective and prospective, by James R. 
Newhall, which closed the forenoon exercises. 

A liberal collation was served in the basement, which was 
partaken of by a multitude of citizens and many visitors from 
other places. Subsequently a number of prominent citizens 
addressed the crowds in the Council Chamber and other conve- 
nient parts of the building. Among these speakers were John 
B. Alley, James N. Buffum, George H. Chase, Charles E. Kim- 
ball, Peter M. Neal, and Thomas B. Newhall. There were like- 
wise several speakers from abroad. 

The entertainment was continued till late in the evening, 
the large company of ladies and gentlemen, young and old, 
promenading whithersoever they would, about the beautiful apart- 
ments, and enjoying themselves in decorous ways of their own 
choice. At the instance of the Mayor, about ten o'clock, the 
whole company were called to join in singing " America." And 
after that the majestic strains of the Doxology, in Old Hundred, 
floated upward. This closed the interesting exercises. As this 
is not the place that requires any thing beyond a mere state- 
ment of facts, it would perhaps be unwise to volunteer censure 
even if there were points that might justify it, or to offer laudatory 
remarks where they are not needed, The addresses and the 
poem were published in the newspapers of the day, and afterward 
in a neat little volume ; and they can all "testify of themselves." 
It need only be remarked here that the proceedings throughout 
were received with liberal applause. 

The cost of the building, in round numbers, may be stated 
at ;^3i2.ooo. Some claimed that it was an unnecessarily elegant 
and costly structure, and of course, after the usual custom, in- 
dulged in a little harmless grumbling. But it was soon apparent 
that its superior conveniences would save expense in many ways ; 
and that it was giving an improving tone to the architecture 
of the city, a thing that had been long and sorely needed. Before 
a year had passed, there were few who did not take a real pride 
in pointing to it as the great lion of the city, or who entertained 
any lingering regrets that it had been reared. It certainly marks 
a period when a wonderful advancement in the architectural 
aspect of Lynn commenced. 

The first number of the Lynn Transcript, a weekly newspaper, 
established by Rufus Kimball, Thomas P. Nichols and Abel G. 
Courtis, appeared on Saturday, Dec. 21, from the office on the 
southwest side of Market street, near South Common. 



26 ANNALS OF LYNN — 1 868. 

There were born in Lynn, during the year, 664 children — 
334 male and 330 female — 385 of native parentage, and 279 
of foreign. December was the most prolific month, and April 
the least — TJ being born in the former and 35 in the latter. 

1868. 

On the evening of January 13, a meeting of naturalized citizens 
was held in a hall on Washington street, preparatory to forming 
an organization to promote their interests, as a class, and for 
mutual benefit. It seems doubtful whether such organizations, 
or the former ones aiming to place the administration of affairs 
solely in the hands of natives, are really productive of permanent 
good ; that is, so far as public policy is concerned. The endea- 
vor to effect a general union of interests and to avail of the best 
talent, of whatever derivation, would appear to give the highest 
promise. Nevertheless, there are many cases in which, other 
things being equal, it is eminently proper to give preference to 
natives. There has long been complaint that the people of Lynn 
are too much disposed to place new comers in positions of trust 
and authority. Admitting that it is so, it must be said that 
occasionally at least the good fortune of the party is aided by 
ignorance of his past life. 

Nahant this year numbered 95 polls, and had a valuation 
of ;^i.054.37. 

On the night of March 3, the thermometer stood at 12 degrees 
below zero. On the 7th, the harbor was so frozen that loaded 
teams could pass over to the beach. A day or two after, however, 
the ice broke up. The ice harvest of 1867-8 was superior to 
any other known for many years, both in quality and quantity. 

The interesting ceremony of strewing flowers on the graves 
of the fallen heros of the civil war, took place on Saturday after- 
noon, May 30, under the auspices of the local Post of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. A procession visited the different burial 
places, and at Pine Grove Cemetery, where a large concourse 
were assembled, appropriate services took place, with music and 
speaking. Comrade T. C. Vassar, minister of the First Baptist 
Church, delivered an appropriate address. The ceremonies were 
in accordance with a general order issued at Washington, by 
General Logan, Commander-in-chief of the association ; which 
order is here introduced, as explaining the character and purpose 
of the observance : 

L The 30th day of May, 1868, is designated for the purpose of strewing with flowers 
or otherwise decorating the graves of Comrades who died in defense of their country 
during the late rebellion, and whose bodies now lie in almost every city, village and 
hamlet churchyard in the land. In this observance no form of ceremony is prescribed, 
but Posts and Comrades will in their own way arrange such fitting services and testi- 
monials of respect as circumstances may permit. 

We are organized, Comrades, as our Regulations tell us, for the purpose, among 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 868. 2/ 

other things, • of preserving and strengthening those kind and fraternal feelings which 
have bound together the soldiers, sailors and marines who united to suppress the 
late rebellion.' What can aid more to assure this result than cherishing tenderly 
the memory of our heroic dead, who made their breasts a barricade between our 
country and its foes ? Their soldier lives were the reveille of freedom to a race in 
chains, and their deaths the tattoo of rebellious tyranny in arms. We should guard 
their graves with sacred vigilance. All that the consecrated wealth and taste of the 
nation can add to their adornment and security, is but a fitting tribute to the memory 
of her slain defenders. Let no wanton foot tread rudely on such hallowed grounds. 
Let pleasant paths invite the coming and going of reverent visitors and fond mourn- 
ers. Let no vandalism of avarice or neglect, no ravages of time testify to the present 
or to the coming generations that we have forgotten as a people the cost of a free 
and undivided Republic. 

If other eyes grow dull, and other hands slack, and other hearts cold in the solemn 
trust, ours shall keep it well as long as the light and warmth of life remain to us. 

Let us, then, at the time appointed, gather around their sacred remains and garland 
the passionless mounds above them, with the choicest flowers of spring time ; let us 
raise above them the dear old flag they saved from dishonor ; let us in this solemn 
presence renew our pledges to aid and assist those whom they have left among us as 
a sacred charge upon a nation's gratitude, the soldier's and sailor's widow and orphan. 

IL It is the purpose of the Commander-in-chief to inaugurate this observance with 
the hope that it will be kept up from year to year, while a survivor of the war remains 
to honor the memory of his departed Comrades. He earnestly desires the public 
press to call attention to this Order, and lend its friendly aid in bringing it to the 
notice of Comrades in all parts of the country in time for simultaneous compliance 
therewith. 

Such was the origin of " Memorial Day " — or " Decoration 
Day," as it is as often called — May 30. And the custom, so 
appropriate and so interesting, thus suggested, became at once 
established. 

The brick house of worship, of the Central Congregational 
Society, on Silsbee street, was dedicated on Thursday evening, 
June II. There was a large attendance notwithstanding the 
prevalence of a severe easterly storm. 

Jonathan Buffum died at his residence in Union street, June 
22, aged 74 years. He was a native of Salem, but came to Lynn 
in early life. For many years he was active in town affairs, and 
held responsible offices ; was a painter by trade, though for some 
years engaged in shoe manufacturing. In early life he belonged 
to the Society of Friends, but seceded from the faith ; indeed he 
was one of those engaged in the disturbance at their house of 
worship, in 1822, an account of which appears in these Annals, 
under the proper date. During the prevalence of anti-masonry, 
he was one of the most zealous and conspicuous in the party, 
and owned the Lynn Record, which was the party organ. He 
was a man of marked character, firm in conviction, determined 
in purpose, and of unswerving integrity. He was an early and 
consistent advocate of the anti-slavery cause, of temperance, and 
of moral reforms in general. He also gave full credence to the 
doctrines of the spiritualists. He married Hannah, daughter 
of James Breed, and had five children. 

A successful ascension was made from the Common, on the 
afternoon of July 4, by John H. Hall, of Lynn, in the balloon 



28 ANNALS OF LYNN I 868. 

" City of Lynn," which was manufactured by Parker Wells of 
this city. 

Out-door religious services were held at High Rock and other 
public places, during the warm season, by clergymen of different 
denominations. 

On Tuesday, Aug. 1 1, the Trenton Hose Company, of Trenton, 
N. J., accompanied by a Newark band of music, was received in 
Lynn, by the Empire Fire Association, the whole fire department 
indeed participating in the proceedings in honor of the visitors. 
An extensive procession traversed the streets, and other festivi- 
ties followed, rendering the whole a very enjoyable occasion. 
The visitors remained several days, and were entertained in the 
most hospitable manner, being conducted over some of the largest 
manufactories, and to places of interest in the vicinity. For 
some years the fire companies of different places had been in the 
habit of interchanging such visits, to the promotion of much 
brotherly feeling, thus superseding, almost entirely, the old mili- 
tary campaigning. 

A farmer in Lynnfield killed thirteen rattlesnakes during the 
summer of this year. 

James Purinton died, August 31, aged 92 years. He was a 
member of the society of Friends, and had worked on his bench, 
as a shoemaker, for seventy-two years. 

Mary Phillips died, Sept 12, aged 98 years, being the oldest 
person then in Lynn, with the exception of Mary J. Hood, a 
colored woman, aged 103. Mrs. Phillips was a member of the 
society of Friends, and retained her faculties in a remarkable 
degree, her clear memory embracing a history of the eastern 
section of the town for more than two generations. She was the 
widow, for many years, of Jonathan Phillips. 

On the afternoon of Wednesday, Sept. 30, the granite monu- 
ment erected in Pine Grove Cemetery to the memory of Rev. 
Parsons Cooke, late minister of the First Congregational Church, 
was dedicated, with appropriate services. 

Edward O'Baldwin, known as the Irish Giant, and Joseph 
Wormuld, an Englishman, noted prize-fighters, were arrested by 
the police, just as they had commenced a battle, in Lynnfield, on 
the morning of Oct. 29. A crowd of those who delight in such 
demoralising contests had assembled, from Boston and neighbor- 
ing places, but they very suddenly dispersed, in dismay, when 
the police appeared, zealous to act their part. O'Baldwin and 
Wormuld were arraigned before the police court, and bound 
over to the superior court. The former was finally sentenced 
to the house of correction for two years ; but the latter escaped, 
forfeiting his bail. 

Died, in his lonely residence, at Dungeon Rock, November 10 
Hiram Marble, aged 65. He was widely known for his perse- 



ANNALS OF LYNN I 868. 29 

vering labors in the rock just named, where he worked some seven- 
teen years, and died without a reaHzation of his ardent hopes 
and unwavering expectation of exhuming jewels and gold, ac- 
cording to the promises of his unseen allurers. He remained a 
spiritualist to the last, and the mediums of the vicinity were 
invited to be present at the funeral services which were held at 
the rock on the forenoon of Wednesday, November ii. He was 
a native of Charlton, in Worcester county, and thither his re- 
mains were conveyed for burial. An account of the fruitless 
task he undertook may be found in these Annals, under date 
1658. 

Quite a rage for velocipede riding prevailed here and indeed 
all over New England about this time. Several schools for in- 
struction were opened, and convenient structures erected for 
their accommodation. Many young men became quite expert 
riders, as well as a few ladies. But the difficulties of managing 
the novel contrivances and balancing the body on them, was a 
great draw-back to their use. They had two narrow wheels, and 
those set fore and aft, with the little padded seat between, the 
crank producing the forward motion being turned by the feet, 
while the steering was done by the hands ; by which means 
both hands and feet had constant occupation. It was literally 
working one's passage. And there was very little to mark the 
machine as an improvement upon the condemned affair of gene- 
rations before. There was a velocipede race in Boston, July 5, 
1869, at which George W. Buzzel, of Lynn, took the second 
prize, of ^20. He rode a mile in two seconds short of five minutes. 
Horses were liable to be frightened by them, and they soon went 
out of fashion. After a few years, however, a kindred contri- 
vance, the bicycle, came into use, among young men especially. 
This had one large wheel, and a diminutive one to steer by, and 
required somewhat less skill and labor in the management. 

On the night of Christmas day, the most disastrous fire that 
had ever occurred in Lynn, took place. It commenced in Ly- 
ceum building, on Market street, corner of Summer, entirely 
destroying that, and then leaping across Summer street, it de- 
stroyed the fine large new brick blocks belonging to Lyman B. 
Frazier and Samuel M. Bubier, and damaged other less valuable 
structures. The Central National Bank was in Lyceum building, 
but the vault withstood the flames. The Post-ofiice was in Fra- 
zier's block, but every thing of value there, was saved. Some 
of the occupants of the buildings lost heavily, notwithstanding 
large insurances. Lyceum building was erected in 1 841, at 
a cost of about ^10.000. Frazier's block cost some ;^6o.ooo, 
and Bubier's about ^65.000. The whole loss by the fire was 
reckoned at not less than ^300.000. The destruction of these 
fine structures was much lamented by the people generally ; but 



30 



ANNALS OF LYNN — I 869. 



they were soon replaced by others still more valuable. Odd 
Fellows' Hall, three years after, occupied the site on which 
Lyceum Hall or Lyceum Building, as it was indiscriminately 
called, stood. This last named was a wooden structure and not 
very comely in its proportions. It was, however, for years, much 
in use for lectures, shows, and meetings of all kinds, being cen- 
trally situated and almost the only eligible place in town for such 
purposes. The light of this conflagration was distinctly seen in 
Gloucester and Lawrence. 




Lyceum Building, Lynn, 
Erected in 1841 — destroyed by fire, in 1868. 



1869. 

Mary J. Hood, a colored woman, died at her residence, near 
Floating bridge, January 8, at the great age of 104 years and 7 
months, as appeared by well authenticated records. 

On Monday night, Jan. 25, another destructive fire took place 
in Lynn, destroying property to the amount of some $170,000. 
It commenced in the large brick shoe manufactory of Edwin H. 
Johnson, in Munroe street, destroying that and the manufactory 
of Harrison Newhall, and other adjacent buildings, and greatly 
damaging several in the neighborhood. 

The shoe manufactory of Rufus A. Johnson, near the East 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 869. 3 I 

Saugus rail-road depot was burned on the morning of Feb. 20, 
with a considerable amount of stock. 

Died, in Newton, Mass., Feb. 25, Dr. Edward A. Kittredge, a 
native of Salem, aged 58. He was for many years a practising 
physician in Lynn ; was of a genial and kind disposition, but 
rather eccentric manners. He was a frequent contributor to 
the newspapers, and his articles were always readable from their 
conspicuous humor and under-current of good sense. His edu- 
cation was good, and though trained in the old allopathic system, 
he finally adopted the hydropathic, or water-cure, system, having 
visited some of the water-cure establishments in Europe to study 
the theory. His remains were brought to Lynn and interred in 
the Eastern Burying Ground, after appropriate services at the 
First Universalist church. 

From the 13th to the 17th of March, it was very cold. Only 
three days before St. Patrick's the thermometer reached 10 de- 
grees below zero. 

There was a magnificent display of beautifully tinted aurora 
borealis on the evening of April 15, during which a meteor of great 
brilliancy shot across the eastern sky. 

The number of children in Lynn, between the ages of five and 
fifteen years, on the first of May, was 5.674. 

The North Congregational Church was formed in the spring 
of this year, chiefly by members withdrawing from the First 
Church. The organization was recognized by a council held 
May 6. 

May 10 was the day on which the last spike was driven, in 
completion of the first continuous rail-road line connecting the 
Atlantic and Pacific. It was an eventful occasion, far away there 
in the Rocky Mountain shadows, and drew together many prom- 
inent persons from different parts of the country. The spike 
was of solid gold, and what renders the occurrence of interest to 
people here is the fact that it was driven by David Hewes, a 
native of Lynnfield, and a contractor on the road. It was, how- 
ever, soon withdrawn and deposited in a museum in San Fran- 
cisco, under the apprehension that if allowed to remain some 
straying traveller, curious or covetous, might appropriate it. 

Memorial Day was celebrated on Saturday, May 29. The 
principal address was delivered by Dr. Bowman B. Breed ; but 
Mayor Buftum made some appropriate remarks. 

The famous Peace Jubilee commenced in Boston, June 15. It 
was the greatest musical entertainment that had ever been held 
in this country, the chorus singers alone numbering 10.528. It 
was attended by lovers of music from all parts of the Union, 
and from foreign countries. The average number of persons 
carried daily through and from Lynn, by the Eastern Rail-road, 
during the week, was about i L300, and the receipts from the 



32 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 869. 

sale of tickets to the various concerts, amounted to ^300.000. 
Lynn furnished her quota of performers in the association known 
as the Chorus Class, which, under the name of Choral Union, 
was continued, much to the benefit of musical education among 
us. And the whole affair gave a sensible impetus to musical 
interests in all parts of the country. 

Benjamin H. Jacobs, for more than thirty years undertaker 
for the Old Burying Ground, near the western end of the Com- 
mon, died June 16, aged y6. He was a native of Littleton, Mass., 
was faithful in his office, and took great pains to keep the vene- 
rable resting place in order and give it a pleasant aspect. And 
there his own remains were deposited. His son Edwin S., who 
long acted as his assistant, died on the 27th of the same month, 
aged 45. _ 

The picturesque cruciform Episcopal church at Nahant, built 
in 1868, was consecrated June 27. 

The public drain through Shepard street was constructed this 
year, in compliance with the strongly expressed desire of many 
residents of the vicinity. But it dried up so many wells in the 
neighborhood that some began to question its utility. The little 
pond on the Common, likewise, met the fate of the wells. But 
notwithstanding the temporary inconvenience, there is no doubt 
of the value of such works. Lynn had for many years felt the 
necessity of a system of drainage, which was at about this time 
energetically commenced. Other localities soon went through 
experience similar to that of Shepard street. 

A caricature celebration of independence took place this year 
under the auspices of the " Antiques and Horribles," with dis- 
cordant music by the " Old Canaan Band." Some parts of the 
procession were rather picturesque and some of the hits good. 

Jeremiah C. Stickney died, August 3, aged 64. He was a 
native of Rowley, Mass., graduated at Harvard, with the 1824 
class, immediately applied himself to the study of law, with Judge 
Cummins, of Salem, and in 1827 was admitted to the bar. He 
soon settled in Lynn, and was presently in active and successful 
practice, in which he continued for forty years. He was post- 
master from 1829 to 1839, ^^^^ again from 1853 to 1858; but 
having little ambition for office he was less in public life than 
was desirable for one of his ability. He declined the office 
of United States District Attorney for Massachusetts, when 
offered him, during the administration of Gen. Jackson. He 
however served in the lower house of the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature in 1839 and '40. When the city form of government was 
adopted, in 1850, his legal advice and assistance proved of great 
value ; and when in 1853 the office of City Solicitor was estab- 
lished, he was promptly elected to fill the position. It was the 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 869. 33 

privilege of the writer to be for some time associated with him 
in professional partnership, and he would not pass silently by 
this opportunity to remark that he can hardly speak in too high 
terms of his constant affability and gentlemanly traits, or of his 
reputation for legal attainments. He was endowed in a . large 
degree with that invaluable power which few really possess, 
though many claim — the power to discern the real sentiments 
and motives that so often underlie the professed — a power which 
is sure to raise the lawyer above the common ranks. He was 
not a man to blindly follow the dictation or direction of any 
client when he saw that envy, hatred, or malice gave coloring to 
his story. In his investigations he was thorough, to the court 
always respectful, and to his professional brethren courteous. 

At the time Mr. Stickney commenced practice, the two other 
lawyers here were men of mark if not eminence — Robert W. 
Trevett and Isaac Gates. They were both graduates of Harvard 
and well read in the law. A brief notice of Mr. Trevett appears 
on pages 409 and '10 and of Mr. Gates on pages 435 and '6 of the 
1865 vol. By reference to those notices the reader will gain some 
knowledge of the antagonists with whom Mr. Stickney had to 
cope in his early professional days. But they and he knew well 
what was becoming to the character of gentlemen. It was, 
according to Mr. Rogers, a great consolation to Mr. Trevett, 
when " in poverty and distress," to be able to say, " No matter 
what I am now ; I take a great deal of satisfaction in reflecting 
that I was once the principal lawyer in Lynn ;" — thus giving a 
sort of reverse turn to the Shakespearean " All 's well that ends 
well." 

For many years Mr. Stickney owned and resided on the beau- 
tiful estate known as Forest Place, which under his hand was in 
a great measure transformed from a mere rough pine-clad hill 
into one of the most tasteful and picturesque places within a 
score of miles. 

On Christmas day, 1829, Mr. Stickney was united in marriage 
to Miss Mary Frazier, daughter of John Frazier, of Philadelphia, 
Three children were born to them ; namely, Charles Henry, 
born Sept. 29, 1830, John Bufifinton, born May 25, 1832, and 
Martha Anne, born September 5, 1834. The two sons entered 
the legal profession. John B. removed to Florida, where he for 
some time filled the office of United States Marshal. Martha 
Anne, in 1868 became the wife of Capt. Stephen H. Andrews, 
of Lawrence, Kansas, and removed thither. 

A very severe gale took place on the afternoon of Wednesday, 
Sept. 8. Nothing like it had been felt since the historically 
famous gale of September 23, 1815, and many old people thought 
it exceeded that in violence, as it certainly did in the damage 

3 



34 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 869. 

done. The morning was still and sultry. About ten, a breeze 
sprang up from the southwest, whence it continued to blow with 
some vigor, and with dashes of rain, till about three in the after- 
noon, when it suddenly veered to the southeast and continued to 
blow with increasing violence, till about half past six when it had 
attained the character of a perfect hurricane, with torrents of rain. 
Chimnies fell in all quarters, and several buildings were levelled. 
But the most visible destruction was among the trees. Multi- 
tudes were uprooted — some of the largest along the streets ; and 
few escaped dismemberment. Until the authorities had time, on 
tlie next day, to remove the fallen ones, some of the sidewalks, 
particularly that of North Common street, were dangerously ob- 
structed. Several houses were much damaged by the falling of 
the trees against them. During the height of the tempest, the 
tall spire of the First Baptist Church yielded to the blast and 
fell crashing through the roof, demolishing also the westerly side 
of the edifice. A new two-story house in Essex street was raised 
from the underpinning and completely prostrated. The extensive 
green-house and conservatory of the Marquis de Lousada, near 
King's Beach, was almost totally destroyed. No less than four 
hundred and thirty shade trees, in different parts of Lynn, were 
prostrated, and very few of those that withstood the gale escaped 
unharmed. In the woods, the fallen trunks were beyond num- 
bering. And the fruit trees were almost stripped of their unripe 
fruit. Great havoc was made among the yachts and other small 
shipping at Swampscott, but there was remarkable freedom from 
loss of life or personal injury. 

A field meeting of the Essex Institute was held here Sept. 23. 
The day was pleasant, most places of interest were visited, and 
numerous specimens in different departments of natural history 
collected. 

A blue heron, a very rare bird in this region, was shot in 
Swampscott woods, Sept. 29. Its height, when standing upright, 
was nearly four feet, and its spread wings measured some five 
feet from tip to tip. 

There was a fearful explosion of a part of the steam apparatus 
at a building in Spring street, on the morning of Oct. 1 1. Capt. 
Robert H. Reeves, of Salem, who happened to be in the room, 
and a young man named Frank Alley, lost their lives. 

A very perceptible shock of an earthquake was felt at about 
half past five on the morning of Oct. 22. Beds oscillated with 
sufficient violence to awake sleepers. 

An association under the name of The Lynn Board of Trade 
was formed in the fall of this year. It soon numbered a hundred 
of the most prominent business men, and its beneficial influence 
was felt particularly in the interests of shoe manufacturing. 

The brick grammar school houses on Ireson and Warren 



ANNALS OF LYNN — 187O. 35 

Streets were built this year ; the former for the Whiting school, 
so named in memory of Rev. Samuel Whiting, settled over the 
First Church, from 1636 to 1680, and the latter for the Shepard 
school, so named from Rev. Jeremiah Shepard, minister of the 
same church, from 1680 to 1720. The Whiting was dedicated 
Sept. 4, and the Shepard Dec. 15. 

The Turnpike through Lynn, from Salem to Chelsea bridge, 
became a public highway, this year, by legislative enactment. 
It was opened in 1803, and until the building of the Eastern 
Rail-road, in 1838, was the avenue by which the great bulk 
of Lynn travel reached Boston. The stock paid large dividends, 
for many years. 

On the 8th of December water from the Flax Pond, to be used 
in cases of fire, was let into the pipes that connected with the 
hydrants in various parts of the city. See page 39. 

The new Town Hall, at Nahant, was dedicated Dec. 24. 

There were forty fires in Lynn, this year ; most of them slight. 
Eleven were in Munroe street, leading some to fear that that was 
a doomed locality. 

To show the extent of the use of illuminating gas in Lynn, it 
may be stated that the gas company during the year manufac- 
tured something over 3.000.000 feet. 

An act more stringent than any that had before existed, for 
the prevention of cruelty to animals, was this year passed by 
the Massachusetts legislature, and the many prosecutions under 
it, in Lynn, had a manifestly salutary effect. 

18 70. 

The winter of 1869-70 was unusually mild, so much so that a 
good deal of out-door work, such as plowing, digging of gardens 
and setting of fences, was done. February and March, however, 
did something to redeem the character for violence. There was 
a severe snow storm as late as March 13, when about a foot fell. 
The ice-cutters reaped but a scanty harvest, and the price became 
high in the succeeding summer. Our ponds had now for so 
many years continued to furnish a supply, that the article had 
come to be regarded rather as a necessity than a luxury, and the 
partial failure was seriously felt. 

The City Hotel, at one time called Columbian House, a large 
wooden structure on Western avenue, near the Summer street 
crossing, was destroyed by fire on the morning of Monday, Jan. 
3. It had for many years been kept as a public house, though 
not of the first class. 

A remarkably beautiful display of aurora borealis took place 
early on the morning of Jan. 3. Shafts of red, white, and purple 
shot upward till the whole heavens were nearly covered. And 
waves of light rolled up occasionally from the north, as if from 



36 ANNALS OF LYNN — I87O. 

a radiant fountain below the horizon. On the afternoon of the 
following Thursday, there was the unusual appearance of two 
sun-dogs, and a circular rainbow. Another extraordinary auroral 
display took place in August, when emerald green was added to 
the other colors. And on still another night a well-defined red 
arch extended across the heavens, from southeast to northwest. 
About the middle of January, the planet Venus could for several 
days be distinctly seen, at noon, by the naked eye. 

A small piece of land near the Central depot was sold in the 
early part of this year for five dollars the square foot. This was 
in the most valuable locality, and the highest price land had sold 
for in Lynn, up to that time. 

A little son of Thomas Saxton, on the 5 th of February, while 
playing around a stove, sportively inhaled the steam from the 
nozzle of a kettle of boiling water, and died the next morning 
from the effects. 

The Young Men's Christian Association was incorporated 
March 31, though it was formed in August, 1868. Its object 
was to promote among young men, piety and the christian virtues, 
as well as social and mental improvement. Devotional meetings 
were frequently held, visiting and missionary work performed, 
temperance and other lectures delivered, and assistance rendered 
to strangers and others, in procuring employment and suitable 
homes. Rooms were furnished with books and periodicals, and 
for the holding of meetings, social intercourse and rational amuse- 
ment. The quarters were made attractive and every one was 
welcome. Similar associations were formed in most of the large 
places throughout New England, always with highly beneficial 
results. 

About midnight, on Sunday, April 3, the Fred Bliss, a brig 
of 338 tons, was wrecked on the Swampscott shore, near the 
old Ocean House estate, a few rods from where the unfortunate 
Tedesco met her fate, in 1857, when all on board perished. The 
crew of the Fred Bliss were in much danger, but all were saved. 
The wreck continued for days to attract numerous visitors. A 
touching instance of animal sympathy is said to have taken place 
on the occasion of this disaster. A dog, and a cat with two 
kittens, were on board. By some mishap the cat and one of the 
kittens were killed. The dog, seeing the other kitten neglected, 
seized it and swam ashore, holding it up carefully in his mouth. 
On reaching the shore he dug a nestling place in the sand and 
kept vigilant watch over it till some one took it in charge. 

A delegation of about seventy-five of the colored citizens of 
Lynn attended the celebration of the ratification of the Fifteenth 
Amendment of the U. S. Constitution, in Boston, on the 14th 
of April. They were in citizens' dress, but wore badges and 
were accompanied by the Lynn Band. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 187O. 37 

The Exchange Insurance Company, of Lynn, was organized 
April 23. It was afterwards removed to Boston, though still 
controlled by gentlemen of this city, and was ruined by the great 
fire of Nov. 9, 1872. 

May 30, the Soldiers' Memorial Day, was duly observed. The 
address was by Rev. A. H. Currier, of the Silsbee street church. 

The first regatta of the Lynn Yacht Club — an association 
recently formed by young men fond of the healthful exercises 
indicated by the name — took place June 17. The wind and 
weather were not very favorable, but the animating contest drew 
together a goodly number of spectators. On the 4th of July 
another regatta took place, and the weather being propitious it 
passed off very satisfactorily. 

John E. Gowan, having returned to Lynn from his successful 
undertaking in raising the ships sunk in the harbor of Sebastopol, 
during the Crimean war, presented to the Light Infantry a Rus- 
sian twelve-pound brass field-piece which he brought with him 
as a remembrancer of his arduous labors. 

The publishers and printers of Lynn this year formed an asso- 
ciation for social and fraternal purposes. An annual fishing trip 
down the bay, in summer, and perhaps a general meeting and 
modest banquet in the winter, served to keep alive the good 
feelings of the craft. 

A general meeting of the qualified voters of Lynn was held in 
the vestibule of the City Hall, on the afternoon of Thursday, 
Sept. I, being the first meeting ever called in accordance with 
the section of the City Charter which provides that on the requi- 
sition of fifty qualified voters, such meetings shall be warned by 
the mayor and aldermen, " to consult on the public good." The 
meeting had special reference to the laying out of Central avenue, 
which some prominent parties deemed uncalled for by any public 
exigency or interest. The City Council had ordered the laying 
out, and this meeting was called in the hope of obtaining such 
an expression of public opinion as would induce a reversal of the 
order. The meeting was large, and several prominent men took 
part in a warm discussion, which diverged to other questions 
of public concernment. A decided majority appeared against 
the measure, and strong resolutions were passed accordingly. 
But the government, having thoroughly examined the matter, 
were not led to reconsider their resolution. 

The Park, at the east end of the Common, which had heretofore 
been so low as to be occasionally incommoded by standing water, 
was this year raised in grade some fifteen inches, over its entire 
surface. 

The severest shock of an earthquake felt for many years, in 
this region, took place in the forenoon of Thursday, Oct. 20. In 
several instances persons in different parts of the city were so 



38 ANNALS OF LYNN iS/O. 

alarmed by the swaying of the buildings that they rushed into 
the streets. This was the case, especially, at the large brick 
factory at the corner of Western avenue and Federal street. No 
serious damage, however, was done. 

The brick market house, on Central avenue, was opened for 
the first time for the sale of commodities, on Saturday, Nov. 19. 
In the evening, a large crowd gathered. 

At the municipal election held Dec. 12, six ladies were elected 
members of the school committee, this being the first instance 
of the election of ladies to public office in Lynn. 

Music Hall, on Central avenue, was first occupied on Thurs- 
day evening, Dec. 22. A fair, by the High street Baptist society, 
was then held there. 

Early in the evening of Sunday, Christmas day, the large 
wooden house of worship of the First Church, on South Common 
street, corner of Vine, was entirely destroyed by fire. The after- 
noon service had closed but a short time before the fire broke 
out, and so rapidly did the flames progress, that it was impossible 
to arrest them. The illumination was striking, and seen as far 
inland as Lawrence. Portions of the fixtures and furniture were 
saved. The house was erected in 1836, but could not lay claim 
to great architectural beauty. The interior, however, had within 
a few months been much improved, by repairs and embellish- 
ments. The fire commenced in the eastern wall, no doubt from 
a defect in the heating apparatus. From the same cause it had 
taken fire during service, on Sunday, Oct. 6, 1867, when timely 
discovery prevented serious damage. There was an immediate 
offer to the bereaved society, by several of the neighboring 
churches, of the use of their houses of worship, and much chris- 
tian sympathy was expressed. 

Gold Fish Pond, on Fayette street, near Lewis, was this year 
greatly improved ; in fact changed from a weedy, bushy sort 
of shallow lakelet, uncomely to the eye, though to some extent 
useful for the watering of cattle, to one of the chief ornaments 
of that quarter of the city. It was formerly known by the local 
name of " The Swamp ; " and was likewise called " Ingalls's 
Pond," from the circumstance that near it Edmund Ingalls, one 
of the first settlers, established himself in the year 1629. About 
1840 it began to be called Gold Fish Pond, the name originating 
in the fact that there had then appeared in it numerous gold fish. 
And these were supposed to have been the offspring of five of the 
species which some boys procured and let loose there, in 1837. 
They became so abundant, in a few years, that the youth of the 
neighborhood gained many a shilling, every season, by catching 
and peddling them about town. The cost of the improvements 
of this year, which gave the little pond so picturesque an aspect, 
was about ;^3.700. 



ANNALS OF LYNN — 187O. 39 

The number of arrivals at the port of Lynn, this year, was 
704; and among the imports were 18.872.961 feet of lumber, 
44.205 tons of coal, 2.509 cords of wood, 65LOOO bricks, 161.511 
bushels of grain, and 2.460 bushels of potatoes. 

The shoe business of Lynn, for 1870, seemed, on the whole, to 
have been quite satisfactory. The number of pairs manufactured 
was about 10.600.000, their value being some 1^17.000.000, many 
being of superior quality. It should be remarked that shoes 
vary in kind, quality, and price, from year to year, a circumstance 
sufficient to account for apparent inconsistencies in estimates. 

The population of the city having become so large, it had for 
several years been manifest that means for a supply of water for 
domestic, mechanical, and fire purposes, beyond the primitive 
resource of wells, must speedily be devised. The great fires 
in the winter of 1868-9 spurred to immediate action. Capacious 
reservoirs, had, indeed, been constructed in different sections, at 
considerable expense ; but they were far from being inexhaust- 
ible. After a good deal of discussion in the city council, and 
out, an arrangement was effected whereby water for fire purposes 
was to be taken from Flax Pond. Pipes were accordingly laid 
along some of the principal streets, and the water was first set 
flowing, on the afternoon of Dec. 8, 1869; that being the first 
time the city received a supply from any source, by aqueduct, for 
any purpose. The Flax Pond arrangement being temporary, the 
subject matter was still further promptly acted on in the council. 
An accomplished engineer was employed to examine the several 
sources in the vicinity from which a supply might be obtained — 
Flax, Sluice, Humphrey's and Breed's ponds, and Saugus river. 
He made an elaborate report, and strongly recommended the 
purchase of Breed's Pond, which he claimed would yield sufficient 
for all necessary purposes, at least, for the time being. The 
city authorities, being satisfied of the value of the recommenda- 
tion, soon made the purchase. But Breed's Pond was an artificial 
one, and depended on the dam at Oak street for its very existence. 
The dam had never appeared perfectly tight and safe. Indeed 
during the terrific storm of April 15, 185 1, when Minot's Ledge 
light house was destroyed, such breaches had been made that 
all the water rushed down into the meadow. Immediately after 
the purchase, work was commenced on the dam ; and the other 
necessary labor at the pond was vigorously pushed forward. The 
pipes, also were laid as rapidly as possible. And on Monday, 
Nov. 21, the water was sent coursing down into the city, announc- 
ing its arrival on the Common by leaping up at the fountain jet 
to the height of a hundred feet. The first cost of the Breed's 
Pond property, was ^21.500, exclusive, of course, of the repairs 
and laying of pipes, but inclusive of several dilapidated wooden 



40 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/0. 



buildings. The reasonable apprehensions that had disturbed 
many minds, as to what could be done in case of a sudden con- 
flagration, were now allayed, and a point attained when time 
could be taken for further deliberation on the question as to what 
source should be turned to for a permanently sufficient supply 
for all necessary purposes. The surveyors had determined 
that Humphrey's Pond would be insufficient ; that Breed's Pond 
would supply i.ooo.ooo gallons per day, on the average; Flax 
Pond, with its adjuncts, 3.000.000 ; Saugus River, 5.500.000. 
Careful estimates were further made as to the probable amount 
of population in Lynn at certain future periods. And the con- 
clusion was reached, that by the year 1900, the city would require 
4.000.000 gallons daily. So that, at that comparatively near 
period, no single source, excepting Saugus River, would be ade- 
quate. The different waters were analysed, for the purpose of 
ascertaining their relative purity ; and it was found that Sluice 
Pond was the purest ; next came Breed's Pond ; next Saugus 
River ; and last. Flax Pond. In future pages of this volume will 
be found an account of what was subsequently done in relation 
to the water supply. 

For several years there had existed among the Lynn people a 
good deal of dissatisfaction at the unsuitable and insufficient 
depot accommodations furnished by the Eastern Rail-road Com- 
pany. The uncomely brick structure, in Central square, which 
was the principal station, and which was erected in 1848, in a 
few years became entirely insufficient for the increased traffic. 




Eastern Ratl-road Station, Central Square, 
Erected in 184S, taken down in 1872. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 187O. 4I 

It may, perhaps, be well to mention, in passing, that this was not 
the first depot. The one erected at the opening of the road, was a 
diminutive one story wooden structure, standing on the northerly 
side of the road, without any roofing or other shelter over the track. 
As soon, however, as the Company manifested a willingness to 
supply the need, a somewhat warm sectional feeling sprang up, 
which, to say the least, afforded an excuse for delay. Those who 
had invested in property, or had established their business in 
the Square or its immediate neighborhood, naturally enough 
could not appreciate the claims of those who advocated the 
removal to a site farther westward. Others, not so circumstanced, 
claimed that it would be vastly more convenient for the people 
in general to have the new erection on the westerly side of 
Market street. There was much discussion and loud talk, success 
seeming to lean now to one side and then to the other. The 
legislative arm was invoked, and on the 29th of April, 1865, it 
was strangely enough enacted that " No rail-road corporation 
shall abandon any passenger station or depot which is on its 
road in this Commonwealth, and owned by said corporation, and 
which has now been or shall hereafter have been established for 
five years, except by the consent of the legislature ; and the 
accommodation furnished by the stopping of trains at such 
stations shall not be substantially diminished, as compared with 
that furnished at other stations on the same road." This was an 
unexpected and staggering blow to the Market street party, as it 
was called. And it seemed as if the Company was inclined to take 
it as an excuse to delay the erection of a new depot in either 
that street or Central square. But the matter was kept seething, 
and in 1868 the legislature sent out a committee to examine into 
the rival claims. They made a report, and on the nth of June 
an act was passed requiring the Company to erect a suitable 
station on the old site in Central square ; with a provision that 
if they failed to do so, the Supreme Court should have power to 
appoint commissioners and compel specific performance. Still 
the Company did nothing, taking the lofty ground that the act 
was unconstitutional. Then the question of constitutionality 
went to the Supreme Court, and that august body determined 
that it was constitutional, and appointed commissioners to pro- 
ceed with the work of erection. But before they had had time to 
accomplish any thing, an appeal was taken to the United States 
Court, But this little stirring episode in Lynn's rail-road history 
need not be pursued farther than to say that the good people 
presently came to realise the folly of so illustrating the fable 
of the Dog in the Manger. And the result was that in 1872 
two handsome and costly stations were erected, one in Central 
square, where it still stands, and the other in State street, a few 
rods from Market, where it remained some months, and was then 



42 ANNAllS OF LYNN 1 8/ 1. 

demolished ; thus leaving the old Central square site the perma- 
nent one. A little wooden building, sufficient for the sheltei 
of waiting passengers, however, was erected on Market street, 
where some of the daily trains were made to stop. This " depot 
war," as it came to be called, has its lesson. It shows how a 
whole community may be made to suffer inconvenience, year 
after year, and its business be damaged, by the persistent dis- 
agreement of a few whose pecuniary interests are at stake. Had 
the good citizens whose tenacity so long prevented the erection 
of a new depot in either place, been content to yield a little foi 
the public good, the Company would have had no excuse for delay 
in providing the much needed accommodations. 

187 1. 
Rev. Joseph Cook, who for the time being was stated minister 
of the First Church, during the early part of this year delivered 
a series of Sunday evening lectures in Music Hall. They were 
of a somewhat sensational character and drew very large audiences. 
One in particular, " On the Moral Perils of the Present Factory 
System of Lynn," elicited warm discussion, and was denounced 
by many considerate people as giving an altogether unwarrant- 
ably dark picture of the culture and morals of the young men and 
women who labored in the shoe manufactories ; and as unjustly 
assuming that there was almost, if not entirely, criminal laxity in 
the management of the establishments. In style, he seemed to 
emulate his sturdy predecessor, Rev. Parsons Cooke, often em- 
ploying language any thing but choice and denunciations far 
from gentle. The lectures also appeared in print, and caused 
much acrimonious comment. Mr. Cook, some years after, deliv- 
ered lectures in Boston and other large cities, where they were 
attended by very great audiences, and met on the one hand with 
the warmest applause and on the other with the most vigorous 
tokens of disapproval. 

Died, in Swampscott, Jan, 21, Capt. Thomas Widger, a native 
of Marblehead, aged 80 years. He commenced a seafaring life 
when but nine years old, shipping at that time for a fishing 
voyage to the Grand Banks. He afterwards sailed on merchant 
voyages to foreign ports, and early in the war of 1812 was taken 
prisoner by the British, and remained a year in a prison ship, 
when he was exchanged. Subsequently he sailed from Salem in 
the privateer America, on a cruise during which several prizes 
were captured. After the war he was again in the Grand Bank 
fishery. In 1832 he settled in Swampscott and continued to 
follow the seas ; finally, as age pressed upon him, employing 
himself in the humble capacity of a dory fisherman. His habits 
were temperate, and through life he enjoyed remarkably good 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/ 1. 43 

health, and never required the use of spectacles in reading the 
finest print. An interesting incident in his stirring life, and one 
indicative of his horror of inhumanity in a sailor, was his joining 
in the famous feat of tarring and feathering " Old Floyd Ireson," 
which remarkable performance has been so often celebrated by 
historian and poet. It should, however, be kept in mind that 
it was long since positively denied that Skipper Ireson was 
guilty of the " hord horted " act of refusing assistance to the 
wrecked crew, which was the occasion of his ignominious treat- 
ment, but suffered from false accusation. 

Between one and two o'clock on the morning of Feb. 20, a fire 
occurred in a building on the Osborne estate, on Walnut street; 
near the Saugus line. Mr. John M'Kenney, with his wife and 
five young children, occupied a tenement in the building. The 
alarm was sudden and the fire spread rapidly. Mr. M'Kenney 
perished in the flames and the others barely escaped in their 
night clothes. One little fellow of six years fled barefoot upon 
the ice and snow, with a younger child upon his back, bravely 
struggling on for about a quarter of a mile, till he reached a 
place of safety. 

The month of March was unusually mild — stated by meteor- 
ologists to be the warmest for forty-seven years. 

There was a brilliant auroral display on the night of April 17. 
A beautiful arch of several hues rose in the north, and by its 
constant changes in form and color afforded a most interesting 
spectacle. 

The fine brick building on the northeast side of Exchange 
street near Broad, was completed in the spring of this year, and 
immediately occupied by the Lynn Institution for Savings and 
the First National Bank. 

The first lighting of street lanterns on Nahant, was on the 
night of May 9. 

Four of the clergymen of Lynn were this year travelling in 
Europe. 

The little pond near the centre of the Common and its neat 
surroundings were completed about the middle of May, and the 
sparkling little fountain then threw up its picturesque jets. 

A reputable citizen reported seeing, as he passed Gold Fish 
pond, early on a May morning, a singular contest between hostile 
parties of frogs and toads. They were engaged in a fierce battle, 
which terminated in victory for the frogs. He declared that the 
poor toads were actually drowned by having their heads forced 
under the water and there held by the frogs, it requiring in some 
instances two frogs to overcome one toad. The victory was 
celebrated by exulting croaks. What the occasion of the reptile 
war was, did not appear. 

On Tuesday, May 30, Soldiers' Memorial Day, fitting ceremo 



44 ANNALS OF LYNN I 8/ 1. 

nies took place. The oration was delivered by J. K. Tarbox, Esq. 
of Lawrence. 

The corner stone of Odd Fellows' Hall, on the site of the old 
Lyceum Hall, on Market street, corner of Summer, was laid on 
Monday, June 12, with appropriate ceremonies. Preparations 
had been made for a grand display, and organizations from abroad 
had been invited. But the unpropitious weather interfered with 
many details. 

It is an old belief, traces of which may be found reaching back 
to periods long before European settlement commenced here, 
that shell fish, clams especially, are poisonous during the warm 
season, or, as it is usually expressed, during every month that is 
spelled without an r. Many, however, have contended that the 
bivalves are as healthy for food at one time as another. But an 
incident occurred here, on July 6, which was accepted by many 
as confirmatory. Four men went over to Pines Point, and there 
ate rather bountifully of raw clams. They were soon taken sick 
and hastened homeward. Immediately after their arrival two 
died ; but the others, after much suffering, recovered. Such a 
meal, however, might be accounted sufficiently dangerous for 
any stomach, irrespective of the idea of poison. An incident 
similar to the foregoing occurred in June, 1848. 

A singular case of spontaneous combustion took place in 
August, in a body of some four hundred tons of Sydney coal, on 
a wharf running from Broad street. It appears to have smoul- 
dered for a few days, when, on the nth, it set fire to the shed 
under which it lay. A steam fire engine was employed in the 
attempt to extinguish it, but it was necessary to throw a portion 
into the dock, to save the remainder. About sixty tons were 
lost. The combustion appeared to have been caused by rain 
and the heat of the sun. 

An unusually long drought occurred in the summer of this 
year. No rain fell for forty-two days. 

Five tents of Indians — about the number who usually appear 
here when the summer visitors arrive — encamped on the Beach, 
near the foot of Beach street, and remaine-'^ a month or two, 
plying their humble trade in baskets and bead-vvork. 

A terrible disaster took place on the Eastern Rail-road, at 
Revere, on the evening of Saturday, Aug. 26, the weather being 
damp and foggy. An accommodation train from Boston reached 
the Revere station soon after eight o'clock. The passengers for 
that place had landed and the train was just beginning to move 
forward when an express train, with a terrific crash, dashed 
down upon it, the locomotive fairly burying itself in the rear car, 
which was crowded with passengers, their number being not less 
than a hundred, many of whom were standing. By this appalling 
casualty thirty persons were killed, eleven of them of Lynn, and 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/ 1. 45 

some seventy-five injured, fifteen or twenty seriously. The ven- 
erable Dr. Ezra S. Gannett, a Unitarian minister of Boston, and 
long a colleague of the celebrated Dr. Channing, who was on his 
way to Lynn to preach in the Unitarian church, the next day, 
was among the killed. Mr. Thomas F. Bancroft, a deacon of the 
First Church of Lynn and an extensive shoe manufacturer, was 
also among the killed. He had but recently made the long jour- 
ney to and from California, over the Pacific Rail-road, without 
meeting with an accident. Large claims for damages were made 
against the road, and they were honorably settled. 

There was a violent storm on Sunday evening, Aug. 27. Sev- 
eral small buildings and numerous trees were prostrated. 

The Odd Fellows of Essex county had a great parade in Lynn, 
Sept. 29. The weather was favorable and the members appeared 
in their rich and showy regalia. 

The Electric Fire Alarm was first operated through all the 
circuits, on the evening of Oct. 2. 

Something of an idea of the passion for out-door social gather- 
ings, or pic-nic parties, as they are called, at this period, may be 
formed from the fact that thirty-seven were held in the single 
locality of Echo Grove, during the summer ; and that grove is 
but one of several similar places of resort within or about our 
borders. Many of the parties were from neighboring towns ; 
and on the other hand many Lynn parties went to other places. 

Died, at his place of residence. South Common street, corner 
of Commercial, Oct. 11, David Taylor, aged 68. He was not a 
native of Lynn, but came here at an early age, friendless and 
poor. By industry and business tact, however, he took rank, 
while yet a young man, among the first of our shoe manufactur- 
ers. Li January, 1833, he met with a serious loss by fire, his 
manufactory, which stood on the corner of Elm and Ash streets, 
being burned, with a large amount of stock. But he was soon 
again in prosperous business and largely engaged in the southern 
trade. He took considerable interest in political affairs though 
not an office holder, and in 1838, in connection with Charles 
Coolidge established the Lynn Freeman, a large and well-ap- 
pointed political weekly newspaper of the Whig stamp. His 
connection with the paper, however, was not of long continuance. 
He established a business house in New Orleans, and for several 
years spent a large part of his time in that city. A newspaper 
writer said of him, " He was a fixture in the New Orleans market, 
and was as well known there and up the river as the most popu- 
lar boat that came and went. We can see him now as he used 
to appear, with his portly person, his partially bald head, his 
genial countenance, his neat dress, and his massive gold fob- 
chain and seal." The war of the Rebelhon found him in the 



46 ANNALS OF LYNN 187I. 

south, a staunch Union man ; and he suffered severely, in a 
pecuniary way. After the close of the war, he was able to gather 
up something from his scattered fortune, and passed the remain- 
der of his life in Lynn, in comfortable though not affluent circum- 
stances. He was accustomed to take a practical view of life, and 
for his reading chose the more solid works. And having been 
in contact with all classes and travelled in various parts of the 
country, with an observing e3''e, he was enabled to impart much 
useful information. The house in which he died was the same 
which he had in process of erection at the time of the burning 
of his manufactory, in 1833. "Taylor's Building," on the corner 
of Elm street, and adjoining the western extremity of " Healey's 
Arcade," which was, at the time of its erection, probably the most 
costly building in Lynn, and considered by many to be quite 
beyond the requirements of the times, remains as evidence of his 
enterprise. 

By the great fire in Chicago, which commenced on the night 
of Oct. 7, it was for a time feared that some of our business men 
would suffer materially, the shoe and leather dealers there being 
indebted to Lynn manufacturers to the amount of some $150,000. 
But the real loss, happily, proved inconsiderable. A meeting in 
aid of the sufferers by the calamity was held in Music Hall on the 
evening of October 10, at which resolutions of sympathy were 
adopted, and arrangements made for systematic contributions 
of money, clothing, and all articles of prime necessity. The 
contributions in money amounted to something above ;^ 17.000. 
And some forty cases of bedding, clothing, boots and shoes, &c. 
were likewise gathered and forwarded. 

President Grant passed through Lynn on the morning of Oct. 
16. A large crowd had assembled in Central square to greet 
him, but he merely stepped out upon the platform of thePullman 
car in which he was journeying eastward, bowed to the multitude, 
and bad them good morning. 

The autumn foliage this year presented unusually rich and 
varied tints. It was a rare treat even to one accustomed to these 
annual displays to witness the brilliant show, and many a fair 
lady could be met on a pleasant day wending her way from the 
woods with leafy gatherings of almost dazzling brightness. 

Two human skeletons, supposed to be aboriginal remains, were 
exhumed, in Ocean street, Nov. 2. 

A very violent easterly storm commenced on the evening 
of Nov. 14, and continued through the 15th. The wind was 
very high, and drove the sea in with great fury. Much damage 
was done along the coast. The lower part of Beach street was 
overflowed to the depth of something more than two feet, and 
the condition of the wharves indicated a tidal influx as great, 



ANNALS OF LYNN I 8/ 1. 47 

within a few inches, as during the memorable storm of April 15, 
185 1. A great concourse, among whom were many women, 
gather^ all about the headlands and in the vicinity of the beaches, 
to witness the grandeur of the scene, heedless of the pelting of 
the storm. The embankment along the seaward front of Ocean 
street was much damaged, and the Eastern Rail-road track was 
rendered impassable for some hours. The stone monument on 
Bowditch ledge, off Marblehead, was carried away, after having 
withstood the stormy assaults of thirty years. 

On the night of Nov. 17, a shocking death occurred in a house 
on Howard street. Mrs. Jane Clinton, wife of John G. Clinton, a 
barber, was found dead on the kitchen floor, the body bearing 
such marks as at first led to the supposition that she had been 
murdered, and an attempt made to conceal the crime by setting 
fire to the premises. Suspicion fell on the husband, and he was 
arrested. A coroner's inquest was held, and the result of their 
examination was that she was burned to death by the breaking 
of a kerosene lamp. The jury also found that both husband 
and wife had been intoxicated and engaged in a quarrel during 
the afternoon. They ascribed to the husband no direct agency 
in the death of the wife, but added that had he been sober, and 
attended to his duty, the death might not have taken place. 

A fire occurred on Lamper and Brother's wharf, at the foot 
of Pleasant street, on Wednesday evening, Dec. 13. A large 
stable and wagon shed, with a quantity of hay, were consumed. 
But the most lamentable feature of the disaster was the perishing 
of sixteen valuable horses. 

A startling tragedy took place on Saturday forenoon, Dec. 16, 
in which William Vennar, known also as William Brown, a man 
about thirty-six years of age, and a native of Maine, but who had 
resided here a few months, was chief actor. He came to Lynn 
with a woman who appears to have been the wife of Thomas 
Jones, of Washington, Me., but who had abandoned her lawful 
husband to live with Vennar, who seems to have had a wife in 
Washington. They were boarding, temporarily, with Mrs. Sarah 
Roundy, on Adams street. He was intemperate, and, especially 
when in liquor, of ferocious disposition. The two had many 
quarrels, but were represented to have appeared unusually loving 
on the morning of the murder. A Mrs. Conway, who resided in 
another tenement in the same house, at about half past nine, 
hearing terrific screams, hastened to the door, and saw Vennar 
clutching his victim by the hair, and with a large dirk knife 
actually butchering her. Having accomplished his purpose, by 
nearly severing the left jugular vein and wholly severing the 
carotid artery, he washed his hands and fled. But Mrs. Conway 
had, as soon as she recovered from the first shock of horror, 
given the alarm, and persons were fast gathering. Vennar, how- 



48 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/ I. 

ever, escaped, and gained a patch of woods on Farrington's hill, 
on the north side of Western avenue. Here he was surrounded, 
and kept at bay till others arrived, among them the city«marshal 
and several police officers. Vennar now took a defiant attitude, 
brandishing his still bloody weapon and threatening death to 
any one who dared approach. By direction of the marshal, offi- 
cers Thurston and Whitten endeavored to disarm him, but did 
not succeed. Finally, officer Thurston, in an attempt with a 
club to strike the arm that held the knife, lost his footing. Ven- 
nar then sprang to him, and with the utmost fury began to stab 
him. That was the decisive moment, it being evident that 
Thurston's life was in imminent peril, and that instant action 
alone could save him. And the marshal proved himself equal to 
the emergency. With promptness and coolness he levelled his 
pistol and fired two shots. And Vennar fell dead. The coro- 
oner's verdict, as well as public opinion, fully justified the act 
of the marshal. 

During the winter of this year the frost penetrated to an unu- 
sual depth ; in many places five or six feet. There was little snow, 
and many days of intense cold. 

During the three months ending Dec. 31, the Swampscott 
fishermen brought in 1. 140.000 pounds of cod. At two cents a 
pound, which was rather a low price for that year, the value 
would be ^22.800. Some ^3.000 worth of oil was also obtained 
during the same three months. 

The number of passengers carried over the Eastern Rail-road 
during the year was 4.635.482 ; and the tons of freight, 378.199. 
The rate of speed per hour, including stops, was as follows : 
freight trains, 15 miles; accommodation passenger trains, 20 
miles ; express trains, 28 miles. 

The number of feet of lumber imported into Lynn during the 
quarter ending with December, was 8.443.000. About 50.000 
tons of coal were brought in during the year. 

The number of persons carried to and from Boston, by the 
horse cars, during the year, was 122.000. 

There were 392 marriages in Lynn, this year. The ages 
of the oldest couple were 66 and 46 years, and the youngest, 18 
and 16 years. The largest number solemnized by any one min- 
ister was by Rev. Patrick Strain, of St. Mary's Roman Catholic 
church. 

This year and the two preceding years were remarkable for the 
little rain that fell. It was a common remark that we experi- 
enced a three years' drought. The winters set in with extremely 
low springs. 

So many cases of small-pox occurred in Lynn, this year, that 
some alarm was occasioned, and measures were taken to have a 
general vaccination. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 872. 49 

1872. 

The new Methodist Meeting-house on the corner of Maple 
and Chesnut streets, Glenmere village, was dedicated on the 
afternoon of February 15. 

The schooner Champion, of Swampscott, on Friday and Satur- 
day, Feb. 16 and 17, with a crew of twelve men, stocked 30.000 
pounds of fish, which sold for four cents the pound — ^1.200. 
For Friday's catch the crew realized $y2 each. 

A two story wooden building, on Willow street, formerly stand- 
ing on the north side of Central square, and known as the Bay 
State Building from the circumstance of its being that in which 
the Bay State newspaper was printed, was nearly destroyed by 
fire on Sunday morning, Feb. 25. 

The City Hall bell was raised to its position, on Saturday, 
March 2. Its weight is 4.937 pounds. 

During the early part of March there were several extremely 
cold days. Ice was formed from Swampscott to Nahant. On the 
7th the fishermen were able to do what they had not done before 
for nineteen years, that is, walk on the ice to their vessels at the 
moorings. A great many garden evergreens and hardy shrubs 
were killed. The average temperature of the month, at sunrise, 
was twenty-one and a half degrees, which was three degrees 
colder than the average temperature of January. 

On Thursday, March 14, the trim little steamer Meta, com- 
menced running to and from Boston, making two trips daily, 
each way, with passengers and freight. In July, the Carrie was 
added to the line, and the two together then made six trips each 
way, daily. But the line was soon discontinued. 

86.000 lobsters were taken during the three months beginning 
with Jan. i, by the fishers of Nahant. Fears began to arise, and 
calculations to be made as to the probable extermination of the 
species, if the great destruction were not checked. It was shown, 
at least to the satisfaction of many, that in forty years lobsters 
would become unknown upon the coast, if some restrictions were 
not enforced. The apprehensions became so lively that the 
legislature was induced to interpose, and in 1874 passed a law 
that " Whoever sells, or offers for sale, or has in his possession 
with intent to sell, either directly or indirectly, any lobster less 
than ten and one half inches in length, measuring from one 
extreme of the body to the other, exclusive of claws or feelers, 
shall forfeit for every such lobster, five dollars." The fears for 
the fate of the lobster were by no means groundless ; yet one is 
reminded of the appeals of some of the early settlers who were 
sorely apprehensive that the old iron works would consume all 
the wood that grew hereabout. 

A meeting of the City Council was held in the common coun- 

4 



50 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/2, 

cil chamber on the evening of Tuesday, April i6, to join in 
testimonials in honor to the memory of Professor Morse, the 
inventor of the electric telegraph, who had recently died. Appro- 
priate resolutions were passed, and ordered to be entered on the 
records of both branches, and were also immediately sent forth, 
on the wires, to the meeting at the same time convened in the 
national representative hall, at Washington. Brief addresses 
were made by the mayor and several of the city clergymen ; and 
the whole proceedings were highly eulogistic of the deceased. 

Died, at his residence on Western avenue, April 21, Dr. James 
M. Nye, aged 53, a native of Salisbury, Mass. He was a prac- 
tising physician here, some thirty years, was highly respected 
as a citizen, and for skill and promptitude in his profession. In 
scientific pursuits and all educational matters, he took great 
interest, and was not remiss in labors for the moral elevation 
of the community. For many years he was a prominent and 
useful member of the First Baptist church. 

The Lynn Homoeopathic Society was formed, April 23, by 
the resident homoeopathic physicians. 

May 30, was, according to the now established custom, cele- 
brated as the Soldiers' Memorial day. The address was delivered 
by ex-Governor Fairfield of Wisconsin, in the vestibule of the 
City Hall, the inclemency of the weather interfering with the 
contemplated out-door proceedings. 

The fine brick building in Franklin street, erected for the 
Cobbet school, was dedicated May 31. Besides the usual intel- 
lectual entertainment, a banquet was provided, to which ladies 
as well as gentlemen were invited. The Cobbet school received 
its name from Rev. Thomas Cobbet, settled here in 1637, as 
colleague of Rev. Mr. Whiting. 

There was a heavy thunder shower, June 12, during which the 
lightning struck in five places in Lynn, and considerably disar- 
ranged the telegraphic fire alarm. 

On the 17th of June, a regatta took place under the auspices 
of the Lynn Yacht Club, which' afforded much gratification to 
the large company assembled. 

The great musical entertainment known as " The World's 
Peace Jubilee and International Musical Festival," commenced 
in Boston, June 17, with its chorus of 20.000 voices and its 
orchestra of more than i.ooo instruments, its great organ, mam- 
moth drum, and belching cannon, and continued some fifteen 
days. Many ladies and gentlemen of Lynn lifted their voices in 
the chorus. Among the most notable features of the whole 
occasion were the grand performances of the instrumental bands 
from Europe — the English, Irish, French, and Prussian. The 
weather was excessively warm most of the time, and the crowds 
of people in and about the Coliseum, and indeed around the city 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 872. 5 I 

generally rendered a visit though highly interesting, subject to 
many discomforts. 

Died, in Saugus, June 19, Joseph Cheever, aged a hundred 
years and three months. He served as a representative in the 
legislature in 18 17, and for several terms in subsequent years, 
his last service being in 1835. 

The first Roman Catholic church on Nahant was built this 
year, and occupied in July. 

The National Association of Morocco Manufacturers, composed 
chiefly of the principal persons engaged in the trade, in the 
Middle and New England States, visited Lynn, July 11. They 
were hospitably entertained by the brethren of the trade here, 
and taken to Nahant, where they partook of a dinner, and then 
to Swampscott, where a supper was provided. During the day 
opportunity was taken to discuss matters pertaining to their 
branch of business, which had risen to be of commanding impor- 
tance in the country. 

A company was formed this year for the manufacture of Frear 
stone. They established a factory in Essex street, and among 
their first contracts was that to furnish the trimmings for the 
Baptist church, about that time in process of erection at the 
corner of Essex and Washington streets. Door-steps, memorial 
stones, garden urns, and a variety of other articles were made, 
which it was claimed were quite as durable and in some respects 
preferable to manufactures from natural stone. The company, 
however, were not successful, pecuniarily, and operations were 
soon discontinued. 

On the 1 8th of July, there was a considerable gathering under 
the auspices of the Lynn manufacturers, of persons engaged in 
the shoe and leather trade in different parts of the country. The 
portion of the company assembled at Lynn rode to Nahant in 
procession, and were there joined by others who came from 
Boston by steamer. The occasion was rather designed for 
social enjoyment than dry business purposes, and a band of music 
was employed to enliven the occasion. Every provision was 
made for table gratifications, and speeches, humorous and sedate, 
were delivered. Various sports were engaged in, and the inter- 
esting spectacle of a regatta provided. The latter, however, 
proved rather a failure,. as a dense ocean mist rolled in. 

A comical little incident occurred to some of our grave city 
officials on a certain balmy summer day. The question of a new 
almshouse had been agitated in the council, and afterwards, in 
committee, the style of the proposed building was considered. 
In the course of the discussion it was represented, on newspaper 
authority, that a model institution had lately been erected in 
Hartford. Upon the information, such high authority not being 
questioned, three or four officials went forth on a tour of inpsec- 



52 ANNALS OF LYNN 18/2. 

tion. Arrived in Hartford, they forthwith waited on the mayor 
and proceeded to unfold the purpose of their visit. They were 
hospitably received, but without circumlocution and with manifest 
astonishment informed that no such building as they came to 
inspect, existed. The polite attentions were calculated to alle- 
viate their chagrin, but not to abate the unspoken maledictions 
upon the disseminator of the false information that induced their 
fruitless journey. 

The lamps placed along the beach road leading to Nahant 
were lighted for the first time on the evening of July 24. They 
proved not only a great convenience, but quite a picturesque 
feature, as viewed from the heights. 

A Crispin strike, so called, took place in Lynn during the 
summer. The organization known as the Knights of St. Crispin 
had been in existence several years and embraced a large portion 
of the operatives in the shoe business. For a year or two they 
had been working at prices agreed upon between themselves and 
the manufacturers ; but the time to which the arrangement was 
limited had expired, and the employers were not all disposed to 
continue to pay the same prices, in every department, some 
of them proposing to make a small reduction in the price of work 
on a particular part of the shoe, where it was alleged such facili- 
ties had lately been introduced as to justify such a step. This 
was met by the peremptory order of the Crispin " Board of Ar- 
bitration," that all members who were at work in the shops where 
the reduction was made, should cease work on Friday, July 26, 
as well those who were not called to suffer a reduction as those 
who were. The manufacturers did not propose to reduce the 
prices generally. In compliance with the official order, the Cris- 
pins in the shops alluded to, ceased to work ; the great body 
of the associates were soon idle ; and some of the largest manu- 
factories were brought to a " stand still," as the phrase was. 
To indulge long in such a course, it soon became apparent, 
would not only be damaging to individual interests, but seriously 
detrimental to the prosperity of the city. Some prominent man- 
ufacturers made preparations to move their machinery to other 
places, where they would not in future be embarrassed by the 
action of such organizations. A good many Crispins who had 
been satisfied with their situations and rates of pay, were forced 
by the order of their Board of Arbitration to remain idle for 
weeks, much to the injury of themselves and their families. It 
happened to be a season when business was not brisk, so that 
the manufacturers felt the better able to take a persistent stand 
against the demands of what they deemed an unjust and unrea- 
sonable organization. The Crispins, being generally dependent 
on their daily labor, and, with perhaps the exception of a few 



ANNALS OF LYNN I872. 53 

hot-heads, really considerate and fair-minded, began to see the 
greater evils that must follow, if things remained in that position, 
or if the business were driven out of the city. On the evening 
of August 2, the manufacturers held a meeting at which it was 
resolved " That it is for the best interests of the city of Lynn 
that every manufacturer manage his own business, irrespective 
of any organization." The following agreement was then drawn 
up, and received the signatures of some fifty of the principal 
individual manufacturers and firms : " We the undersigned, man- 
ufacturers of the city of Lynn, hereby agree that on and after 
Saturday, Aug. lo, we will employ no person subject to, or under 
the control of, any organization claiming the power to interfere 
with any contract between employer and employee." They 
claimed that they had a right to make their own bargains, and 
had decided to make them with such only as were free to bargain 
for themselves. The Crispins received notice of the determina- 
tion of the manufacturers, and though at first there seemed to 
some extent a disposition to refuse compliance, the organization 
in reality soon ceased to claim control over its members in the 
vexed matter of bargaining for wages. And then, when business 
revived, all hands went cheerfully to work. On the whole, per- 
haps, this movement was beneficial in its results, for it was taken 
notice of throughout the country, and elicited discussions touch- 
ing such organizations which were calculated to prove widely 
useful. And here, at home, the good and evil features of the 
local organization were canvassed in a manner that may have a 
permanent influence for good. There was an unusually small 
amount of personal acrimony exhibited during the proceedings, 
the troublesome questions being mostly met, by both sides, in a 
forbearing, manly way. Possibly the circumstance most to be 
lamented was that some of the enterprising manufacturers with- 
drew portions at least of their business from Lynn and established 
factories in other parts of the State, in Maine and New Hamp- 
shire. Some distant towns, availing themselves of the posture 
of affairs here, offered large inducements in the way of remission 
of taxes and assistance in various forms to such as would com- 
mence establishments within their borders. 

Early in the evening of Aug. 13, the large box factory building 
of S. O. Breed, near the southerly end of Commercial street, was 
struck by lightning and set on fire. It was totally destroyed, 
together with a small building in the rear. The bolt was seen 
by several persons when it struck. 

The summer of this year was remarkable for its excessive heat 
and the frequency and severity of its thunder showers. It was 
also remarkable for the abundance of winged insects, particularly 
mosquitos and house flies. From April to Nov. much rain fell. 



54 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 872. 

The brick house of worship of the First Congregational So- 
ciety, on South Common street, corner of Vine, was dedicated 
on Thursday evening, Aug. 29 ; sermon by Rev. Mr. Dennin. 
An auction sale of pews was held on the evening of Sept. 18, and 
1^3.000 raised. The highest bid for choice was $250. The corner 
stone was laid on the afternoon of July 10, 1871. 

The capacious and elegant Ingalls school house, on Essex 
street, was dedicated Aug. 31. Ingalls school was so named 
from Edmund and Francis Ingalls, the first settlers. 

Died, in Swampscott, Sept. 25, Joseph Harding, aged 97. He 
was supposed to be the oldest free-mason in the State, having 
joined the Adams lodge, in Wellfleet, in 1800. 

William F. Mitchell, having been chosen City Missionary by 
representatives of the different religious organizations, entered 
upon the duties of the ofBce in September. He served faithfully 
for five or six years, and then the distinctive office was discon- 
tinued. 

From May 19 to Oct. 6, inclusive, on all the Sundays, twenty- 
one in number, the weather was pleasant. 

So famed had Swampscott become as a watering place that 
during this year it was estimated that there were between 10.000 
and 1 1. 000 visitors. The fashionable time for driving was from 
four in the afternoon, till dark ; and at that time the fine drives in 
the vicinity afforded as much elegance and as great diversity in 
turn-outs as could be seen any where. The gay nag pranced 
with the lordly equipage, and the raw-boned roadster with his 
rattling gig. There is probably no place on the New England 
coast with a more salubrious climate, or affording better facilities 
for the comforts and enjoyments of a temporary summer resi- 
dence. Yachting, rowing, fishing, bathing, and in short all kinds 
of marine exercise or sport, can here be indulged in to the heart's 
content. Here, too, all the fashionable in-door recreations and 
diversions — games, music, dancing, social converse — may be 
pursued in the most genial company. And then the magnificent 
and ever changing ocean views, by sunlight and moonlight, and 
the charming landscape scenes are never wearying to the culti- 
vated eye. 

During the warm months of this year and the three preceding 
years there was great activity in real estate transactions, and 
prices advanced wonderfully, not only in the central sections but 
in the remote outskirts and rough highlands. Indeed they were 
rank speculative times. Many who owned small estates near 
business centres found themselves suddenly rich — and it should 
be added that if they invested their sudden gains in other real 
estate, and continued to hold it a couple of years, they probably 
grew just as suddenly poor again, for an equalizing depression 
followed the inflation. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 



1872. 



55 



Odd Fellows' Hall, on Market street, corner of Summer, was 
dedicated on Monday, Oct. 7. During the afternoon there was 
a parade, in regalia, which attracted much attention, and a dinner 
was partaken of at the Kertland House. The dedicatory services, 
held in the evening, were of a highly interesting character, and 
at the close the officers partook of a supper at the above-named 
house. Soon after the dedication a great Fair for the benefit 
of the lodge was held in the new building, and the sum real- 
ized was a little over ;^5.ooo. The Bay State Lodge of Odd 
Fellows, in Lynn, was instituted in 1844, and at the time of the 
dedication numbered a membership of 680. 




Odd Fellows' Hall, Lynn : Erected in 1872. 

Cheap rail-road trains, intended particularly for the benefit 
of working men, commenced running on the Eastern Rail-road, 
between Lynn and Boston, in November. Twenty tickets were 
sold for a dollar, which made the fare about half a cent per mile. 
A train left Lynn at half past five in the morning and Boston at 
half past six in the evening. 

The great fire in Boston commenced on the evenins: of Satur- 



56 ANNALS OF LYNN I 8/2. 

day, Nov. 9, and continued to rage sixteen hours, destroying 
property to the value of ^70.000.000. During the night, from the 
hights about Lynn the flames presented a grand and startling 
spectacle, and the light was seen by passengers on board the 
steamers as far off as Long Island Sound. Detachments of the 
Lynn firemen hastened to the assistance of their unfortunate 
neighbors, taking with them a couple of our steam fire engines, 
and were afterwards by the Boston officials publicly thanked for 
their efficient services. A number of the business men of Lynn 
were large sufferers by the calamity. Between fifty-nine and 
sixty acres of the heavy business portion of the city were burned 
over. 

During the latter part of the autumn of this year a singular 
disease prevailed among the horses here and all over this region 
of country. It seemed to be a sort of catarrhal fever. Epizootic 
was the name usually applied. Scarcely a horse in all Lynn 
escaped, though it proved fatal in but few cases. It was, however, 
disabling, and evidently painful. So extensively did the disease 
prevail that for some days the accustomed noise of wheel car- 
riages almost entirely ceased to be heard in our streets. Hand- 
carts and wheel-barrows were put in requisition, and oxen, cows, 
goats and dogs were put to new duties. Odd and comical turn- 
outs were every where seen. In some instances teams of from 
three to six men were seen hauling along loads. The trips 
of the horse cars to Boston were suspended, and only occasionally 
was one made through Lynn, Public request was made by the 
authorities for the citizens to hasten, in case of an alarm of fire, 
and assist in dragging the steam fire-engines. In Boston, the 
United States mails were carried to and from the post-ofifice in ox 
teams. The ministers in many instances took up the matter as 
the theme of their Sunday discourses ; and the whole community 
began to realize our dependence on the equine race. In many 
cases the recovery was slow, and the exhausting effects were felt 
for months. 

The brick and iron station of the Eastern Rail-road, on Central 
square, was built this year ; also the brick and iron station on 
State street ; which latter was soon taken down. On pages 40, 
41, and 42, may be found a brief account of the " rail-road war," 
so called, which took place about this time. The number of daily 
passenger trains running from Lynn to Boston was forty ; and 
the number from Boston to Lynn was the same, including five 
from East Boston. Ten years before but twelve ran each way. 

The Reservoir, on the northerly slope of Second Pine Hill was 
built this year. 

The whole number of streets in Lynn, this year, was 236 ; and 
the number of courts and alleys 75 ; together making about 
ninety miles in length. 



ANNALS OF LYNN • 



1873- 



57 



18 7 3. 
The pumping engine at the public water works, on Walnut 
street, was first put in operation on the afternoon of January 14, 
sending up the water from Breed's pond into the Pine Hill Res- 
ervoir. And on the 27th of February the water was let into the 
distributing pipes. It was, however, soon discovered that serious 
leaks existed in the reservoir, and it became necessary during 
the ensuing summer to puddle the entire bottom. Measuring 
on a depth of fifteen feet the reservoir has a capacity of 2.000.000 
gallons, and is 177 feet above the sea level. The depth is 18 feet, 
and the water surface about five acres. 




Pumping Engine House, 
Walnut Street, Lynn. (Rear View.) 

On the night of March 7, a fire commenced in the hardware 
store on the corner of Washington and Munroe streets, by which 
property to the amount of $3,600 was destroyed. 

This year Lynn had five organized bands of music, and few 
public parades of any note took place without the services of one 
at least. 

On the morning of April 9, the keeper of Egg Rock light 
shot two wild geese which had alighted on the rock for rest on 
their migratory journey northward. 

Several of our enterprising Lynn residents sent specimens 
of their manufactures to the "World's Exposition" which was 



58 ANNALS OF LYNN iS/J. 

this year in successful operation at Vienna, in Austria. Speci- 
mens of boots and shoes, of elastic car wheels, and steam gauges 
were forwarded, and elicited favorable notice. 

On Soldiers' Memorial Day, May 30, Col. C. B. Fox delivered 
the address. 

English sparrows made their appearance in Lynn, this year — 
probably the progeny of those imported into Boston a few years 
before in the hope that they would, in a measure at least, pre- 
serve the trees from the ravages of canker worms and other 
destructive insects. Bird houses were placed in the trees on 
and about the Common and on many private grounds for their 
accommodation. 

A singular and almost amusing instance of forgetfulness hap- 
pened to one of our Lynn ladies this year. When about going 
away on a visit, she concealed, in a rag-bag, divers valuables in 
the shape of notes and bank books, representing some four thou- 
sand dollars. Some time after her return she sold to a travelling 
rag gatherer the contents of her bag, entirely forgetting the con- 
cealed treasure. But the alarming fact soon after occurred to 
her, and she hastened to attempt the recovery of her treasure. 
She traced the rag gatherer to Salem, found the place in which 
he deposited his musty chattels, and there regained her valuables. 

On the morning of Aug. 16, John Cuzner, aged 34, while at 
work, with two others, on the northerly side of the tower of the 
Washington street Baptist church, then in course of erection, 
was precipitated to the ground from a height of seventy-eight 
feet, by the fall of the staging, and so injured that he died in an 
hour. The two others were seriously injured. Charles L. Sav- 
age, a mason, who worked on the same building, lost his life on 
the morning of July i, also by defective staging. 

A serious fire occurred in Union street, on the morning of 
Aug. 25, commencing in French's furniture store, near the Saga- 
more hotel, the latter barely escaping. Four hundred thousand 
gallons of water were used in extinguishing the flames, and the 
water in the new reservoir was lowered four inches. 

Died, Aug. 27, William S. Boyce, aged 63. He was greatly 
respected for his many excellent qualities. His native place was 
Portland, but he came to Lynn when about nine years of age, 
and by industry and diligence accumulated a respectable fortune. 
He was a member of the Society of Friends, upright in his 
dealings, intelligent and liberal ; was officially connected with 
several monetary institutions, and for the last seven years of his 
life was president of the First National Bank. His death was 
tragical. He called at the United States Hotel, in Boston, and 
retired to a bathing room. Remaining so long as to excite 
alarm, the door was forced open and his lifeless body found, in 
such a condition as to leave no doubt that his death was volun- 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/3. 



59 



tary. His garments were found disposed in neat order, and 
every thing indicated premeditation. No satisfactory reason 
could be given for the act, though he had somewhat failed in 
health and become depressed in spirits. On the day of his 
funeral respect was shown for his memory by the closing of a 
number of prominent business places, and the attendance of many 
friends. 

The Soldiers' Monument, in Park square, was dedicated on 
Wednesday, Sept. 1 7. The day was pleasant, and Lynn perhaps 
never before witnessed a grander demonstration. A long pro- 
cession, consisting of military organizations, associations of vari- 
ous kinds, and the fire department, marched through the principal 
streets, along which many buildings were beautifully decorated, 
the City Hall especially exhibiting a profuse array of flags and 
streamers, with various emblematic devices. The dedicatory 
exercises were held on a platform erected for the purpose, in 
front of the City Hall, and consisted of music by the military 
bands, singing by the Lynn Choral Union, prayer by the Rev. 
Mr. Biddle, an oration by Col. E. P. Nettleton, and a poem by 
Mr. E. P. Usher. The monument, allegorical and classic, was 
designed by John A. Jackson, a native of Maine, but resident 
of Florence, Italy. The casting was executed at Munich in 
Bavaria, and the whole cost was ^30.000. 




Soldiers' Monument, 
Park Square. Dedicated Sept. 17, 1873. 



60 ANNALS OF LYNN I 873. 

The new stone and brick house of worship of the First Uni- 
versaHst society, on Nahant street, was dedicated on the nth 
of September, "^the sermon being preached by Rev. Elbridge G. 
Brooks. The corner stone was laid May 27, 1872. 

Concrete crossings began to be laid in the streets this year. 

The branch of the Eastern Rail-road, from Swampscott to 
Marblehead, was opened for travel, Oct. 20, its length being four 
miles. 

There was a grand masonic parade in Lynn, Oct. 22, on the 
occasion of constituting the Olivet Commandery, installing the 
officers, and dedicating the hall. The day was fair, and the 
proceedings attracted much attention. 

October of this year was found to average the warmest in forty 
years ; but the next April averaged the coldest in fifty years, 
rain or snow falling on thirteen days, and there being but nine 
clear days. 

In the course of local discussions and disagreements as to the 
source from which the public supply of water should be drawn, 
a good deal of false alarm was created during the summer and 
fall. Some asserted that an extraordinary amount of sickness had 
prevailed in the previous year, and that it was in part at least 
attributable to the impurity of the water of Breed's pond, which 
at that time furnished the supply. This induced the Lynn Med- 
ical society to publish the result of their investigations, which 
they did in the following terms : " Whereas, it has been generally 
reported that the last year has been unusually sickly, and the use 
of the water lately introduced has been assigned as the cause, 
therefore. Resolved, That the past year has been unusually 
healthy, and probably the improved health of our city is in some 
measure to be attributed to the use of water more wholesome 
than that of wells, many of which are contaminated." 

The Friends' Biennial Conference was held in Lynn this year, 
commencing Nov. 19. A large number from all parts of the 
country were present, and the meeting-house, in Silsbee street, 
being inadequate for their accommodation, some of the meetings 
were held in the First Universalist church, on Nahant street, 
which was courteously tendered for their use, other houses 
of worship being also offered. Many leading members of the 
denomination, male and female, were present to give their testi- 
mony, to advise, and to discuss ; and it was considered a season 
of much spiritual profit as well as social enjoyment. The attend- 
ants from abroad were hospitably entertained by our people of all 
denominations, and on their departure expressed much satis- 
faction. 

The three masted schooner Robert Raikes, of Provincetown, 
from Digby, N. S., struck on the "outer ledge," Swampscott, 
near midnight, Nov. 17, during a severe storm, and was com- 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 874. 6l 

pletely wrecked. All on board perished. The fatal place was 
near where the Tedesco was wrecked, in 1857, and also the Fred 
Bliss, in 1870. There were five persons on board the Robert 
Raikes. The captain's name was John Ellis, and his brother 
William was also on board. And it was a rather remarkable 
coincidence that another brother, attached to another vessel, was 
lost during the same storm. Capt. Ellis's body was not recov- 
ered till Nov. 30. 

A prize fight was interrupted by the police at the Half-way 
House, on the Turnpike, on the morning of Dec. 31. The prin- 
cipals were from Providence, R. I., and Boston, and most of the 
company were from those places. The principals and several 
others were made prisoners. The fight was going on in an 
apartment of the house, and it was with great skill and caution 
that the officers eluded the sentinels and made the captures. 

Three masted coasting schooners, which for some years had 
occasionally appeared in our harbor, began now to be quite com- 
mon, that style of vessel proving to be much more readily and 
economically worked than the square rigged of equal tonnage. 

During the year, 515.952 mail letters and 39.162 drop letters 
were delivered in the city by post-office carriers. 

Birch Pond was formed this year, for the purpose of securing 
an additional supply of water, by building a dam across Birch 
Brook valley, on the east of Walnut street, near the Saugus line. 
The pond was made to cover about sixty-seven acres. 

18 74. 

On the morning of January 10 a fire commenced in the stable 
of the Glenmere line of stages, on Chatham street, and consumed 
the building, several tons of hay, and other property. The most 
serious matter, however, was the death of ten horses. The whole 
value of the property lost was $2,500. 

George W. Keene died suddenly in the St. Nicholas Hotel, 
New York, Jan 27, aged 58. He was a native of Leicester, in 
Worcester county, but from his early youth, with the exception 
of one or two brief intervals, was a resident of Lynn ; and his 
sudden death created more than ordinary sensation, for he was 
widely known as an active business man as well as for his genial 
manners and benevolent disposition. He belonged to a Quaker 
family, his mother being the accredited preacher spoken of under 
date 1867; but he early adopted the Unitarian faith and held 
fast to it to the end of his life. He was a member of the Masonic 
and Odd Fellow fraternities and attained to high ranks in the 
lodges ; had a cultivated mind and took considerable interest in 
literary and educational affairs ; was thoughtful, and in his med- 
itations and reasonings did not always pursue the beaten track. 



62 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 874. 

He became an adherent of the doctrines of the spiritualists, 
though perhaps in a modified form, and held a newspaper discus- 
sion on some points of their faith, with President Felton of 
Harvard college. For almost the whole of his business life he 
was engaged in the manufacture of shoes, the great staple 
production of Lynn, and by his enterprise in seeking out new 
inventions and introducing the most approved machinery did his 
full share in elevating the trade from the position of ill-requited 
toil to one of profit and commanding importance. The circum- 
stances of his death were peculiarly afflictive to his friends. He 
left home on Monday, accompanying a niece to New York, and 
on Tuesday evening, having taken lodgings at the St. Nicholas, 
as - he was passing through the entrance hall, fell, and in a few 
minutes expired. He was buried in Pine Grove Cemetery, in 
the original purchase, laying out, and dedication of which, he 
took a lively interest. The funeral services were held in the 
Unitarian church, on the corner of South Common and Church 
streets, on a day of intense cold and amid the buffetings of a 
raging snow storm. Mr. Keene married a daughter of Hon. 
Isaiah Breed, and by her had eight children, five of whom died 
in infancy. One daughter, Mary B., and two sons, William G. 
S. and Frank, survived him. 

The act incorporating the Lynn " Home for Aged Women," 
was passed Feb. 6, the institution being " for the purpose of pro- 
viding for the support of aged indigent females, not otherwise 
provided for." The institution was opened with a banquet and 
informal reception, on the evening of April 20, 1876, a large 
company assembling. 

The Irish organizations of Essex county joined in a grand 
celebration of St, Patrick's day, March 17, in Lynn. The pro- 
cession was long, and quite imposing — pronounced by some to 
be one of the three finest ever seen here, eight bands of music 
enlivening the long march, and the showy regalia and banners 
attracting much attention. A number of buildings were hand- 
somely decorated. The weather, however, was very unfavorable. 

A lady in Lynnfield gave birth to three children, at one time, 
in March, making up a family of four infants, under the age of 
thirteen months, and eight children, all under twelve years. The 
parents not being in very flourishing pecuniary circumstances, 
were deservedly the recipients of many useful gifts. 

Comrade George S. Merrill was the orator on the Soldiers* 
Memorial day. May 30. 

In the summer of this year, some workmen in digging a cellar 
on Pine street, in Swampscott, exhumed what were undoubtedly 
the remains of an Indian, probably of the ancient Naumkeag 
tribe. Their situation showed that the person was buried in a 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 874. 63 

sitting posture. Other remains, supposed to be Indian, were 
found a short time afterward in the same vicinity. Aboriginal 
remains, as they undoubtedly were, were also dug up in Lynn, 
near the corner of Ocean and King streets. 

The act incorporating the Flax Pond Water Company was 
passed June 2, being granted by the legislature for the purpose 
of supplying with pure water " the city of Lynn or any city or 
cities, town or towns." It enabled the corporators, their asso- 
ciates and successors, for the purpose named, to purchase and 
hold the waters of Flax, Sluice and Cedar ponds in Lynn, and 
Nell's pond, in Lynnfield, together with the tributary streams 
and a suitable width of land around to preserve the purity of the 
water, and such other lands as might be required for the neces- 
sary works. 

Died, in Peabody, June 6, Oliver B. Coolidge, aged 'j6. He 
was for many years a resident of Lynn and an acting justice 
of the peace, in which capacity his services were much sought 
for, as his judgment and discretion were greatly relied on. For 
several years he was ticket-master at the Central rail-road station, 
for which position his patience and urbanity well qualified him. 
He was a native of Woburn, and seven years town clerk there, 
likewise representing the town in the General Court. One of the 
most notable points in his life was his association with Mr. Good- 
year in his early attempts to vulcanize India rubber ; and it was 
interesting to hear his details about the experiments on an old 
cooking stove, amid poverty and every sort of annoyance and 
discouragement. 

The brick house of worship of the Washington Street Baptist 
Society, corner of Washington and Essex streets, was dedicated 
on Wednesday evening, June lo, the corner stone having been 
laid on the afternoon of Saturday, Oct. 5, 1872. 

A comet, with what is popularly called a feather tail, was visible 
this year, in the northwest, being brightest about the middle of 
July. 

Base-ball had, for the last few years become so popular a sport 
in different parts of the country as to be spoken of as the national 
game. Many of our active young men formed themselves into 
clubs and played match games with those from other places, some 
times from other states. Lynn Common was frequently the 
scene of these friendly contests, which called together crowds 
of spectators, before whom, in their often rather picturesque cos- 
tumes, and repeatedly in the fervid heat of summer, they exhibited 
their skill and prowess. But this year a convenient ground for 
the games was enclosed on the south side of the old Turnpike, a 
short distance east of Saugus river. 

Died, Sept. 2, John B. Wormstead, aged 85. He was a native 
of Marblehead, but long a resident of Lynn. In the war of 1 812 



64 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 874. 

he was a privateersman, and assisted in the capture of seven 
prizes. One of the vessels had a large amount of specie on board, 
designed for the payment of British troops, and while under 
convoy for an American port, Mr. Wormstead, being on guard 
over the prisoners, discovered a mutinous movement, just in time 
to prevent the disasters of a recapture. 

The crew of the fishing schooner Laughing Water, of Swamp- 
scott, on the nth of Sept. captured, off Boon island, a sword 
fish, weighing, when dressed, six hundred and ninety pounds. 

John H. Smith, aged 23, driver of Empire steam fire engine 
No, 5, was killed on the evening of Sept. 18, by being run over 
by a hose carriage when starting at an alarm of fire. His head 
was crushed by one of the wheels. He was buried from the 
Washington Street Baptist Church, on Sunday, the entire fire 
department attending, and also one or two societies of which 
he was a member. 

Wong Chin Foo, a native Chinese, lectured in Odd Fellows' 
Hall, on Sunday evening, Oct. 11, to a large audience. He 
appeared in native costume, and his subject was " Confusius, the 
Founder and Teacher of the Chinese Religion." He spoke good 
English, and his lecture, giving a very favorable account of his 
countrymen, was listened to with much interest. He considered 
the religion of Confusius more promotive of the good of the four 
hundred millions of people by whom it is embraced, than any 
other could be, if indeed it were not the best for the whole world. 
He endeavored to remove from the minds of his hearers the false 
belief that his was a nation wholly given to idolatry, and to 
impress upon them the fact that multitudes of profound scholars 
and philosophers were to be found there, that moral science was 
cultivated and virtuous living enforced. 

During the last week of October the tides ran lower, as was 
calculated, than at any time for forty years. The cause was, 
partially at least, without doubt, the long-continued mild weather 
and oft-shore winds. 

A fire commenced in the furniture establishment of G. B, 
French, in Union street, on the night of Nov 9, destroying large 
portions of several stocks of goods. The premises were the same 
on which a fire occurred Aug. 25, 1873. 

A mechanics' fair was opened in the building in Market street, 
adjoining Odd Fellows' Hall, and known as the Academy of Mu- 
sic, then just erected, Dec. 22. Many useful mechanical contri- 
vances and interesting mechanical productions were exhibited by 
Lynn artisans and tradesmen, and by others from abroad. One 
rather peculiar feature was the introduction of dramatic enter- 
tainments during the evenings. 

For two or three years, business affairs in Lynn were in a 
greatly depressed condition ; indeed the same was true of almost 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 874. 65 

every part of the country. There were quite a number of failures 
among the prominent shoe manufacturers, as well as among the 
smaller tradesmen and mechanics. Many operatives were out 
of employment for long intervals, and it was generally believed 
that some families of honest mechanics and laborers suffered, 
especially in winter, for what were commonly considered the 
necessaries of life. Real estate declined very much in value, 
rents fell, and many tenements were vacant. Yet the cost of 
most articles of family consumption remained high. The better 
kinds at least of bread stuffs and butcher's meat, sold at prices 
nearly as high as those of war time ; and the same may be said 
of articles of clothing. The whole history of the country shows 
that such seasons of depression follow seasons of great apparent 
thrift, or inflation, as perhaps they might in most instances be 
properly called, as surely as night follows day, mainly attributable, 
no doubt, to the extravagance induced by the prosperous interv'als. 
Extravagance in dress, among women, was a notable feature of 
the time, and many a conscientious though possibly timid young 
man doubtless avoided a matrimonial connection from sheer 
apprehension that he would be unable to supply the demands 
upon his purse. 

About this time there were a great many vagrant wayfarers, 
called Tramps, homeless wanderers, drifting from place to place, 
seeking food by day at the hand of charity, and at night lodging 
in police stations, poor-houses, or other similar retreats. During 
the winter of this year an average of something rising four hun- 
dred a month were thus entertained in the basement of the City 
Hall — provided with a supper and lodging, and a frugal break- 
fast to start on in the morning. Lynn enjoyed a good reputation 
among the fraternity, as appeared by a memorandum found on 
one of them, detailing his experience of the hospitalities of differ- 
ent places, and giving a sort of bill of fare by which they were 
entertained. The lodgings here were described in the memoran- 
dum as being warm, and the food better than in most cities ; 
facts which in a measure, no doubt, accounted for the favor of 
repeated visits from some of them. Occasionally rare characters 
appeared among the motley crews. One evening a hatless orator 
rose up and entertained the crowd of " brother tramps," as he 
called them, with an address containing many sensible as well as 
humorous points, and delivered in a style that showed he had 
been trained to a different course of life. An artist of more than 
common skill and taste also appeared one stormy night. Several 
off-hand sketches that he made were very spirited and attracted 
much attention. But the entertainment of the increasing num- 
bers of this questionable class began to be intolerably burdensome 
in many places, and early in 1875 the legislature interposed to 
abate the nuisance, passing a law enabling cities and towns to 

5 



66 ANNALS OF LYNN I 8/4. 

require all tramps to perform a reasonable amount of labor in 
return for food and lodging. This, together with the fact that 
our city authorities somewhat reduced their rations and assigned 
them less enjoyable lodging quarters had a tendency gradually 
to reduce the number who sought relief here, though it was 
some years before there was any really great decrease, as appears 
by the following showing for eight years : Number of tramps 
lodged in Lynn in 1871, 1.392. In 1872, 1.017. In 1873, 2.132. 
In 1874, 3.294. In 1875, 2.958. In 1876, 2.825. In 1877, 
2.901. In 1878, 2.500. 

Christmas was very generally observed this year ; indeed for 
manyyears the observance of the day has been gaining in popular 
favor, over the strange old puritanical prejudices. In 1856 it 
was made a legal holiday by legislative enactment. The festival 
of Easter, too, has come to be celebrated by most of our religious 
societies in a manner calculated to rejoice the hearts of all good 
churchmen, the floral decorations of the churches in some in- 
stances being superb. 

A rather novel kind of recreative exercise was inaugurated 
during the winter of this year, in the form of spelling matches. 
Large classes of old and young, male and female, would meet in 
churches or other convenient places, with spelling masters and 
umpires and engage in orderly contests, each member, on missing 
a word ignominiously retiring, and those successfully passing the 
orthographic ordeal receiving prizes. These healthful memoriter 
exercises afforded much amusement, and were sometimes quite 
productive in a pecuniary way, an admission fee being usually 
required of spectators. 

For many years. Fairs, as they were called, had been frequently 
held in public halls, church vestry rooms, and other convenient 
places, at which a great variety of the lighter articles of clothing, 
musical instruments, and all kinds of fancy articles, together with 
flowers and refreshments were disposed of for the benefit of some 
benevolent enterprise, in aid of church funds, or other worthy 
object. All the ordinary enticements of young lady solicitors, 
music, and occasionally a merry dance were resorted to. But 
seriously objectionable features by degrees crept in, till games 
of chance and lotteries so extensively prevailed that it became 
necessary to do something to prevent the many serious breaches 
of the law, and of fair and honest traffic. Most of the principal 
clergymen of the city during the winter of this year signed an 
earnest protest which was published in the newspapers, and for 
a time the more objectionable doings were discontinued ; but by 
degrees, as generally happens in such cases, similar evils, under 
other names, began to appear. 

One thousand and thirty-eight dogs were licensed in Lynn 
this year. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/5. ^'J 

1875 . 

Dedicatory exercises were held in Trinity (Methodist) Church, 
Tower Hill, Jan. 13, though the main body of the house remained 
uncompleted. 

During the latter part of January, Eliza Ann, the nineteenth 
wife of the Mormon seer, Brigham Young lectured in Lynn on 
her " Life in Bondage." The peculiarities of the Mormon reli- 
gion and the practice of polygamy as it existed in the Salt Lake 
Canaan were dwelt upon. The picture she drew was a sad one, 
both in its moral and social aspect. But why she should have 
accepted the nineteenth marital position and then claimed that 
all the wrong was on the other side did not seem to be satisfacto- 
rily explained. 

On Sunday, Feb. 21, the eighty-fourth anniversary of the for- 
mation of the First Methodist Society of Lynn was observed. 
Appropriate services were held in the old Common street meet- 
ing-house, that being the first Methodist house of worship in 
New England. 

A codfish of the extraordinary weight of ninety-six pounds 
was caught in the offing, March 30. 

The Lynn Hospital was formally opened, March 31. The old 
Phillips mansion, on Waterhill street, the salubrious situation 
of which strongly recommended it, had been procured and fitted 
up in such a manner as to make it convenient for the purpose. 
A number of prominent citizens attended the opening and some 
made appropriate remarks. 

The centennial celebration of the battle of Lexington took 
place on Monday, April 19, on the territory where the battle 
occurred. Mayor Lewis and several members of the city govern- 
ment attended, all, however, bearing their own expenses, the city 
council having refused to make any appropriation. The Lynn 
Light Infantry, accompanied by a full band, also attended, as well 
as a multitude of private citizens. President Grant and some 
other prominent officials from Washington were present. The 
day was pleasant, excepting the prevalence of a high, chilling 
wind. Such an immense concourse assembled that all the public 
conveyances were excessively crowded, and a great many were 
compelled to go hungry as the supply of provisions was altogether 
inadequate. 

A demonstration was made in Lynn, May 22, in favor of the 
Boston Revere Beach and Lynn Rail-road, the first narrow-gauge 
line in this vicinity, which was then in process of construction. 
A considerable number of men, young and old, volunteered the 
work of half a day with shovels and picks. A procession was 
formed under the leadership of Col. John Nichols, one of the 
oldest men in town, and accompanied by a platoon of police 



68 ANNALS OF LYNN I 875. 

officers and a couple of bands of music, moved through several 
streets, reaching the scene of their labor about the middle of the 
afternoon. After performing a small amount of work — the main 
purpose, no doubt, being rather to show good-will towards the 
enterprise, than to help much otherwise — they gathered, in 
number about a hundred and fifty, in a hall in Munroe street, 
and there partook of an entertainment, after which speeches 
were made and many good wishes towards the road and congrat- 
ulations on its fair prospects were expressed. 

The great travelling show, known as the hippodrome of P. T. 
Barnum, the most noted showman of the age, visited Lynn on 
Saturday, May 29. It is not probable that any exhibition of the 
kind ever exceeded this in attractiveness. The multitude of 
male and female performers and attendants, decked in unique 
and showy costumes, the numerous trained and wild animals, 
the historic and classic equipages and appendages, which appeared 
in the long procession that traversed the principal streets on the 
pleasant morning of their entrance, called forth throngs of specta- 
tors, old and young. The magnitude of this aggregation of circus, 
menagerie, and spectacle could warrant exhibition only in the 
cities and larger towns. The tents were pitched in the Fairchild 
field, so called, on Boston street, extending back to the vicinity 
of Lover's Leap, and the principal one was said to be sufficient 
to accommodate 12.000 persons. Great numbers attended, not 
only of our own people, but from other places. A special rail- 
road train was run from Salem and Marblehead. During the 
afternoon a balloon was sent up, and after a short, successful 
trip, came down in Lynnfield, 

Decoration day. May 30, was duly observed. Gen. A. F. Ste- 
vens, of Nashua, N. H., was the orator. 

On the 17th of June, the great centennial celebration of the 
battle of Bunker Hill, took place in Boston. The Legislature 
had made it a legal holiday, the weather proved remarkably 
favorable, and there was an almost entire suspension of business 
in Lynn. Extra rail-road trains ran and multitudes visited the 
city to see the grand military and civic processional display. On 
the preceding night some famous bonfires were lighted here, the 
most conspicuous ones on High Rock and Reservoir Hill. The 
light of the illumination in Boston was distinctly seen in Lynn. 
This celebration, by the popular voice, both north and south, was 
pronounced to be more effectual than any other occurrence since 
the civil war, in reestablishing the old brotherly feeling between 
the different sections of the Union. 

The corner stone of St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) church, in 
Union street, was laid on Sunday, July 4. 

The Boston Revere Beach and Lynn Rail-road was formally 
opened for travel on Thursday, July 22. After the directors and 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 8/6. 69 

invited company had passed over the road, a collation was had 
at Odd Fellows' Hall, at the close of which speeches were made 
and congratulations interchanged. The regular hourly passenger 
trains commenced running July 29, on which day 1.075 passen- 
gers were conveyed. A few interesting Indian relics were found 
during the excavations. 

The famous sea-serpent was alleged by several credible persons 
to have been seen by them, during August, not far from Egg 
Rock. He was described, so far as his form could be discerned, 
to be of glossy black, with some white on the under parts ; the 
head resembling that of a lizard, long, flat, and from twenty-four 
to thirty inches across ; the mouth large and occasionally widely 
opened ; the eyes large and staring. He sometimes raised up 
his head six or eight feet and then suddenly submerged it. Some 
accounts gave the appearance of a flipper or sort of foot, which 
strongly indicated some such animal as the supposed extinct 
ichthyosaurus or plesiosaurus. He was also alleged to have been 
seen again in the waters of Lynn and Swampscott in November. 
An account likewise appeared in the newspapers of a furious 
combat between a serpentine monster and a whale, as witnessed 
by the officers and crew of a vessel on the southern coast. 

A General Convention of Universalists of the United States 
commenced a session in Lynn, on Wednesday, Oct. 20, and 
continued three days. The weather was favorable and the at- 
tendance large. Delegates were present from all parts of the 
country, one hundred and fort}^ ministers constituting the clerical 
representation. Much christian courtesy was extended by people 
of all denominations. Among the speakers on the closing day 
of the session was a full-blooded Delaware Indian, an accredited 
missionary residing in Canada, with settlers of his tribe. 

A blackfish, ten feet in length, and weighing three hundred 
and fifty pounds was found stranded on Long Beach, Nov. 2, 
having probably ventured too far towards the shore during the 
night. 

1876. 

This, the Centennial Year of the Republic, will be remembered 
for the fervor with which it was observed by all classes, and the 
magnificence of the displays, military, industrial, and indeed of 
every kind that enlivened patriotism could devise. Yet it was a 
year during which there was great business depression through- 
out the country. Had times been prosperous and means abun- 
dant it is quite possible Young America would have overleaped 
his proprieties. The most important enterprise, perhaps, that 
marked the year, was the World's Exposition, at Philadelphia, 
which continued open six months — from May 10 to November 
10. Great crowds attended. " Excursion parties " were formed 



JO ANNALS OF LYNN I 876. 

in all parts of the country, and hastened on to Philadelphia in a 
pleasant and economical way. The whole great undertaking 
was eminently successful, all the principal foreign countries 
heartily joining with splendid contributions. The Lynn exhibit, 
though not very large, was varied and satisfactory, pertaining 
almost exclusively to the shoe and leather interest. The speci- 
mens were much admired by visitors from all parts of the country 
and from abroad. Some twenty-five manufacturers had their 
goods displayed in an elegant case, over which was this announce- 
ment : " Lynn, Mass., greeting : The Shoemanufacturers of Lynn 
desire to open trade with foreign countries, and are ready at any 
time to receive orders from Cuba, South America, Mexico, West 
Indies, or any other market. We make the very finest and the 
cheapest shoes made in this country. We claim that our facili- 
ties, wkh our methods, organization and machinery, are not 
excelled for producing all grades of sewed shoes at the smallest 
possible cost. We make what is called for." Awards were 
made by the Exposition judges to several Lynn manufacturers. 

The City Item, a weekly newspaper, was commenced on Sat- 
urday, January 8, by Horace N. Hastings. 

A cat show, said to have been the first in the country, though 
not uncommon in Europe, was opened in Exchange Hall, Market 
street, Feb. 29, and proved to be quite interesting. A number 
of the feline specimens were really beautiful, some showed re- 
markable traits of sagacity and cunning, and others wonderful 
progress in training. The weight of the heaviest was fifteen 
and a half pounds. Prizes were awarded. 

A grand exhibition of babies took place in Music Hall, Central 
avenue, March 4, including only those of three years old and 
under. Much interest was excited, and though arrangements 
were made for only fifty, the applications were more than a hun- 
dred. There was a great crowd of spectators, and prizes were 
awarded for the youngest, the fattest, and the handsomest babies. 
Among the latter was a sprightly little mulatto. On the 27th 
of the same month another similar exhibition took place in Odd 
Fellows' Hall, on Market street, at which seventy-two entries 
were made. 

A violent storm — the " equinoctial " — which suddenly set in 
on the evening of March 20, did much damage. Three or four 
of the fishing jiggers were wrenched from their moorings and 
driven upon the shore or wrecked upon the rocks, at Swamps- 
cott. It was called as violent a storm as any within twenty years. 

The beautiful summer residence of Charles W. Galloupe, at 
Swampscott, called Bay View Cottage, was totally destroyed by 
fire, April 2. Loss, between ^50.000 and $60,000. 

A hair seal, weighing ninety-five pounds, was taken off" Swamps- 
cott, in April. 



ANNALS OF LYNxM 1876. 7I 

" Let US plant a Centennial Tree," was a greeting that this 
year was heard in all quarters, and heeded by many. On the 
afternoon of Saturday, May 13, a party assembled in the little 
square at the junction of Ash and South streets, for an object 
so indicated. They procured an elm, some thirty feet in height, 
and put it in position as the stirring tune of Yankee Doodle was 
being played. A large number were present, patriotic remarks 
made and songs sung. Several enthusiastic ladies assisted in 
shovelling in the earth. It became necessary, however, soon to 
substitute another, as the original tree began to wither. 

May 30, Decoration Day, was duly observed. Gen. W. W. 
Blackmar, of Boston delivered the oration. 

From the commencement of the shoe trade in Lynn, a good 
deal of the manufacturing was done at establishments on either 
side of the Common, but in June of this year the only remaining 
factory was removed, the tendency having been, ever since the 
building of the rail-roads, to concentrate in other quarters. The 
manufactory of James Purinton and Son, which stood on or very 
near the site of the old Academy, was the last to leave, being 
removed this year. 

Dom Pedro, Emperor of Brazil, passed through Lynn, by the 
Eastern rail-road, on the evening of June 9. He did not leave 
the car, and but few had a glimpse of the royal party, during their 
short pause at the Central station. 

That much-dreaded insect known as the Colorado beetle, 
or potato bug, first made its appearance here in the summer. 
It soon came to be a most destructive pest, descending or ascend- 
ing in countless numbers and in a few hours making such havoc 
with whole potato fields, as to render it necessary to replant. 

Probably not since the adoption of the constitution was the 
anniversary of the Declaration of Independence so generally 
celebrated throughout the country, as on this, the centennial 
year. In Lynn, however, there was no celebration under the 
auspices of the municipal authorities. Discordant views among 
the members of the council, and disagreements as to the suitable 
sum to be appropriated to meet the expenses, were the direct 
cause of-the failure. But the patriotism of the people could not 
be suppressed, and the day was observed in various becoming 
ways. Before the morning dawn, bonfires blazed on several 
of the most commanding heights. There was a grand one on 
High Rock ; but the most noticeable was on Reservoir Hill. 
The old two-story wooden house, on Boston street, at the south- 
west corner of North Federal, known as the Hart house, a part 
of which constituted the dwelling of Richard Haven, one of the 
very early settlers, and head of the great Haven family now 
spread all over the country, was, by the willing hands of Young 
America, and consent of the owner, torn down, a day or two 



72 ANNALS OF LYNN — 1 876. 

before, and the combustible part of the material transported to 
the hill just named, and there reared in a pyramid some forty 
feet in height. As soon as the midnight hour bad struck, the 
pile was lighted, and amid the shouts and cheers and songs of 
the sleepless young spirits who kept vigil around the centennial 
sacrifice, it disappeared in a glorious blaze. Morning dawned ; 
and soon after daylight, there was a parade of the Antiques and 
Horribles, as such have come to be called ; in other words, a 
caricature display. The procession marched through the princi- 
pal streets and afforded much amusement to the early risers by 
the grotesque decorations and costumes, sarcastic hits, and ludi- 
crous turn-outs ; some members of the city government who 
were not in favor of an appropriation for celebrating the day, 
being remembered in a manner that created considerable mirth. 
A successful semi-religious celebration was held in the First 
Methodist meeting-house, in the forenoon, under the general 
direction of Rev. Charles D. Hills, minister of the society wor- 
shiping there. The principal feature of the exercises consisted 
of brief addresses on the following topics and by the following 
named persons : The Day We Celebrate, by ex-Mayor Thomas 
P. Richardson ; The United States of America, by John B. 
Alley, ex-member of Congress ; Christianity and Our Country, 
by Rev. Daniel Steele ; The American Public Schools, by Na- 
thaniel Hills, Principal of the High School ; The American Ju- 
diciary, by Thomas B. Newhall, ex-Judge of the Police Court ; 
Massachusetts, by George H. Chase, ex-Postmaster ; The Cen- 
tennial History of Lynn, by James R. Newhall, Judge of the 
Police Court ; Our Army and Navy, by Capt. George T. Newhall. 
And Mrs. Abbie L. Harris was appointed to read the Declaration 
of Independence. At evening, there were many fine displays of 
fireworks, at private residences. The " Centennial Memorial," 
published soon after, by order of the City Council, contained an 
Historical Sketch, by James R. Newhall, and brief Biographical 
Notices of all the Mayors, with Portraits and other Illustrations. 
It formed a volume of 204 octavo pages, and was issued in a 
style perhaps as creditable to our printers and binders as any 
book from the Lynn press up to that time. The volume was 
prepared in compliance with a recommendation of Congress. 

A serious fire occurred on the southwest side of Market street, 
July 26. The principal losses were — by R. A. Spalding & Co., 
dealers in dry goods, some $5 000 ; Mrs. Lancey, millinery and 
fancy goods, ^2.000 ; W. T Bowers, photographer, ^2.000, 

July and August of this year were uncommonly hot. Visitors 
at the World's Exposition, in Philadelphia, suffered much ; espe- 
cially those from northern countries. 

Died, December 17, at his residence in Park street, Jacob 
Batchelder, for many years a well-known and much-respected 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 877. 73 

resident. He was born in Topsfield, July lo, 1806, graduated at 
Dartmouth college in 1830, and came to Lynn in 1835, com- 
mencing his labors here as principal of the Academy. In that 
position he continued till the establishment of the High School, 
in 1849, of which he became the first principal, and remained 
till 1856, in which year he went to Salem to take charge of the 
High School of that city. In 1861 he returned to Lynn, and 
took his former position in our High School, remaining, how- 
ever, but about a year, and then closed his labors as a teacher, 
after pursuing the vocation for a little over a quarter of a century. 
In 1862 he was appointed librarian of the Lynn Free Public 
Library, and that office he continued acceptably to fill till the 
time of his death. He was Town Clerk in 1847, and collector 
of internal revenue several years. His remains were buried from 
the Unitarian church, on South Common street, where he had 
worshipped many years, and the funeral service was attended by 
a large number of the most venerable citizens. The lives of his 
two sons, Charles J. and George W., were lost in the war of the 
Rebellion, as noted under date 1862. Mr. Batchelder was a man 
of clear understanding, genial manners, and great industry, and 
should be long remembered as one who really did much for the 
advancement of the community in which he dwelt. 

A splendid meteor passed over the city about six o'clock on 
the evening of December 20. 

The fine brick fire engine house, in Federal street, was built 
this year. 

1877. 

The Lynn Home for Aged Women was dedicated February 15. 
It was the eligible building on North Common street, erected in 
1832 for Nahant Bank, and had been fitted in a very comfortable 
manner for the reception of those who were to make it the home 
of their declining years. 

The new and picturesque Town House in Saugus, centre 
village, was dedicated March i. Wendell Phillips was chief 
orator, and all the exercises were appropriate and interesting. 
The corner stone was laid Oct. 17, 1874, ex-Governor Banks 
delivering an address on the occasion. 

Died, March 13, at his residence on Western avenue, Charles 
Merritt, aged 72 years. He was born in Bowdoinham, Me., and 
was a son of Rev. Timothy Merritt, one of the early ministers 
of the Methodist itineracy. Almost the whole of his long life 
was spent in Lynn. He was a Deputy SheriftTor the county, about 
forty years, and performed the perplexing and often disagreeable 
duties of his office in a highly satisfactory manner. Before the 
adoption of the city form of government he held several of the 
most important municipal offices, including that of chairman 



74 ANNALS OF LYNN iS//. 

of the Selectmen ; and after Lynn became a city, was called to 
continue in the public service — was an Alderman in the second 
year's board, and City Clerk five years. He was also a Repre- 
sentative in the General Court, and United States Revenue As- 
sessor. For many years he was an honored member of the 
South street Methodist church, and always maintained an un- 
blemished character. His wife was a daughter of William Breed, 
a father in the Quaker faith, and they reared a respectable family, 
eight sons and three daughters having been born to them. Few 
men, after so long and active a life go to their final rest more 
worthy of grateful remembrance. 

The velocity of the wind in and about Lynn, during a storm, 
March g, was seventy-two miles an hour. 

The annual session of the New England Conference of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, commenced in Lynn, in the old 
historic Common street Methodist meeting-house, April 4, and 
continued one week, Bishop Foster presiding. The first session 
of the Conference here was held in 1795, in an unfinished chapel 
which occupied the same site. 

Sweetser's brick block, a substantial four-story building, at the 
junction of Central avenue and Oxford street, was burned on 
the morning of April 7. It was well fitted with machinery and 
other appliances for the prosecution of the shoe business, on a 
large scale, and there was considerable stock in the different 
lofts. The loss, including that of an adjacent three-story wooden 
building", amounted to some $115,000. 

The last building on Market street occupied exclusivel}'- as a 
dwelling was removed in the spring of this year. It stood on 
the southwest side, between Tremont and Summer streets, and 
was first owned and occupied by Dr. Coffin. 

Some excitement prevailed in the spring of this year regarding 
mad dogs, and continued many months. Two or three fatal 
cases of hydrophobia occurred. The city authorities ordered 
that no dogs should be permitted to go at large unmuzzled, and 
many canine lives were sacrificed. Samuel A. Parker, of Saugus, 
a worthy man, of middle age, died of hydrophobia, April 17, 
having been bitten by a rabid dog, January 15. 

A marked religious revival took place in the various evangelical 
societies of Lynn, in the spring of this year, and many were 
added to the churches. At St. Joseph's (R. C.) meetings in 
charge of four Jesuit fathers, from Chicago, were held, com- 
mencing May 20, which excited much attention and were at- 
tended by crowds. 

Captain Johnson, the intrepid fisherman who did his part in 
celebrating the centennial year by crossing the Atlantic in his 
little fishing dory " Centennial," exhibited his memorable craft 
in Munroe street, in April. He is said to have declared that a 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 877. 75 

million of dollars would not tempt him to again undertake such, a 
fool-hardy feat. 

Died, in Oakland, Cal., May 2, John B. Felton, a native of Sau- 
gus, aged 48. While a young man he was a tutor in Harvard 
college, but settled in California and became a conspicuous lawyer. 
He was twice a Republican Presidential Elector, was Mayor of 
Oakland and a prominent candidate for the office of U. S. 
senator. 

On the evening of May 28 there was an unusually brilliant 
display of aurora borealis. Many honest and observing persons 
declared that they could distinctly hear a rustling of the corusca- 
tions. Imagination, however, probably had something to do with 
the auricular demonstration. " It has often been asserted," says 
Mr. Payer, the late Austrian arctic explorer, " that sound accom- 
panying the aurora has been heard in the Shetland Isles and in 
Siberia ; but all scientific travellers protest against this." 

Memorial Day, May 30, was pleasant, and the usual services 
took place. Rev. Mr. Biddle, of the First Universalist society, 
was the orator. 

An unsuccessful attempt was made in the Legislature of this 
year, by some of the business men of the east village of Saugus, 
to have their portion of the town united to Lynn. 

During this year, the old belief that light, passing through 
blue glass, has wonderful power in developing life, both animal 
and vegetable, and in curing diseases of almost every kind, was 
revived, and extensively prevailed. Many dwellings had a few 
blue panes set in the windows, and greenhouses were liberally 
supplied with the supposed life-giving appliances. The idea was 
started, at this time, by General Pleasanton, of Philadelphia, and 
seems to have been, that the electro-magnetism produced by the 
sun's rays passing through that medium, receives some mysterious 
and extraordinary power. While the excitement continued, the 
glaziers in Lynn, as elsewhere, had an abundance of orders. 
Ladies wore blue veils, and cerulean tints were decidedly in the 
ascendant. 

On the evening of July i, a severe thunder storm passed over 
the city. Between nine and ten o'clock a terrific peal startled 
the dwellers in the western section and a bolt struck the dwelling 
of J. M. Tarbox, at the junction of Myrtle and Walnut streets. 
Its instantaneous work was strange and destructive, the inte- 
rior walls being torn and pierced, and the furniture broken and 
thrown about in the most extraordinary manner. No person, 
however, was injured further than suffering a temporary shock, 
all the inmates being in bed. And herein appears additional evi- 
dence that the recumbent position, especially if a little elevated, 
is the safest, on such occasions. From the peculiar appearance 
of what looked like real " witch-work " about the house, it seemed 



'J^ ANNALS OF LYNN I 878. 

not unreasonable to conclude that the bolt had an upward course. 
The house of Mr. Tarbox is within a stone's throw of the rock 
which was struck in 1807, a portion weighing some twelve tons 
being thrown two hundred feet. 

The first boy church choir in Lynn, was organized this year, 
in St. Stephen's, and commenced taking their part in the public 
services, in the summer. Boy choirs, though comparatively new 
in this country, are an ancient church institution. In the history 
of St. Margaret's of King's Lynn, England, mention is made 
of the choirboys as early as 1478, a bequest or two having been 
made for their teaching and maintenance. 

The British Consular Agency at Lynn, was this year discon- 
tinued, the insignificance of British trade here not warranting its 
continuance, 

A rattlesnake, fourteen years old, as the number of rattles 
showed, was killed in Lynn woods, July 5. And on Aug. 4, a 
huge one swam across Lily pond, Boston street, and as he glided 
into the yard of John M. Newhall, was killed by a son of Mr. N., 
a lad of 14 years. This reptile was between four and five feet in 
length, and some two years older than his courageous destroyer. 

For some ten days, in September, at night, the waves dashing 
along our shores, exhibited an extraordinary phosphorescent glow. 
The spectacle was grand, strong easterly winds bringing in heavy 
seas. 

On the fifth of October, at about one o'clock in the afternoon, 
Alderman Aza A. Breed, of Lynn, was attacked by two ruffians, 
in Belcher lane, Boston, knocked down, and robbed of the large 
sum of $8,000. A light carriage with a man in it stood near the 
scene of the assault, and the robbers, after securing their booty, 
jumped in, and the three rode off Mr. Breed gave chase, and 
was fired on from the carriage, three times, one of the pistol shots 
taking effect in his hand. The robbers escaped. The money 
belonged to the Central National Bank, and was in Mr. Breed's 
care, for delivery in Boston. A question as to whether Mr. Breed 
or the bank should bear the loss arose ; but a settlement was 
made, the bank agreeing to sustain the principal share. 

1878. 

At the beginning of this year rather serious labor troubles 
existed in several of the large manufactories. Disagreements 
between workmen and their employers, in the matter of wages, 
were the cause of the difficulties, but mutual concession and 
temperate negotiation finally resulted in satisfactory adjustments. 

The new bell on the First Congregational meeting-house, 
on South Common street, corner of Vine, was raised to its place, 
March 28. It may be interesting to mention that the bell which 
was raised on the Old Tunnel, in 1816, and the one which at 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 878. yj 

the same time was raised on the Common street Methodist 
house, were cast at the old Paul Revere foundry, and that the 
present one was turned out by Revere's successors in that 
historic establishment. When the Old Tunnel was removed 
from the centre of the Common, in 1827, and wrought into the 
house now on the corner of Commercial street, the bell went with 
it, and remained in the modest belfry till it was taken down, this 
year, and recast, the city paying for the recasting, in considera- 
tion of its having for more than sixty years faithfully marked the 
hours of twelve at noon and nine at night, as well as having rung 
out its fire alarms and jubilant peals, besides attending to its 
other duties of calling together worshipping congregations and 
announcing the bearing away of the dead for burial. Its Meth- 
odist coadjutor still survives and sends forth its sonorous calls 
from the steeple of the new brick edifice in Park square. 

A singular custom has for many years prevailed in Lynn, the 
origin of which it is hard to determine, namely the blowing of tin 
horns, by the youth, on May-day. From dawn till night, in all 
directions, these discordant instruments may be heard ; but 
especially are morning slumbers disturbed. 

The services on Memorial Day, May 30, were interesting, 
though the inclemency of the weather somewhat disarranged the 
proceedings. Rev. C. D, Hills, of the Common street Methodist 
society delivered the address. 

On the 1 2th of June, twelve gentlemen, mostly quite aged, 
and all lovers of old-time customs, set out from Newburyport to 
enjoy a ride to Boston in the old-fashion four horse stage coach 
of their boyhood. The driver was a veteran of the road, and 
eighty-one years of age. The start was propitious and the ride 
enjoyable, till they reached Lynn, when, near the junction of 
Western avenue and Washington street, an axle broke and the 
stage was overturned. Two or three of the passengers were 
seriously injured, and the aged driver received a severe shock to 
his system besides painful bruises. 

On the fourth of July there was a successful balloon ascension 
from Park square, Alderman Aza A. Breed, City Marshal Charles 
C. Fry and Frederick Smith, a Boston newspaper reporter, 
accompanying the aeronaut. A landing was made at Hamilton, 
in this county. There was to have been a display of fireworks on 
the evening of the day in question, but a singular accident pre- 
vented. They had been loaded at the laboratory, preparatory to 
transportation hither, but by means of fire or friction, they went 
off in one general explosion. Others, however, were prepared, 
and on the evening of the i8th a successful exhibition took 
place. 

Dennis Kearney, a radical agitator and " sand-lot orator," so 
called, from California, addressed a large collection of people, on 



78 ANNALS OF LYNN — 1 879. 

the Common, on the evening of August 12. He was coarse and 
intemperate in his language, and fitted to make little impression 
on intelligent minds. He was escorted from Sagamore hotel, on 
Union street, by a large procession of working men, and a band 
of music. 

Thursday, August 10, was a bright day, and a memorable one 
for the people of the east vi-llage of Saugus, it being that on which 
the public water was introduced from the reservoir of Lynn. A 
public celebration was held, with music, speeches, processional 
displays, illuminations and fireworks. Among the most inter- 
esting features were the performances of a detachment of the 
Lynn Fire Department, with their steam engine, hose, and lad- 
ders — demonstrating to the good people the value of their new 
acquisition. 

The Lynn Light Infantry had a * veteran parade " and banquet 
on the nth of October, which had probably never been exceeded 
in interest since the organization of the old company, in 18 12, 
and elicited much commendation as a genuine and hearty civil- 
military demonstration. The procession included a number of 
prominent citizens and military persons from abroad. The 
march was long, and so interrupted at different points by the 
acceptance of invitations to pause and partake of refreshments 
that it was after dark when Exchange hall, in which the banquet 
was prepared, was reached. After the gastronomic duties had 
been attended to, music, toasts, and speeches were in order, the 
latter abounding in cheery hits and entertaining reminiscences. 

The brick fire engine house in Broad street was built this 
year. And the iron railing was placed around the Park. 

It may be mentioned as a singular fact among the curiosities 
of temperature, that at midnight, Dec. 2, the thermometer ran 
higher in Lynn and vicinity than in any other part of the whole 
country — six degrees higher than in New Orleans, La., seven 
higher than in Savannah, Geo. and St. Louis, Mo., nine higher 
than in Charleston, S. C, and ten higher than in Jacksonville, 
Florida. 

On the 17th of December, for the first time in sixteen years, 
gold stood at par ; that is, ^100 in gold were worth just ^100 in 
greenback government notes. The extreme of variation was in 
July, 1864, when ^100 in gold were worth $285 in bank bills. 
The difference in the relative values then began to decrease. In 
1870 it averaged 114.9, in 1877, 104.7. 

1879. 

Some 30.000 tons of ice, of remarkably good quality, were cut 
on Flax pond during the cold season of 1878 and '79. 

On the afternoon of February 27, an old trunk was discovered 
on the margin of Saugus river, near Fox Hill bridge, containing 



ANNALS OF LYNN I 879. 79 

the mutilated remains of a young woman. The nose had been 
severed, among other evident attempts to prevent identification. 
A great dpal of excitement soon prevailed, and the newspapers, 
far and near, teemed with sensational articles. Hundreds came, 
many from distant places, to view the remains, some hoping to 
identify them, but the greater number probably from morbid 
curiosity. Untiring efforts were made by the police and others 
to solve the tragic mystery, and it was finally determined that 
the remains were those of a young woman of the name of Jennie 
P. Clarke, whose death was occasioned by the mal-practice of 
parties in Boston. Miss Clarke was a native of Milton, Mass., 
but at the time of her death was a resident of Boston Highlands, 
and would have been twenty years of age the very day on which 
her lifeless body was found. The illegal practice which resulted 
in her death took place in Lagrange street, Boston, and the 
offenders were tried in the superior court of Suffolk county. 
Caroline C. Goodrich was convicted as principal, and received 
a sentence of ten years in the house of correction, and Dr. Daniel 
F. Kimball, as accessory after the fact, was sentenced to six 
years in the state prison. The body was buried from the First 
Universalist meeting-house, in Nahant street. 

The brick house of worship of the Common street Methodist 
society, on Park square, was dedicated on Thursday, February 
27, Bishop Foster preaching the sermon. 

Died, at his residence on Boston street, March 29, Henry 
Moore, aged 52, a native of Brighton. He was a graduate of 
Amherst college, and principal of the Cobbet grammar school, 
some twenty-four years ; was a faithful and highly esteemed 
teacher as well as citizen. 

Memorial Day, May 30, was observed in the usual manner, 
the address being delivered by Comrade W. G. Veazie, of Rut- 
land, Vt. 

The most notable occurrence this year was the celebration 
of the Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement 
of Lynn — [i 629-1 879] — which took place on the 17th of June. 
The day was very pleasant and the temperature agreeable. There 
was a grand procession, an oration by Cyrus M. Tracy, and other 
appropriate exercises at Music Hall, and a banquet at Odd Fel- 
lows' Hall, followed by toasts, addresses, and music. Several 
friendly and highly interesting communications from prominent 
officials and others of King's Lynn, England, were read by 
George H. Chase. Attractive performances and out-door sports, 
of various kinds, designed to suit different tastes, were held 
in several localities, and in the evening a grand display of fire- 
works took place on the Common. A neat volume of 224 octavo 
pages, was printed by order of the City Council, containing a 
full account of the proceedings, with an Introduction and a Second 



80 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 879. 

Part, by James R. Newhall, embracing historical, topographical, 
statistical and other matter relating to Lynn. It not being 
certain on what particular day of June the settlement com- 
menced — nor indeed certain beyond a doubt that it was in 
June — after some discussion the City Council fixed on the his- 
toric 17th, as the proper day for the observance, and in April 
appointed a committee to have general supervision of the pro- 
ceedings. This committee consisted of Mayor George P. San- 
derson, Aldermen N. D. C. Breed, and Nathan A. Ramsdell, and 
Common Councilmen, President Charles E. Kimball, Charles E. 
Harwood, Josiah F. Kimball, and Alfred P. Flint. This com- 
mittee decided to invite the cooperation of the citizens ; and the 
Mayor, on the 30th of April, issued an invitation to the citizens 
generally to assemble in their several ward rooms, on the 5th 
of May, to select five persons from each ward, to act with them. 
The ward meetings were accordingly held, and the following 
individuals selected : Ward i. John L. Shorey, William Lummus, 
Breed Bacheller, John R. Jordan, George W. Vincent. Ward 2. 
Oliver Ramsdell, William H. Rood, Sylvester H. Mansfield, John 
Marlor, C, H. Ramsdell. Ward 3. Amos F. Breed, J. Frank 
Lamphier, Ebenezer Beckford, Jacob M. Lewis, William B. Phil- 
lips. Ward 4. George T. Newhall, A. B. Martin, James N. 
Richardson, W. A. Clark, jr., L. A. May. Ward 5. T. P. Rich- 
ardson, Otis L. Baldwin, S. M. Bubier, N. M. Hawkes, George 
C. Neal. Ward 6. Gardiner Tufts, James W. Switzer, Wallace 
Bates, Frank J. Douglass, William Snell. Ward 7. William 
Shepard, Richard C. Lawrie, William F. Brackett, jr., Alonzo 
Penney, John Dougherty. The City Council appropriated ^3.000 
to defray the expenses of the celebration, and liberal individual 
contributions aided in various ways. Of the city appropriation, 
^750 were devoted to the juvenile part of the procession, ^525 
to music, ^350 to fireworks, ^150 to the rowing regatta, ^100 to 
the antiques and horribles, 1^50 to dory and tub race, ;^io to 
bicycle race. The balance was absorbed by carriage hire, the 
banquet, and various incidental expenses. 

Rollin E. Harmon succeeded in office James R. Newhall, 
whose resignation as Judge of the Lynn Police Court took effect 
Aug. 24. The business of the court had a steady increase, as 
population increased, from the time of its establishment, in 1849. 
The earlier records having been destroyed, at the burning of the 
old Town House, Oct. 6, 1864, no exact statement can be made 
as to the business during the earlier years. But in the thirteen 
years during which the now retiring justice presided, namely, 
1866 to 1879, the number of cases disposed of was twenty thou- 
sand, one hundred and twelve — criminal, 12.971, civil, y.141 — 
exclusive of a large number coming under the juvenile jurisdiction 
and poor debtor laws. The entire term of the retiring justice, in 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 879. 8 1 

the court, was thirty years — seventeen as special and thirteen 
as standing justice. 

John A. Jackson, the designer of the Soldiers' Monument, in 
Park square, died in Florence, Italy, in August, aged 54 years. 
He was a native of Bath, Me. 

On Tuesday and Wednesday, Sept. 30 and Oct. i, the annual 
exhibition of the Essex Agricultural Society was held in Lynn, 
for the first time since 1848. It was the society's sixty-first 
yearly exhibition. Hon. George B. Loring, of Salem, delivered 
the address, in the Central church, and dinner was served in Odd 
Fellows' Hall. The weather was pleasant but very warm, and 
there was a large attendance. The receipts were found to be 
$^-937-S^> ^^'^ the net profits $659.37. 

St. Joseph's (Catholic) Cemetery, was consecrated, Oct. 16, 
Archbishop Williams conducting the ceremonies. 

The newly-invented telephone came into use in Lynn, this 
year, especially for business purposes. 

Sherry's building, in Munroe street, was built this year, and 
was the first full six-story brick building erected here. 

Anthony Hatch, aged 6y, a farmer of Cliftondale, Saugus, died 
Nov. 19, from injuries received from an infuriated bull which he 
was driving to pasture, on the Sunday previous. 

Benjamin F. Mudge, died on Friday evening, Nov. 21, at his 
residence in Manhattan, Kansas, aged 62. He was born in Or- 
rington, Me., but at an early age came to Lynn ; was our second 
Mayor, having been inaugurated June 16, 1852. He had made 
a brief visit here within a few months of the time of his death, 
receiving the cordial greetings of many old friends ; and while 
here delivered one or two very acceptable lectures on scientific 
subjects. A biographical sketch appears in our " Centennial 
Memorial," of 1876. 

The extraordinary occurrence of a clear sky, all over the 
United States, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, happened Nov. 
24, as reported by the U. S. Signal Corps. 

A flock of wild geese, estimated to be half a mile in length, 
and flying very low, passed over Dungeon rock, Dec. 2. 

The length of pipes for the conveyance of the public water, in 
Lynn, was this year fifty-three miles, and the average daily con- 
sumption of the water was 1.268.000 gallons. 

The number of streets in Lynn, this year, was 480, measuring, 
in the aggregate, some 125 miles. The increase in the number, 
in ten years, was 125 ; in twenty years, 208. 

This year, after a long season — some seven years — of busi- 
ness depression, affairs began to assume a much more cheering 
aspect. Business of all kinds, in all parts of the country, began 
to revive, and every thing to look promising. Lynn had her full 
share of depression, and was among the first to feel the rising 

6 



82 ANNALS OF LYNN 1 879. 

tide of prosperity. Under date 1874 appear some remarks con- 
cerning the then state of things. 

From the following statements an idea may be had of the 
provision for the poor. During the year, 523 families received 
assistance from the public treasury, the number of individuals 
being 1.992. The average number of paupers in the almshouse 
was 52, and the cost of each, per week, for food and clothing, 
was ^1.35. The number of tramps furnished with food and 
lodging, was 1.757, the average cost of each being 14 cents. 
Some account of the latter class may be found under date 1874. 

The number of volumes in the Free Public Library, at the 
close of this year, was 27.804. The average daily delivery during 
the year was 461 volumes. 

The appropriation for the free education of the youth of Lynn, 
for 1879, was $83,000, which, with certain receipts, brought the 
whole amount devoted to school purposes up to the generous 
sum of $86,816.88. The number of schools was as follows: i 
high school, 7 grammar and 55 primary schools, and i evening 
drawing school. Whole number of pupils in all the day schools, 
on the first of May, 5.413. Average daily attendance of pupils 
in all the day schools, 4.667. The expenditure for school pur- 
poses, for each inhabitant of the city between the ages of five 
and fifteen years, was $15.66. 

As noted under date 1864, the first steam fire-engine procured 
for the city, arrived that year. And now, 1879, we have four 
of those efficient machines, and the fire department is, in other 
respects, well equipped. It has more than twelve thousand feet 
of hose, and there are distributed about the city, some four hun- 
dred hydrants, twenty capacious reservoirs, and a number of 
public wells. The department is also provided with one large 
four-wheel double tank chemical fire-extinguisher and seven hand 
extinguishers. In former years Lynn has been, emphatically, 
what is termed a wooden town, almost every building being 
of wood ; and had it not been for the fact that there was no really 
compact part, serious conflagrations would probably have occurred. 
Lately, numerous capacious brick structures have been erected, 
and as land increased in value, some of the business streets have 
become as compact as those of any city. It can hardly be ex- 
pected that in the future we shall be as free from disasters by 
fire as we have been in the past ; yet, with the improved facilities 
for grappling with the flames, and the improved modes in the 
construction, heating, and lighting of buildings, there is rea- 
sonable ground for hoping that our good fortune may continue. 
The telegraphic fire-alarm, which was established in 1871, has 
proved extremely beneficial, saving an immense amount of con- 
fusion and delay on the occurrence of a fire. 

Speaking of the later style of building, and the more compact 



ANNALS OF LYNN — 1 879. 83 

character of some of our streets, leads to the remark that the 
great change in the mode of manufacturhig shoes has been the 
principal cause of this, at least so far as relates to buildings 
erected for business purposes. It is quite within the recollection 
of our middle-aged people — as the writer had occasion to remark 
in the little book giving an account of the proceedings on our two 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary — that shoes were made by hand, 
not by machinery. The shoes were cut in the manufacturer's shop, 
which was generally a small wooden structure, and thence taken 
by the workman to his own premises, made up, and returned. 
A great many, however, were carried by express-drivers to coun- 
try towns, to Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont, and there 
made up, by workmen whose regular occupation was, perhaps, 
farming, but who resorted to the shoemaker's seat in winter 
and other unoccupied times. The work of some of these un- 
skilled operators was very poor and occasioned much complaint 
and annoyance ; but still a great deal of work went out of town, 
and a great deal of money went to pay for it. But the intro- 
duction of machinery wrought a great change. Large factories, 
often of brick, began to supplant the small cutting shops, and 
the little work shops of the journeymen began to disappear. 
The new factories were built in a thorough and substantial 
manner, as the ponderous machinery required ; some were tastily 
ornamented, and remain really fine specimens of architecture. 
To the factory it was now necessary that the workman should 
go to perform his labor. The work of making a shoe was divided 
among several, each having his particular part to do ; and the 
labor of all became so interlinked, that each depended much on 
the skill and promptness of the others for his own success. 
Rules were necessarily established for the guidance of all ; reg- 
ular hours of labor, especially, being required ; and efforts were 
made to place the whole business on a permanent basis. And 
so the business continues, every day developing fresh enero"ies 
and evidences of thrift. New factories are constantly risino-, and 
though there is some abridgment of the old-time freedom of the 
workman as he whistled over his work in his rude little shop, 
he yet gains by the comfort, order, and sometimes forced indus- 
try of the factory. 

The number of deaths in Lynn, during the year, was 680, 
which, taking the increase of population into view, was about 
the usual rate of past years. The most fatal disease was con- 
sumption, by which 120 died. The next most fatal was diphthe- 
ria, by which 65 died. Consumption was the most fatal among 
adults, diphtheria among children. In 1876 there were 121 
deaths by diphtheria. 

The number of marriages during the year was 429. And the 
number of births, 717. 



84 ANNALS OF LYNN 1880. 

With the year 1879 i^ was at first thought advisable to close 
our Annals, the first two hundred and fifty years of our municipal 
existence being then completed. Yet it seemed as if that reason 
was hardly sufficient to refuse space for the occurrences of one 
or two additional years that would elapse before the volume could 
be presented to the public. It was therefore concluded to pro- 
ceed till a time nearer that of publication, 

1 880. 

A generous sum was contributed in Lynn, early this year, for 
the suffering poor in Ireland, our Irish residents being especially 
liberal. 

The winter of 1879 ^^""^ '^O ^^^^ uncommonly mild, so far as 
temperature was concerned. Far less ice than usual was cut on 
the ponds, and in consequence, the price during the succeeding 
summer was much higher than during any late preceding year. 
Yet the number of snow storms was above the average, there 
being thirty-four in number, and the aggregate depth of snow 
five feet and three and a half inches. 

Edwin Marble, who succeeded his father Hiram Marble in 
the strange search for treasure in Dungeon Rock, as spoken 
of under date 1658, died January 16, aged 48 years, leaving a 
widow but no children. He had been out of health many months, 
occasioned, no doubt, by his persistent labors in the dark, damp 
cavern, though the immediate cause of his death was paralysis. 
He was a man of good character and agreeable disposition, a 
firm believer in spiritual manifestations, and a patient laborer 
under supposed supernatural direction. He was buried near the 
foot of the rock, on the southwestern slope, it having been his 
expressed desire to be interred near the scene of his hopeful 
though fruitless labors. A considerable number of friends, per- 
haps fifty, most of them of the spiritualistic faith, were present 
at the burial service, which was simple and affecting ; and held 
there, deep in the forest, amid the winter scenery, was peculiarly 
touching. At the close, the hymn " In the Sweet By and By," 
was sung. 

May 29 was observed as Memorial Day, the 30th falling on 
Sunday. The address was delivered by Col. T. W. Higginson. 

On the evening of Wednesday, June 2, " Summit Villa," the 
fine mansion on the Galloupe estate, in Swampscott, was entirely 
destroyed by fire, with most of its contents, the loss, in the 
aggregate reaching about ;^ 15.000. It was rented to Commodore 
Hutchins, of New York, for $3,000 for the summer. 

James McMahon, aged 50 years, a resident of Blossom street, 
was alleged to have been bitten on the arm, by a black spider, 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1880. 85 

June 29. Deeming it a trivial matter, he made no application, 
till, on the second day, it became swollen and excessively painful. 
Medical aid was sought, but the progress of the poison could not 
be arrested, and three days after receiving the bite he died. It 
should be remarked that this is given as reported at the time ; 
but good authorities declare that no spider bite can cause death 
or even much pain. In the physician's return the cause of Mr. 
McMahon's death is stated to have been malignant erysipelas. 

By the summer arrangement of the Eastern rail-road, this 
year, there were one hundred and twenty-four regular passenger 
and freight trains entering and leaving Lynn, each week day. 
Besides these, there were thirty-eight out and in trains on the 
Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn steam rail-road, and the hourly 
cars of the Lynn and Boston horse rail-road. 

Ex-Mayor Hiram N. Breed and his wife Nancy Stone Breed, 
on the 3d of July, the 4th falling on Sunday, celebrated the 
" golden " anniversary of their marriage, they having been united 
on the 4th of July, 1830. There was a large and cheery gather- 
ing of descendants and other relatives and friends, a number of 
city officials, and six ex-mayors. 

Independence was celebrated on Monday, July 5, in a moderate 
way. Explosives, as usual, made their demonstrations, early and 
late, bells were rung, and out-door sports engaged in. In the 
evening there was a successful display of fireworks, to witness 
which it was estimated full 10.000 persons assembled. 

Adam Hawkes was among the first settlers of Lynn, as we 
find him here as early as 1630, located in what is still known as 
the Hawkes neighborhood. He had five sons, and many descend- 
ants remain, scattered all over the country, and adorning various 
professions and callings. Several are yet found in the vicinity 
of the early family home, and among them Louis P. Hawkes who 
occupies a part of the original farm, in what is now known as 
North Saugus. And there, on the 28th and 29th of July, of this 
year, gathered from various quarters, distant and near, an inter- 
esting company of representatives of the family, to the number 
of about three hundred and fifty. They met with cordial greet- 
ings and brotherly sympathies ; and the weather proving favor- 
able, the most agreeable anticipations were realized, all the 
exercises and entertainments, literary, social, athletic and gastro- 
nomic, giving much satisfaction. Hon. Nathan M. Hawkes, of 
Lynn, was master of ceremonies. 

Died, in Saugus, July 30, George W. Phillips, aged 70. He 
was a native of Boston, a brother of Wendell Phillips the " silver 
tongued" orator, and a graduate of Harvard college, with the 
1829 class. He was a good lawyer and long in large practice, 
interested in town affairs, but steadily declining to hold office. 
For some years he was a partner of Franklin Dexter, and man- 



86 ANNALS OF LYNN 188O. 

aged many important cases. During the last thirty years he was 
a resident of Saugus, was thrice married, and his last wife sur- 
vived him. His death was very sudden. Returning from Boston 
early in the afternoon, and seeing his men pitching hay, he said, 
pleasantly, " Boys, would n't you like to have me up there with 
you .'' " He mounted the hay-rigging, and was presently observed 
to totter and fall, death almost instantly following. The funeral 
services were held in Saugus, Rev. James Freeman Clarke, Dr. 
Oliver W. Holmes, and one or two others of his Harvard class- 
mates being present and making remarks. 

A fire commenced on the morning of August 6, in the three 
story wooden building numbered 2 and 4, Central avenue, owned 
by S. P. Miles, and resulted in the loss of property to the amount 
of about ^2.500, largely in stock. 

On the afternoon of Wednesday, August 1 1, a meeting of the 
wardens and vestry of St. Stephen's Church was held for the 
formal reception of the stone from the ancient walls of St. Mar- 
garet's Church, in Lynn Regis, England, which had been sent 
with its friendly inscription by the authorities of that venerable 
shrine, to be incorporated in St. Stephen's Memorial Church, then 
in process of erection on South Common street. Resolutions 
were passed warmly acknowledging the courtesy of the brethren 
of St. Margaret's. 

Sunday night, August 22, was one of the most beautiful con- 
ceivable. The full moon rose between seven and eight o'clock 
and pursued a cloudless course through a sparkling sky. The 
air was soft, the westerly breeze very light, and the woody hills, 
rocky shores, and quiet sea defined with marvellous clearness. 
But this record would be common-place were it not for the 
additional and uncommon fact that at midnight, as on the 24th 
of November, 1879, the weather was clear throughout the whole 
United States, though there were considerable variations of tem- 
perature. In this vicinity the thermometer stood at about 70" ; 
but proceeding southerly, it grew warmer. At Savannah, Geo., 
it reached 82 degrees. 

Tubular wells having been sunk by the city authorities on the 
south side of Boston street, between Cottage and Bridge, in the 
hope of obtaining large quantities of pure water, for public use, 
pumping from them into the Pine Hill reservoir commenced on 
the 4th of September. One effect, soon felt, was the draining 
of wells on estates more than half a mile distant. In the first 
forty-five hours that the pump was in motion L250.OOO gallons 
were drawn. 

The cattle show and fair of the Essex Agricultural Society 
was again held in Lynn, on Tuesday and Wednesday, September 
28 and 29. There was a large attendance and highly satisfactory 
exhibition. Lieut. Col. D. W. Lowe delivered the address. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1880. Sy 

The entire fire department had a parade, Oct. 20. The display 
was very fine and to the participants an occasion of much 
enjoyment. At the close of the march dinner was served in Odd 
Fellows' Hall. 

In the autumn of this year a great sensation was produced in 
political circles all over the United States, by the appearance, in 
a New York paper, of a letter purporting to have been written 
by General Garfield, the Republican candidate for the presidency, 
and addressed to " Henry L. Morey," of the " Employers' Union," 
of Lynn. It was in the interest of cheap labor, and in pursuance 
of the purpose, favored Chinese immigration. The Pacific coast 
people, especially, became highly indignant at the drift of the 
letter, and the name of Morey and of Lynn were heard in every 
quarter. But the letter was soon proved to be a base forgery, 
concocted to damage the prospects of General Garfield ; and it 
would, without doubt, have had a serious effect, had not timely 
evidence of the unpardonable fraud been discovered. It was 
satisfactorily shown that no such person as Henry L. Morey and 
no such association as the Employers' Union existed in Lynn. 

Early in the forenoon of Oct. 28, a fire occurred on the south 
side of Broad street, near the foot of Market, which destroyed 
the steam planing mill of James N. Bufifum and Company, to- 
gether with several neighboring buildings, the entire loss being 
some ^93.500. 

Soon after the burning of the planing mill, as above noted, it 
was concluded to rebuild on a site some six or seven hundred 
feet southward. The great brick chimney, nine feet square at 
the base, and ninety feet high, had been left standing in solitary 
grandeur, and was removed, in its erect position, without accident, 
by the skillful management of Boston contractors. 

On the 22d of November a beautiful mirage appeared in the 
bay. 

The district of Lynn, Nahant, and Swampscott, returned, as 
the product of their fisheries for the quarter ending Dec. 3, as 
follows : codfish, cured, 300.000 lbs ; mackerel, 400.000 lbs. ; her- 
ring, salted, 100.000 lbs. ; lobsters, 7.000 lbs. ; fresh fish, daily 
catch, 3 1 5.000 lbs. ; fish oil, 3.200 galls. Total value, 1^44.141.50. 

A rather singular, though not serious, accident happened to 
ex-Mayor Buffum on an evening in December. He was in the 
store of Mr. Barton, on Market street the door of which was 
composed of a single plate of glass. Observing his horse, which 
had been left standing in the street, suddenly start, Mr. B. hastily 
and without realizing that the door was not open, but transparent, 
dashed through, causing one or two uncomfortable cuts upon his 
face and other parts of his head. 

The United States census, taken this year, gave Lynn a pop- 
ulation of 38.284. 18.255 males, 20.029 females. 



88 ANNALS OF LYNN 1881. 

18 8 1. 

The Young Men's Christian Association Building, on the 
corner of Market and Liberty streets, was dedicated on Monday 
afternoon, January 17. There was a large attendance, and 
among the notables was Governor Long, who delivered a short 
address. The cost of the building was a little rising $57,000. 
The corner stone was laid on Thursday, April 8, 1880, the prin- 
cipal address on that occasion being by Russell Sturgis of 
Boston. 

On the morning of Wednesday, January 19, a fire occurred 
on the westerly side of Market street, near Broad, destroying 
property to the amount of $i5'^.500. Augustus B. Martin and 
Co., morocco manufacturers, C. B Lancaster and Co., shoe man- 
ufacturers, and Skinner and Colder, were the principal losers. 
For a time there was danger of a more extensive conflagration, 
and assistance in arresting the flames was received from Salem 
and Marblehead. 

A fire took place on Sunday morning, January 30, in the car- 
riage manufactory of E. J. Leslie, on Boston street, near Myrtle, 
by which property to the amount of $3,500 was destroyed. 

Dr. Daniel Perley died at his residence in Breed street, Janu- 
ary 31, at the age of "jy, leaving a widow, two sons and a daugh- 
ter. He commenced practice here in 1836, and became highly 
esteemed as a physician and citizen. He was a native of Boxford, 
Mass. 

The government weather signals, on High Rock, were shown 
for the first time, February 23. 

A fire commenced in the rubber factory of Melcher and Spin- 
ney, in Broad street, near Market, March 31. The flames spread 
so rapidly that one of the workmen to save his life was obliged 
to jump from a second-story window. Total loss on building 
and stock, about $3,700. 

On the night of May 2, a fire occurred in the morocco factory 
of Henry Beyer, rear of Spring street, doing damage to the 
amount of $3,400. 

The pond on the Common was this year stocked with gold fish 
from Gold Fish pond. 

The address iDefore the General Lander Post No. 5, of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, the City Government and others, 
was delivered in Music Hall, on the evening of May 31, by Gen. 
James Carnahan of Indiana. It was postponed from the preced- 
ing evening on account of a violent thunder storm. Memorial 
Day, May 30, was this year made a legal holiday by the legislature. 

Mr. Eugene F. Forman, editor and proprietor of the Lynn 
Daily Bee and Weekly Reporter, came to his death by a strange 
and terrible accident, at the Sagamore hotel, in Union street, 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1881. 89 

where he boarded, at about one o'clock on the morning of Sep- 
tember 3. He was at the open window of his room in the fourth 
story, and by some means lost his balance and fell a distance 
of about forty feet, to the street pavement, in his descent striking 
upon an iron railing attached to the basement of the building. 
He survived, at times suffering great pain, till about six o'clock 
in the evening. He was a young man of more than ordinary 
promise in the journalistic profession, of good education, and 
seemed destined to make an enduring mark in the community. 
He was born in Nantucket, on the i6th of February, 1852, and 
was unmarried. The several printing offices in the city were 
closed, in respect to his memory, at the hour of his funeral. 

On the 6th of September, soon after sunrise, the atmosphere 
began to assume a yellowish hue — brassy, as the phrase em- 
ployed generally was when speaking of it — and by the middle 
of the forenoon, there was a very unnatural appearance. People 
began to wonder what was coming. At noon the obscuration 
was so great that artificial light was needed for most in-door 
employments. The blaze of a lamp was no less noticeable than 
the other phenomena, for it was strangely brilliant and remark- 
ably white. The greatest darkness was at about three in the 
afternoon. At that hour it was difficult to read common print 
by the daylight ; the faces of people were of a light saffron hue ; 
blues were changed to green ; the grass and foliage had a beau- 
tiful golden tinge ; and every thing wore a sort of weird aspect. 
Domestic animals and fowls seemed to notice that something 
unusual was going on, but manifested no alarm. The day was 
close and warm, and the smell of smoke very perceptible. The 
wind was southwesterly but very light. Towards night a gentle 
westerly breeze sprang up, and before sunset nature had assumed 
her wonted condition. Several theories were proposed to account 
for this " yellow Tuesday," as it came to be called ; but there 
seems to be little doubt that it was occasioned by smoke arising 
from fires in the woods, some of which were perhaps as far off as 
Canada. The writer very well remembers that when he was a 
small boy, probably in 1817 or 18 18, he was surprised on going 
out one Sunday morning to see how yellow everything looked, 
and called the attention of the family to the appearance. But 
by " meeting time " the strange hue had nearly passed off. Like 
a good boy he was drawn by the sound of the bell to the venera- 
ble Old Tunnel, and clearly recollects hearing a knot of men at 
the door commenting on the "brassy" appearance of the morn- 
ing ; and one of them remarked that it looked just as it did on 
the morning of the great dark day of 1780. 

On the night of September 12, between eight and nine o'clock, 
there was a singularly beautiful appearance in the heavens. A 
band of dense mist skirted along the horizon, but above, the sky 



90 ANNALS OF LYNN — 188I. 

was clear and the stars bright. Suddenly there appeared what 
may not inaptly be compared to two immense comets, one at the 
southeastern and the other at the northwestern horizon, sending 
up their broad and sharply defined tails, to meet at the zenith. 
The arch, if such it may be called, formed a striking spectacle, 
and was so transparent that stars were visible through it. It 
retained its most perfect proportions about twenty minutes, and 
then, sweeping off in a southerly direction, soon faded away. At 
the Signal Office, in Boston, it was judged to be the corona form 
of aurora borealis ; but some, professedly wise in such matters, 
contended that it was a nebulous belt which had made a near 
approach to the earth. It was described as of a " reddish yellow " 
tinge as it appeared in some places ; but as it was observed by 
the writer, it was of a beautifully clear white, and at the time 
thought to be without doubt the aurora. One scientific observer, 
who called it a " nebulous band," claimed, in a newspaper commu- 
nication, that it is recurrent, and is every season to be seen, 
always in the same direction, and always between the 25th of 
August and the 20th of September. One of our Lynn papers 
referred to it as something hardly worthy of remark. But the 
circumstances under which the writer of that paragraph saw it 
must have been very unfavorable, or he could not have seen it 
during the short time of its greatest brilliancy. As seen from 
the piazza of the stone dwelling at the junction of Walnut and 
Holyoke streets it was certainly a very striking and beautiful 
object. 

About midnight, September 19, the church bells were tolled, 
announcing the death of President Garfield. The effect was 
very solemn. 

On Wednesday, September 21, "The Exploring Circle," a 
voluntary association of ladies and gentlemen of culture held a 
" Camp Day," on a romantic elevation perhaps a mile northward 
from Dungeon Rock, and as was calculated about the centre 
of Lynn woods. They had previously held similar meetings in the 
forest, and consecrated and given appropriate names to some of the 
other hills which still remain unknown to most of our people, 
but which would richly repay the visits of every lover of the wild 
and weird, the romantic and lovely in nature. The occasion under 
notice was the consecration of " Mount Gilead," one of the most 
interesting spots within our borders, and from which the view, 
though chiefly of forest, is grand in the extreme. The services 
were highly pleasing, music, both vocal and instrumental, lending 
its charms to the picturesque ceremonials. There were also 
brief addresses, and the substantial addition of a pic-nic enter- 
tainment. The day was very pleasant, and several noted indi- 
viduals from abroad were present. The " Circle " entertains the 
laudable hope of initiating such measures as will prevent the 



ANNALS OF LYNN — I 88 I. 9I 

entire destruction of our noble forests by the relentless woods- 
man's onward march, and perhaps ultimately secure a suitable 
tract for a public park. 

Memorial sevices on the decease of the President were held 
in the First Methodist church, in Park square, on the 26th of 
September. Some public and many private buildings were 
appropriately draped. 

The Hon. Enoch Redington Mudge died very suddenly, on 
Saturday, October i, at his beautiful summer residence in Swamp- 
scott. He was at his place of business, in Boston, on Friday, 
and towards night called to inspect the concluding work on St. 
Stephen's Memorial Church. Up to the time of retirement he 
appeared to be in his usual health ; but on Saturday morning, 
before rising, was seized by a severe pain in the head. Medical 
attendance was promptly summoned and every effort made for 
his relief, but all without effect, and before noon he had breathed 
his last. The death of no one in this community has produced 
more wide-spread and unfeigned sorrow, for he was universally 
respected for his integrity as a business man, his great liberality 
in the furtherance of all good works, and for his christian princi- 
ples, and genial manners. By diligence, enterprise, and uncom- 
mon business capacity, he had accumulated a large fortune, 
which he evidently regarded as entrusted to him for the benefit 
of his fellow-men. For many of the latter years of his life he 
was extensively concerned in cotton and woolen manufacturing 
though in earlier manhood his attention was directed to other 
employments. 

That he was a man of cultivated taste, and a true lover of the 
beautiful in nature and art, his delightful home at Swampscott, 
in its surroundings and interior appointments, abundantly testi- 
fied. And in St. Stephen's Memorial Church future generations 
will behold enduring evidence not only of his liberality, parental 
love, and christian faith, but also of his elevated conception of 
grace and adaptation. 

Mr. Mudge undoubtedly regarded the erection of St. Stephen's 
as the crowning work of his life. And that elegant structure will 
long remain his noblest visible monument. It is gratifying to 
think that he lived to see the work well-nigh completed, though 
we may lament that in the ways of a mysterious Providence he 
was not spared for a few additional days that he might witness 
the solemn ceremony of consecration ; a consummation he so 
devoutly contemplated. His sudden decease sent a thrill through 
the community such is rarely experienced. And the numerous 
meetings that were held in Boston and elsewhere by the business 
men and by public associations, and the eulogistic addresses and 
resolutions of sympathy, showed that one held in far more than 



92 ANNALS OF LYNN — I 88 I. 

ordinary esteem had passed away. And it spoke well for the 
elevated tone of society that such appreciative tributes were so 
spontaneously offered to the memory of such a man. 

In person, Mr. Mudge was of full medium size, remarkably 
well formed, dignified in manners, and always attentive to those 
who addressed him, whether high or low. He was quick of ap- 
prehension, self-possessed, decided in his views, and able at all 
times to give a reason for the faith that was in him. It was 
impossible for one to have intercourse with him for an hour and 
not perceive that he was a man of superior mental endowment. 
And those who had fellowship with him in church work were at 
once impressed with his fidelity to his clearly-defined principles, 
his bright, cheerful anticipations, and his freedom from bigotry. 

For political honors he did not aspire, though at one time he 
served in the State Senate. Yet he took commendable interest 
in public affairs, labored and expended liberally for the advance- 
ment of enterprises that he believed were for the public good. 
He manifested especial interest in the young business men — 
they who were soon to take the places of the generation of which 
he was a member — gave lectures to them, in Boston, and im- 
proved every opportunity to urge upon them the formation of 
habits of strict integrity, industry, and moral rectitude, as the 
ground on which alone permanent prosperity could rest. Though 
he made no pretensions as an orator, he was yet a very effective 
speaker, and one who always secured the close attention of his 
auditors. His style was earnest and indicative of his own deep 
convictions. His language was well chosen, his points concisely 
presented, and his arguments effective from resting on a basis 
of sound common sense. 

The burial service over the remains of Mr. Mudge was held in 
St. Stephen's Church — then just on the verge of completion — 
on Tuesday, October 4. It was the first service ever held within 
those walls, was simple, and in strict accordance with the rubrics. 
The edifice was entirely filled, large numbers of distinguished 
persons from abroad, and many of the clergy being present. And 
the large attendance of our own citizens of all classes, afforded 
. grateful assurance of the wide-spread sympathy for the bereaved 
family. The remains were conveyed to the cloister garth, and 
there, with prayer, and sacred melody, and words of heavenly 
promise, and amid the tears of loved kindred, committed to their 
final resting place. 

Mr. Mudge was born in Orrington, Me., on the twenty-second 
of March, 1812, and was a son of Rev. Enoch Mudge, a native 
of Lynn, of whom a brief biographical notice may be found in 
our 1865 edition of the History of Lynn. At an early age he 
was united in marriage with Miss Caroline A. Patten of Portland, 
Me., and they became the parents of seven children, the mother. 




Interior of St. Stephen's Church. Lynn. 

On a leaf preceding the title-page of this volume is a good view of the exterior of this fine edifice. For ■ 
an historical sketch of Episcopal worship in Lynn, see page •2-59. For a biographical sketch of Mr. Mudge,j 
donor of the Church, see page 91. And for consecration services, see page 93. j 



ANNALS OF LYNN — I 88 I. 93 

one son, and two daughters surviving him. His eldest son, 
Charles Redington, a lieutenant-colonel in the Union forces, was 
killed in the battle of Gettysburg, July 3, 1863, and his eldest 
daughter, Fanny Olive, died July 23, 1879. -^^^^ i" rnemory of 
those beloved children the costly tablets in the south interior 
wall were placed at the time of the erection of the church. 

A fire occurred early on the morning of October 27, in the 
stable of A. H. Bosworth, on Willow street, destroying property 
to the amount of $600. 

The National Security Bank of Lynn commenced business on 
Tuesday, November i, Benjamin F. Spinney, president, David J. 
Lord, cashier; capital, $100,000. This is the fourth bank of 
discount in Lynn. 

St. Stephen's Memorial Church was consecrated on Wednes- 
day, November 2, and the services, conducted according to the 
prescribed order, were extremely impressive. Many distinguished 
clergymen and others from abroad were present, and there was a 
large attendance of our own citizens. Bishop Paddock of the 
Massachusetts Diocese and Bishop Neely of Maine, took parts 
in the exercises ; and Bishop Huntington of Central New York, 
delivered the sermon. The beautiful edifice was erected by Hon. 
Enoch Redington Mudge, for the use of St. Stephen's parish, and 
had become doubly hallowed by his own sudden decease and burial 
within its walls. What wonder then that a large and sympa- 
thetic concourse should have gathered. The corner stone was 
laid on the 19th of May, 1880. There were present on that 
occasion also a large number of prominent clergymen. Bishop 
Paddock delivered an address ; and under the stone was placed 
an engraved copper tablet stating that the building was to be 
reared as a thank-offering to God and in memory of a deceased 
son and daughter ; to remain a house of worship, for the use 
of St. Stephen's parish, in conformity to the rites, ceremonies, 
usages and canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States. The edifice will be known as St. Stephen's 
Memorial Church. But the design of the donor was not merely 
commemorative of his deceased children, dear as they were. His 
greater object was to do something noble for the spiritual eleva- 
tion of the community in which he felt such a glowing interest ; 
and had his children lived he would have done some great work 
for that end. But his martial son had laid his life on his country's 
altar, and the thought came of a Christian soldier's most befitting 
monument. 

The Sanborn School House, in Ward 2, (Glenmere,) was dedi- 
cated on Monday, December 5. The name was in honor of Jere- 
miah Sanborn, a former teacher in the ward. 

As noted under the proper date, horse rail-road cars first began 



94 ANNALS OF LYNN 1881. 

to run in the streets of Lynn, Nov. 29, i860. They were found 
to be of very great convenience, especially to working people 
whose employment was in the manufactories in the central parts. 
And though for some time the pioneer company did not realise 
much from their pecuniary investment, by perseverance, fair 
dealing, and efforts to accommodate, they gained the confidence 
and good-will of the community, and finally secured to themselves 
generous returns. As exigences seemed to require the lines have 
been extended to different neighborhoods, and come to be con- 
sidered very important auxiliaries to our prosperity. The cheap 
lands in the suburbs afford opportunities to many of limited 
means to secure pleasant homes, free from the damaging neces- 
sity of frequent removals ; and by such the street rail-way is 
highly appreciated. 

Some of those wise prognosticators who may always be found 
endeavoring to disturb the equanimity of naturally apprehensive 
minds, predicted that the year 1881 would be distinguished for 
remarkable and disastrous occurrences if indeed it was not to 
witness the end of all earthly things. Dire celestial phenomena, 
atmospheric disturbances, calamities by fire and flood, were 
among the promised woes. As far as certain parts of the world 
were concerned there was a verification of some of the predictions, 
hurricanes, floods, and conflagrations, attended by startling inci- 
dents, taking place. The number of shipwrecks was remarkably 
large, and the loss of life by their means and by conflagrations 
was appaling. But in this favored region nothing of a very ex- 
traordinary nature took place. A couple of rather pale comets 
decorated the heavens in the latter part of the summer ; indeed 
not less than seven of those erratic wanderers were reported as 
appearing within the range of telescopic vision during the year. 
A rattling thunder storm occupied the evening of Decoration 
Day. And a few uncomfortably sudden changes of temperature 
took place. Then there was the " yellow day," September 6, and 
the beautiful aerial phantom on the night of September 12. These 
were about the sum of our share of wonders. We had no severe 
drought, steam-boat or rail-road disaster, no great conflagration, 
hurricane, or flood. Still, in many unreflecting and superstitious 
minds there lingered through the whole year vague apprehensions 
of brooding evil. The literary forgery known as " Mother Ship- 
ton's Prophesies," purporting to have been made in 1448, and to 
foretell at least one event of some importance that was to happen 
in this pregnant year 1881, strangely enough, created real alarm 
in minds that would have been supposed far above such influ- 
ences. The matter was rather cunningly devised, and to the 
unthinking mind that entertained no doubt of the genuineness 
of the predictions, the allusions to steam, the electric-telegraph, 
iron ships, California, the British premier Disraeli, &c., must have 



ANNALS OF LYNN — 1881. 95 

come with alarming force. But let us give place to a few of the 
occult lines, for it is not unlikely that the " Prophesies " may in 
the future, with a modification or two be presented afresh. It 
does seem as if every generation must have some such mysteri- 
ous chapter to ponder over. 

" Carriages without horses shall go. 
Around the world thoughts shall fly 
In the twinkling of an eye. 
Iron in the water shall float 
As easy as a wooden boat. 
Gold shall be found, and found 
In a land that 's not now known. 
Fire and water shall more wonders do. 
England shall at last admit a Jew. 

* * * 

The world then to an end shall come 
In eighteen hundred and eighty-one." 

In concluding these remarks on what may be called some of the 
popular vagaries of the day, it may be well to add that in various 
parts of the country professed scientists, who are expected to 
keep an eye on nature as she pursues her marvelous develop- 
ments, propounded new theories and claimed extraordinary dis- 
coveries. It was alleged, for instance, by an Ohio astronomer, 
that in consequence of " the change in the parallelism of the 
axis of rotation of the earth, which took place during a superior 
planetary conjunction, October ii, 1877, the United States are 
now in the torrid zone." Finally, we may as well record our own 
"prophecy ;" which is that all such predictions as the foregoing 
will fail in the future, as they have failed in the past. 

In closing our chapter of Annals, it is not deemed necessary 
to occupy space with a formal recapitulation. The matter has 
been so arranged that it is thought anything in the book can 
be readily found by reference to the index. Such statistical 
items as seemed most aptly to exhibit our progress and condition 
at different periods, and most interesting to the general reader, 
have been given. But for many details, useful and interesting 
to a class, but dry and useless to others, resort may be had to 
published municipal documents. 

In the matter of business energy and enterprise, Lynn stands 
among the foremost in New England. But for some reason her 
reputation abroad for intellectual development and scholarly 
attainment has not been enviable. We must work for a change. 
It is not easy to give any reliable data on which an accurate 
judgment of the progress and condition of intelligence and 
mental discipline among us, can be predicated. Our people are 
great readers ; but the quality of the reading should be taken 
into account before a proper estimate of its usefulness can be 
made. The Free Public Library has now about 30.000 volumes, 



96 ANNALS OF LYNN I 88 1. 

and the average daily delivery amounts to about 500. This is a 
large circulation, and to a considerable extent lies with the young 
work-people, who, in some sense as a relief from daily toil, peruse 
the lighter works, which, though by no means positively perni- 
cious, are liable to usurp the place of those which would be 
more conducive to mental health and growth. It may be said 
that if the class to whom we refer cannot procure the desired 
books they will not read any thing ; and in that light it is per- 
haps well to keep up the supply, looking to reformation in the 
future, which may gradually come about, for the shelves are well 
provided with attractive works of solid character. The circulation 
of newspapers in Lynn has increased with astonishing rapidity 
within a dozen years. Almost every one must now have his 
daily paper, and if all those connected with the editorial profession 
would maintain the dignity of the press, avoiding the merely 
sensational and frivolous, what an influence they would have in 
elevating the tone of society and shaping its destinies. At this 
time there are not probably less than 14.000 daily papers circu- 
lated in Lynn, and of other publications large numbers ; and 
while, for the most part, they are of a character worthy of com- 
mendation, a few could be spared without detriment. All that it 
seems necessary to say of our 65 public Schools, appears else- 
where. They are doubtless in good condition as measured by 
the apparent requirements of the day and as compared with 
institutions of similar grade in other places ; but future times 
will have other views and demands. 



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. 



" On, on, the generations march ! 
Resistless, pauseless ! But they leave 
Their footprints ineffaceable 
As is the starry tracery on high. 
Their words still linger, airily, 
Like breathings from the spirit homes I" 



INTRODUCTION. 

It is proposed to give, in this Chapter, Biographical Sketches — 
or perhaps it should rather be said in regard to many of them, 
brief Personal Notices — of some of the people of Lynn who 
have become more or less strongly marked by their integrity of 
chara6ler and their efforts to promote the best interests of the 
place ; or even, peradventure, of those who by their abnormal 
ways have afforded useful allurements or warnings ; for, from the 
delinquences and miscarriages, the buffetings and failures of 
some, as well as from the fidelity and success of others, we may 
as certainly receive useful guidance as may the mariner from the 
occasionally lurching as well as from the ever-constant buoy. 

As the parent survives and continues an extended existence 
in the lives of his offspring, so the good member of society lives 
an extended life in the enduring influence of his deeds and exam- 
ple, often accumulating power as time recedes. There is a fasci- 
nation in the tracing of family connexions. In so doing, to be sure, 
one sometimes falls on an individual who does no credit to his 
lineage ; but such may be silently passed by ; and it must be a 
very low-conditioned family that in the course of generations can 
present no honorable example. But how little do we know of the 
estimation in which an individual who lived even a few years 

(97) 7 



98 Biographical Sketches. Introdu£lion. 

before ourselves, was held by his cotemporaries. The prominent 
features of character survive ; but the minor lights and shades 
are obscured ; the petulance of the churlish and the vagaries 
of the conceited have faded away in the lustre of their better 
qualities. 

The plan adopted in the 1865 edition of our History of Lynn, 
will not be so closely followed, here, as has been done in the 
chapter of Annals, as it is thought that some variations will be 
improvements. As alphabetical arrangement is always conve- 
nient, that will be pursued. And to make the whole as plain 
and comprehensive as possible, the names of a class of individ- 
uals, who were not natives, will appear, with references to the 
dates in the Annals under which some account of them may be 
found. In short, it is proposed to give in the following pages 
what will enable the reader to refer to any biographical notice, 
whether of a native or otherwise, or whether it is to be found in 
this volume or in that of 1865. In a few instances, too, notable 
persons spoken of under different dates in the Annals will receive 
brief connefted notices. And furthermore, lest the reader who 
may not fully observe our plan, should discover a seemingly 
unwarrantable omission, here and there, it is thought proper to 
introduce a few names with references to accounts in other places 
than the regular History ; for instance to the Mayors, of whom 
sketches, with portraits, are given in the " Centenn j.1 Memorial." 

In our many notices we shall endeavor to give fair glimpses 
of chara6ler, not unreasonably magnifying mediocrity nor unjustly 
exhibiting blemishes. The more prodigal one is of his compli- 
ments, the more he lessens their value ; and unjust censure 
recoils upon himself. It will not be inferred that the individuals 
here brought to notice are the only ones spoken of in our An- 
nals. Many more are there named and their meritorious doings 
alluded to, as a reference to the indexes will enable any one to 
perceive. Mere genealogies of families, of course, are not to 
any extent given. They are but skeletons without flesh ; inter- 
esting, indeed, to the near kindred, but not to the general reader 
Of course the names of a great many worthy people do not 
appear at all in the connection, as it is by no means intended to 
present an annotated direftory. But it is sought to introduce a 
meet representative or two from the various walks of life. No 



Biographical Sketches. Introdu6lion. 99 

person living has not, in addition to his modest self-appreciation 
some friend to whom he would be glad to see a tribute paid. 
But in a work of this kind it devolves on the author to discrim- 
inate, and endeavor to present, within reasonable limits, what 
seems, on the whole, to be likely to result in the greatest good. 
An attempt to delineate charadler is always a delicate task, and 
especially so when a cotemporary is the subject ; for we necessa- 
rily view our travelling companions along life's road in different 
lights and from different stand-points ; and hence what one 
might pronounce a faithful delineation, another might look upon 
as distorted. Some look deep down for the principles from 
which actions spring, while others look only to surface indica- 
tions. But there is a kind of fellow-traveller whose companion- 
ship very few of us much esteem ; namely, the one who is prone 
to make those about him uncomfortable by unnecessary com- 
plaints, ill-formed conceits, and irregularities of temper. To his 
cotemporaries he is always disagreeable ; and if he be a man of 
real genius and worth must look to future generations for a just 
estimate of his merits, they not being tried by his vaporings. 
This refleftion, perhaps impertinent, forced itself upon the writer 
as the image of one of whom a sketch has already been prepared, 
came up before his mind. We will call him Mr. G. He long 
since passed away, and his name is now among the choicest in 
the keeping •;;f our people. A little anecdote will serve to illus- 
trate our meaning as well as the degree of honor awarded him in 
his own time ; though it is not to be denied that there were 
those who, while he yet remained among us, duly estimated his 
superior endowments, having power to penetrate the sometimes 
repulsive haze that obscured his better nature. On an afternoon, 
nearly forty years ago, the writer, in passing through Central 
square observed mounted on a wagon that stood there an indi- 
vidual well known throughout the town as a half-lunatic, but 
shrewd, observing, and fond of indulging in sarcastic remarks. 
He was delivering a rambling oration to the motley assembly 
gathered around. Just then Mr. G. came along. The orator 
caught sight of him, and suspending his discourse called out, 

" Here, here, Mr. G , I have something to say to you. Pray 

stop a moment and hear me." This salutation was of course 
unheeded, and Mr. G, moved along with his accustomed dignity. 



loo Biographical Sketches, Adams. Alley. 

The other repeated the call, but with no better success ; and 
then, with an air of mingled chagrin and contempt, added, 
" Well, well, my friend ! so you won't notice me, will you ? I 
suppose you call yourself up in the world and think I 'm down, 
do n't you ? We all know you 're up-ish, and I 'm derry-down. 
But before heaven I do n't believe there 's much to choose 
between us. We both act like the devil ! " The shout that 
went up from the crowd at that sally may be imagined. After 
the explosion, the orator calmly resumed his harangue, and the 
whole assembly seemed to feel that the popular mind had been 
expressed. But the time has now arrived when the displeasing 
foibles of Mr. G. are forgotten, and his name stands high on 
the roll of those we delight to honor. His many worthy deeds 
are gratefully remembered ; his minor blemishes, which so an- 
noyed those of his own generation, are buried with him. As there 
are among the individuals of whom we shall speak, some of like 
charadleristics, this illustration may not be without its use in 
making up our judgment. It will, however, be borne in mind that 
moral defe6l is to be regarded in a very different light from 
mere social indecorum. 

With these remarks and explanations we proceed to give our 
imperfedl notices. 



Adams, Rev. Benjamin, minister of Lynnfield parish twenty- 
one years, including the trying period immediately preceding 
the Revolution, and the opening stages of the conflict. He was 
patriotic, though less stirring and conspicuous than the two 
other ministers — Roby and Treadwell — then settled in Lynn. 
The ministers of the country parishes, very generally, manifested 
commendable zeal in the provincial cause, and in their ardent 
exhortations frequently exhibited a spirit that would ill-accord 
with modern views of the sacred vocation. The ultimate success 
of the cause is in no small degree attributable to their urgent 
and persistent appeals. The Lynn ministers certainly did their 
part. See Annals, date 1777. 

Alley, Hugh and John. These two settlers, who appeared 
here as early as 1640, were farmers, and located in the vicinity 



Biographical Sketches. Armitage. loi 

of Market street. From them descended the numerous persons 
of the name who have for many years been numbered in our 
population. Some of these descendants have made favorable 
marks in their generation. Solomon Alley was one of the 
" Flower of Essex," in Lathrop's command, and was killed in 
the Indian massacre at Bloody Brook, in 1675. 

In former years many of the family were members of the 
Quaker society, which may in a measure account for their not 
more frequently appearing in public life. In the letter of the 
Quakers of Lynn, to Governor Dudley, dated "22th 4m° 1703," 
giving a list of those of the faith here, appears the name 
of Hugh Alley, who was probably a grandson of the one whose 
name stands at the head of this notice. There was a Captain 
Hugh Alley who commanded a small schooner-rigged vessel 
running from Lynn to Boston, which seems to have been very 
successful in his day of limited carrying trade. He continued 
in the business some years, the land route being circuitous, 
rutty and rough. Hon. John B. Alley, the first Congressional 
Representative from Lynn is of this respectable lineage. John 
Alley, father of the last named, was a very stirring and thrifty 
business man, though not without conspicuous eccentricities. 
He built the Railroad House, opposite the southern end of Mar- 
ket street ; also the dam near the foot of Pleasant street, thus 
forming the capacious mill-pond. He was, in his earlier years, 
a member of the Quaker society ; participated in the troubles 
there, in 1822, and subsequently seemed quite unsettled in his 
religious views ; yet he maintained a high character for integrity 
and neighborly-kindness. 

The christian names Hugh and John seem to have prevailed 
in the Alley family for many generations. Hugh Alye, " citizen 
and wever, of London," died in 1533, leaving a son John and 
daughter Elizabeth. He was buried in Saint Mildred's, and 
" Maude Croumwell, late wife of Richard Croumwell " was exec- 
utrix of his estate. See Annals, 1640 and other early dates. 

Armitage, Joseph. This individual figures somewhat largely 
in our early history. He made his appearance here in 1630, and 
was a tailor by trade. In those primitive times, however, the 
permanency of fashions, the scarcity of material, and the necessity 



102 BiOGR.\PHicAL SKETCHES. Avmitagc. 

of household economy, conspired to make the calls for the exer- 
cise of his artistic skill quite limited, and we are not surprised tc 
find him turning his attention to occupations that promised more 
satisfactory returns. In him was exemplified that fruitfulness 
of resource which lies at the foundation of at least one leading 
trait of true Yankee character ; and very likely, had a wider field 
opened for the exercise of his peculiar talents, he might have 
attained a more conspicuous position, and been more thrifty in a 
pecuniary way ; as, after all, notwithstanding his industry and 
frugality, he lived and died a poor man. There is, indeed, little 
art in financiering, for whoever lives within his means and pays 
his debts is successful. And this simple rule applies as well to 
nations as individuals. But the speculative mind is not content 
to take this rational view, and must experiment among doubtful 
projects. 

The ill-success of Mr. Armitage, however, may, in part at least, 
have been attributable to his fondness for lawsuits, than which 
hardly anything can be more detrimental, direftly and indireftly, 
to the interests of the average citizen. The law is an extremely 
hazardous resort ; and it may be safely said that if some among 
us who waste their substance in pursuing it, would only apply 
the means thus squandered to the payment of their honest debts, 
they would not pass their whole business lives on the verge 
of bankruptcy, nor be always forced to confront the claims of 
charity with the argument of an empty purse. The writer once 
knew two brothers in the very neighborhood where the humble 
dwelling of Mr. Armitage stood, who began life as prosperous 
farmers, and soon, with what they inherited, possessed enough 
to call themselves moderately rich. But unfortunately, from 
some unaccountable cause, both became fascinated by the law 
and were seldom without a suit or two on hand. When they 
were well along in years, the writer asked one what made him 
waste so much time and money in such unprofitable business. 
" Why," said he " it is the best amusement I have. It is an 
exciting game of chance, and I like it. I sometimes gain and 
sometimes lose. My brother likes it, too ; and when we cannot 
get up a lawsuit with any one else we can with each other." Both 
of these sturdy yeomen are now dead ; and they died poor ; they 
had the music and paid the piper. It is safe to conclude that 



Biographical Sketches. Armitage. 103 

there is something wrong about the man who is always engaged 
in lawsuits. 

As the first landlord of the Anchor Tavern, Mr. Armitage is 
best known, he having opened that famous house of entertain- 
ment when it must have been a seriously doubtful enterprise, 
considering the limited number of travellers. But it was not a 
Fifth Avenue establishment, though great men were sometimes 
entertained there. He was licensed to " draw wine," and perhaps 
hoped to derive most profit from that questionable source, though 
his hopes could hardly have been realized, if he was often so 
indiscreet as to render himself liable to be fined for negle6l 
of duty, as he appears to have been on one occasion in 165 1, 
which occasion is indicated by the following entry on the Court 
records : " In ans"^ to the petition of Joseph Armitage ffor an 
abatement of a fine of five pounds, imposed on him for not 
acquainting the counstable of a psons being drunke in his com- 
pany, as the law requires, the Court sees no cawse to abate the 
petitioner any part of that fine." 

The houses of entertainment, of those days, though useful and 
even necessary for the accommodation of travellers, were not 
probably to be much prized for their neighborhood influences, as 
they were often the resort of the lazy and gossiping townsmen 
who there passed hours of idleness over their tankards of flip, 
in the haze of tobacco smoke. Yet, when the presiding spirit 
himself happened to be of high character and able to gather 
around him kindred spirits they no doubt became meeting places 
for the discussion of matters of the greatest importance. 

It is evident that Mr. Armitage was a stirring if not a meddle- 
some man, and did not confine his attentions to any particular 
class or calling. And upon the Court records here and there 
appear indications that he was one of the many who find it diflfi- 
cult to see how the public good can be reached excepting by 
the road that leads to their own personal advantage. 

The Armitages — for Joseph was not the only one of the name 
who appeared in Lynn during the early days — seem to have 
belonged to a family of some note in the old country. Here, 
however, though not what would be called a shiftless, they were 
yet a shifting race. Godfrey, mentioned in our Annals, under date 
1630, removed to Boston ; and Thomas, whose name does not 



104 Biographical Sketches. Armitage. 

appear in the Annals, but who, according to Savage, was for a 
time commorant here, and who came from Bristol, in the ship 
James, in 1635, a fellow passenger with Richard Mather, was 
one of the Sandwich settlers, in 1637 ; from there he went to 
Stamford, then to Oyster Bay, on Long Island ; and in 1647 
he appeared among the Hempstead settlers. 

Returning for a moment more to Joseph and his destru6live 
lawsuits, we will transcribe the testimony of one of the witnesses 
in an a6lion brought against him by John Ruck, administrator, 
at the June term of the Essex County Court, in 1671 : "The 
testimony of Christopher Lawson, of Boston, aged 55 years or 
Thereabouts : This Deponent saith, that haueing beene acquainted 
these five or six and twenty years with the dealings betweene 
M'' Thomas Ruck of Boston, deceased, & Joseph Hermitage of 
Lyn, & haueing beene seuerall times at the transa6ling of them, 
as appears by my hand to diuers papers subscribed, I doe very 
weil remember that the said Thomas Ruck hath giuen him credit 
from time to time & y^ said Hermitage promised to pay him 
thirty pounds in money in London, of this debt, and the remain- 
der of the same in New England, to his content. But in the 
year 1669 coming to Boston, M^s Eliz. Ruck, then widdow, made 
a sad complaint to me, & said she could gett nothing of y^ said 
Hermitage, whereupon I spoke with Joseph Hermitage & agi- 
tated the business with him, in the widdows behalfe ; his answer 
was that he would not wrong y^ widow nor fatherless, but would 
do that was right in the sight of God & man ; he would not 
wrong her of a penny, with many solem p'testations. In fine, 
the said Joseph Armitage & Mrs Ruck bound themselues in a 
bond to stand to y*^ arbitration of Capt. Roger Spenser & Chris- 
topher Lawson. We heard both their pleas & allegations & 
found Joseph Armitage debtor to M^^^ Rucke, upon all Accounts 
to y^ value of aboute Eighty pounds sterling, which we thought 
was more than he was able to pay ; we found likewise a bill 
of exchange to England for Thirty pounds protested, & nothing 
paid of his debt in New England, save something in Wharfe 
wood as he calls it. Whereupon we called them both in & 
desired M^s Rucke to take twenty pounds glueing him some 
tyme to pay it & forgiue him the rest, which 20/ he should pay 
at Boston in money, or goods at money price within such a tyme, 



Biographical Sketches. Armitage. 105 

as appears by the Arbitration in writeing, and yet none of this 
was performed that euer I heard off. This is the true state of 
y^ case, as I hau beene acquainted with it from first to last, to 
my best knowledge. Taken upon oath: 29 — 4™° 71 [June 29, 
1671.] W™ Hathorne, attest:" This, however, appears to be 
simply the old, old case — "I owe but cannot pay " — and perhaps 
involves no element to the especial discredit of Mr. Armitage. 

We here copy an ancient document which will in these pages 
be a number of times referred to as " The Armitage Petition " — 
a petition of the wife of Joseph for permission herself to keep 
the ordinary, he having receded into the back-ground. It is 
inserted not so much for anything of special interest it contains 
as for the autographs of a number of the early settlers which are 
appended, fac-similes of which are given — among them that of 
Godfrey, brother of Joseph. The petition itself, we have little 
doubt, is in the hand-writing of Captain Robert Bridges, 

To THE Right worll the Gouernor, Deputie Gouerno^ & 

THEIR HONORED ASSOTIATS : 

The Jiunible peticon of Jane, wife of Joseph Armitage : 

Humbly sheweth that whereas the indigent and low estate 
of your poore peticonesse is evident not to a few, in as much as 
her husbands labours & indeauo^'s haue beene blasted and his 
ames & ends frustrated by a iust hand, beinge also made incapa- 
ble of such other ymploym' as hee is personally fitted for by 
reason of the sensure vnder w'^'* for the p''sent hee lyeth & alsoe 
being outed of such trade & comerce as might haue afforded 
supportacon to his familie consistinge of Diuers p^'sons & small 
Children in comiseracon of whom, togither with yo"" peticonesse, 
the inhabitants of o"^ town were pleased (as farr as in them lay) 
to continue yo"" poore peticonesse in the Custodie of the said 
Ordinary & that benefitt w'='> might accrew from the same to 
take towards makeinge of theire Hues the more comfortable ; 
wherevpon & by reason whereof yo"^ peticonesse said husband 
procured the most convenient howse in Lynn for the purpose 
albeit itt was very ruinous & much cost bestowed respedlinge 
his p^^sent condicon in repaireinge & fittinge vp of the same 
accordingly : And also whereas some of his Creditor's haue of 
their clemencie and gentle goodnes furnished him w*'' Comodi- 
ties apt for the mainteyning of an ordinary to the intent some 
benefitt might redound towards the maintenance & liuelyhood 
of his familie & reedifieinge of his ruined estate in case the same 
may bee obteined : and that thereby wee may bee enabled to 



io6 



Biographical Sketches. Armitage. 



pay our debts, in regard of which the name of god now suffers. 
May itt therefore please this Honored Assembly to 
take the p'^misses into tender consideracon & w''^ 
bowells of comiseracon to way the lowe estate of yo' 
Voted & said Peticonesse & her familie and to reconfirme the 
Octob.*26th Custodie of the said Ordinarie to yo"" peticonesse 
[1643] duringe the winter season & further as shall seeme 
good in yo'' sight vpon the well demeano"" of yo"" Peti- 
conesse in the said place, &c. 



%tyM- 



ItKr 



'y 



7^0 ^ev^ ' 




IT 



^a^^'^/^^u^ 



tf^r- 



The foregoing is what will be referred to as " The Armitage 



Biographical Sketches. Annitaze. 



107 



Petition." Some of the autographs being rather obscure, we 
give the names in letter-press, as follows — arranged very much 
as they stand on the original petition — coupled with the remark 
that most of the individuals will be found noticed in alphabetical 
order in these pages of sketches. 



Sa: Whiting. 






Tho : Cobbett. 


Robert : Bridges, 




Edw : Holyoke, 
Edward Tomlins, 
Thomas marshall. 


Richard walker, 
Willm Cowdry, 
Nathaniel! Handforth, 


Tim Tomlins, 
William Longley, 


^ Georg keser, 


John Wood, 


Thomas Godson, 


' John Dolitle, 

frauncis Ligtfoote, 


Thomas Laughton, 
Boniface Burton, 


Henery Rodes, 
Thomas Townsend, 


William king. 


Nicholas Browne, 


Robert Driver, 


Robert persons, 
Richard Johnson, 
Thomas parker, 
Phillip Kirtland, 


Edward Baker, 
R(jbert Massey, 
John Gillowe, 
John Ramsdalle, 


Zachrie fitch, 


James Axey, 






Godphrey Armitage, 
Henery Eeames. 







The names of Robert Persons, Richard Johnson, Thomas 
Parker, Philip Kirtland and James Axey look very much as 
if written by the same hand. If they were, it could not have 
been because the individuals did not know how to write but be- 
cause it was more convenient to have some one else attach their 
names. On the Colony Records, under date Sept. 7, 1643, is 
the entry, " Goody Armitage is alovved to keepe the ordinary, 
but not to draw wine." Upon the margin of the petition is seen 
the memorandum, "Voted & granted Octob. 26th, [1643.]" 
This is by a different hand, and was probably made at a subse- 
quent session. The 1643 being in brackets denotes that it 
may have been a considerably later insertion. The " clemencie 
and gentle goodnes ," of some of Mr. Armitage's creditors, cer- 
tainly indicate that he had friends, though under censure for 
something not stated. 

It has been remarked that Mr. Armitage, after his long and 
laborious career, passed his latter years in poverty. This is 
apparent by his curious petition, presented in 1669, for the pay- 
ment of some trifling scores which certain colonial dignitaries 
ran up at his tavern about twenty-five years before ; a specification 



io8 Biographical Sketches. Attwill. Axey. 

of some of which charges may be found in our Annals, under date 
1643. On his decease his estate was appraised at £,6 2s. 6d. 
Other incidents in the career of this typical individual may be 
found in the Annals of early dates, 

Attwill, Theodore. Mr. Attwill died of Bright's disease, 
December 9, 1880, in the 55th year of his age. He was a native 
of Lynn, and for many years enjoyed a reputation for intelligence 
and probity attained by few. The surname was not unknown 
here before the beginning of century 1700, though there were 
none of the kin among the first settlers. And there does not 
seem to have been at any time a large number of the lineage 
among us. The business of the subject of this sketch apper- 
tained to the shoe-manufacture, and in it he was successful ; but 
beyond that he had a decided literary taste, and was a constant 
reader of the better class of books, and quite proficient in mathe- 
matics and the languages. With Latin, Greek, French, Spanish, 
and German, he was more or less familiar. His literary acquire- 
ments were appreciated, and for fifteen years he was called to 
serve as a member of the School Committee, and for a like term 
as a trustee of the Free Public Library. He was a member 
of the Common Council four years, during two of which he was 
president ; and at the same time he filled various responsible 
offices of a more private nature. In person Mr. Attwill was 
of medium size and apparently possessed of a firm and healthy 
constitution. His countenance was usually of rather a serious 
cast ; but he had a vein of genuine humor which would not 
unfrequently assert itself to the enjoyment of appreciative friends. 
He built the fine residence on Essex street, at the jundlion 
of High Rock avenue, and there he died, leaving a widow, one 
son, and three daughters. 

Axey, James — was one of the first settlers, having appeared 
here as early as 1630. He was a man of considerable importance 
and possessed a fair estate for those times. He was a Repre- 
sentative in 1654 ; and in 1657, was one of the committee 
appointed to lay out Nahant in planting lots. Axey's Point 
the site of the present gas-works, perpetuates his name. 

We are inclined to think that he had some share in domestic 



Biographical Sketches. Axey. 109 

trials, to which so many are exposed through the infirmities 
of our common nature ; yet there is no conclusive evidence that 
he did not, on the whole, live as peacefully with Frances his 
spouse as is the ordinary experience, though she does appear to 
have had a wakeful eye for the main chance. Her vigilance, 
alert to the last, is shown by certain depositions still on file 
in Salem, concerning his attempts to make a will. When draw- 
ing near his end, he proposed executing such an instrument ; 
but her opposition prevailed, and he refrained. On his decease 
she was appointed administratrix of his estate, but did not long 
survive to enjoy any gain she possibly may have made by her 
successful interference. He died June 7, 1669, and she a few 
months after. 

An extra6l or two from the quaint depositions filed in the case 
will be sufficient to show that human nature has changed but 
little since that time. Andrew Mansfield, aged about forty-nine 
years, " Testifyeth y' In y^ tyme of the sickness of James Axey : 
I being severall tymes with him, one off which tymes was, to my 
best memory, about three weeks before hee dyed, hee signifyde 
his desyrd to make his will, his wife being present ; & hee began 
to Declare his intent toward John Pearson, declareing hee would 
leve him to have the greater Lott, and then his wife spoke as 
houlding out to my understanding y* she would have him to make 
noe will, saying can not you confide in me y* I will perform what 
yeo mind is, but you will give awaye all. He answered I intend 
to give nothing from you whilst you Live except some suche 
legasye or Legasyees ; shee then replied hee might if he would 
make his will, but [he] sayd I will not, you cannot consent to it ; 
and I replyed it was an Apoynted of God to sett his house in 
order, and instanced that of Hezekiah : sett thy house in order 
for thou must dye, and did declare to him y* I hoped God would 
guide him in soe doeing ; but she replying, hee alsoe replyed, 
saying I can dispose of none of my estate, &c. ; and being 
troubled, wee then got him to bed. ..." Joseph Rednap 
and Samuel Johnson testified that " they Being att y^ house of 
James Axey ten days before he dyed, the wife of James Axey 
asked him, before us, what he ment by those words which he 
spake the last night ; which was you said I bequeath my spirritt 
to God and estate to John Pearson, and took him by the hand 



I lo Biographical Sketches. Bachelor. Baker. 

and said, Love, is not your mind as it was formerly agreed 
between you and I : and he said yes ; and he sed by my estate 
to John Pearson I meane he should looke after it for you." Sam- 
uel Tarbox testified that " beinge in the house of James Axey 
about two nights before hee dyed and Nathaniell Kirkland and 
John Pearson was there the same time, and Nathaniel Kirkland 
s^ to John Pearson, I marvell yoo do not Ask your maister how 
hee hath disposed of his goods. And James Axey hearing their 
discourse said, brother Kirkland I will satisfy you concerning 
it ; I had thoughts to have made a will and to have disposed 
of some things att my death, but my wife was not willinge, for 
I would not cross her, but leave it to her." Mr. Kirkland added 
that he did not remember the words " leave it to her." In an- 
other deposition of Andrew Mansfield, which was given some- 
time after the death of both Mr. and Mrs. Axey, he says : 
" being with James Axey in the time of his last sickness, which 
was, to the best of my memory, aboute three weekes before his 
death, his wife and Joseph Fiske being present, his wife oposing 
the s^ James Axey, her husband, in order to the making of his 
will, according as in my first testimony which is in Court, the 
said James Axey before his wife and Joseph Fiske solemlye Left 
it with mee that if any should aske why hee did not make his 
will I should tell y"" hee would have done it but his wife would 
not Let him, and I was then to have written it." See Annals, 
1630 and other early dates. Mr. Axey's signature may be seen 
appended to the Armitage Petition. 

Bachelor, Rev. Stephen — first minister of the first church 
in Lynn ; an active and prominent divine, but possessing such 
eccentricities of chara6ler that his early removal became expedi- 
ent. He was born in 1561, and lived to reach his hundredth 
year. See Annals, 1632, 1636, and other earl}' dates. 

Baker, Christine — a maid and matron of various fortunes ; 
an Indian captive ; a ward of the French Catholics, in Canada ; 
a returned wanderer. See Annals, 1630. 

Baker, Daniel C. — third Mayor of Lynn. See biographical 
sketch, page 566 History of Lynn, 1865 edition. Also notice 



Biographical Sketches. Baker. Barker. Bassett. 1 1 1 

with portrait, page 151 Centennial Memorial. He died in New 
Orleans, La., July 19, 1863, aged 46. A fac-simile of his signa- 
ture follows. 





Baker, Edward — ancestor of the numerous family of the 
name hereabout. His autograph appears on the Armitage Peti- 
tion. See Annals, 1630. 

Barker, Dr. Charles O. — a reputable physician. He died 
January 8, 1843, aged 41. His wife was a daughter of Rem- 
brandt Peale, the celebrated painter. He left no children. See 
Annals 1843. His residence was on Western avenue, near Mall 
street. An amusing anecdote about his introduction to Dr. 
Hazeltine may be found in our notice of the latter. 

Bassett, William. Mr. Bassett died very suddenly on the 
night of June 21, 1871, aged 68 years. He was a native of Lynn, 
and well-known from having been much in public life. And for 
his many virtues and kindly sympathies he was as widely re- 
spected as known. At the time of his death he was cashier 
of the First National Bank, and had filled that office for eighteen 
years. He was quite aftive and efficient in the labor of putting 
the new municipal machinery into successful operation when the 
City Charter was adopted, and for the first three years was City 
Clerk. He was a zealous and intelligent laborer in the cause 
of education and the moral and social reforms of the day, and in 
early manhood sought by a61:ual experience and observation to 
determine the value of various "community" systems then ex- 
isting ; for he was well convinced that the condition of our social 
life might be greatly improved by some radical changes in the 
domestic economy. Yet he did not appear to have had his 
hopes verified, and returned to the home of his youth to remain 
till the close of his life. Although bred in the orthodox Quaker 
faith he became a Unitarian, and for a long period was a faithful 
and useful member of the society here. Indeed he was faithful 



112 Biographical Sketches. Batchelder. Bennett. 

and useful in every position he filled. He was patient in inves- 
tigations, accurate in conclusions, and affable in manners ; a 
good penman and careful recording officer. On the day of his 
burial some of the principal business houses were closed in token 
of respe6l ; and though the weather was very inclement, a large 
concourse attended. Some prominent persons from abroad were 
present ; among them Wendell Phillips the orator and William 
Lloyd Garrison the anti-slavery reformer. His remains were 
interred in Pine Grove Cemetery, in the original laying out of 
which he took an a6live part. In our Annals, under date 1640 
may be found a genealogical sketch of the family A fac-simile 
of his signature is here given. 




Batchelder, Jacob — first principal of Lynn High School, 
and for some years librarian of the Free Public Library. He 
died December 17, 1876, aged 70 years. See Annals, 1876. 

Bennett, Samuel. The name of this early settler is perpetu- 
ated by the extensive swamp near our northern border. He was 
a considerable real estate owner, many of his acres lying in the 
vicinity of the ancient iron works, near which he resided. He 
was one of the early members of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery, in good circumstances, public spirited, and withal 
possessed of considerable independence of charafter — a little 
wilful, perhaps. In 1644 he was presented by the grand jury as 
a " common sleeper in time of exercise," and fined two shillings 
and sixpence. And for one or two other offences of equal enor- 
mity he suffered punishment. He seems to have been once fined 
for a breach of the law forbidding the sale of commodities at too 
great a profit ; and on petitioning for a remittal of the fine 
received this rebuff from the Court. It is found on the Colony 
Records under date May 15, 1657. "In answer to the petition 
of Samuell Bennett, humbly craving the remittment or abatement 
of a fine imposed on him by the County Court, for selling goods 
at excessive prizes the Court hauing pervsed, and by theire 
comittee examined, the papers in the case presented, together 



Biographical Sketches. Bennett. 113 

w* the allegations & pleas of the peticoner & others, by him 
produced, vnderstanding, by what appeared, the peticoner re- 
ceived of George Wallis about forty pounds or vpwards meerely 
for the release of the bargaine made betwixt them, . . . see it 
not meete to graunt the petition in whole or in part." Mr. Wal- 
lis had also been fined " fivety pounds " for " selling goods at 
excessive prizes," and petitioned for a remittal ; and the same 
Court judged it " meete to remitt the fine all to tenn pounds;'' 
which remittal was made in consideration of his being neces- 
sitated " to be at the losse of about forty pounds or more to 
attayne a release of the bargain betwixt him & Samuell Bennett." 
It seems to have been what is vulgarly called a " game of sharps," 
between Mr. Bennett and Mr. Wallis ; but the Court, while 
endeavoring to render an equitable judgment, were not disposed 
to see invaded the wholesome law forbidding the selling of goods 
at exhorbitant prices. 

There is a deposition of the noted Samuel Maverick of Nod- 
dle's Island, as East Boston was called till within a comparatively 
late period, touching a certain agreement of Mr. Bennett relative 
to the marriage of his son, which has been quoted for one or two 
purposes. It is as follows : " Samuel Maueric, aged 61 yeares 
or thereabouts, deposeth that sometime last yeare, having some 
speech w'^ Samuell Bennet, sen"" of Lynn, as to a match intended 
betweene his son Sam' Bennett, Jun"" & a dau. of Capt. W'" Har- 
grave of Horsey doune. Mariner, The s'^ Bennett, sen"" did prom- 
ise that if his sonne should marry w'*^ s^^ Hargraues dau. he would 
make over to him the house he now Hues in with barns, stables, 
lands, &c. belonging to s"^ farme & £,%o of stock ; w"^ this proui- 
soe that s^ Bennet, Jun"" should yearly pay his father during his 
life ;£20 if he needed it or demanded it ; and to the best of my 
remembrance he wrote so much to Capt. Hargraue. He also 
tyed his sonne not to alienate the premises w^'^out his consent 
dureing his life. Thus much he testifieth, and further saith not. 
Boston, Dec"" 7* 1665. Taken upon oath the 8"' Dec. 1665. 
Samuell Maverike. Before Thomas Clarke, Commiss." 

Various facts of interest concerning Mr. Bennett may be 
found recorded in Annals, running on from date 1630. Few 
of the settlers within our borders were better adapted to keep 
things in lively trim than Mr. Bennett. o 



114 Biographical Sketches. Blanchard. 

Blanchard, Amos. Master Blanchard, as he was always 
called, was for some ten years teacher of the western district 
school, and the house in which he taught was a small square 
one story wooden building, with hipped roof and unoccupied 
belfry, standing near the latitudinal centre of the west end of the 
Common, within a stone's throw of the eastern end of Healey's 
Arcade. The pay of common school teachers, in those days, was 
meagre, not often, in country places, exceeding a dollar a day ; 
and Master Blanchard, having a wife and twelve children to 
provide for, at times found it extremely hard rubbing. But in 
addition to his day school he received from minor auxiliary 
employments a little help. He taught a private evening school 
at different seasons ; from his skill in penmanship, for he wrote 
a beautiful hand, he derived something ; from the exercise of his 
musical talents he received a pittance ; and his " grateful coun- 
try," in return for his services as a fifer in the revolutionary 
army granted him a small pension. Nevertheless, he lived and 
died a poor man — poor in purse only, however ; for he was rich 
in the respect of his fellow townsmen. The pay for " literary 
services," to use a favorite expression of his, was at that time small, 
as just remarked, and having before us at this moment a re- 
ceipted bill of his that shows something of his prices, there 
seems no objection to inserting it just as it stands : 

" 1 82 1. M-- Benja Newhall, To A. Blanchard, D"" 

To the Instru6lion of your son, 6 weeks, i 20 

To the Instru6lion of your Daughter, 30 



I 50 
Sep' Rec"^ payment, Amos Blanchard." 

The barbarous old laws allowing indiscriminate imprisonment 
for debt were then in force, and it is not remarkable that a man 
circumstanced as Master Blanchard was should once in a while 
find it necessary to procure a substitute to take his place in the 
school, for thirty or sixty days. But he bore his misfortunes 
with complacency and never yielded to the misanthropic mood. 
In music he always found a solace, and upon its wings his spirits 
could rise in the darkest hour. He was one of the most accom- 
plished musicians ever resident hereabout, and composed several 
pieces which took rank among the approved compositions of the 



Biographical Sketches. Blanchard. 115 

day. He led the singing at the Old Tunnel, from 181 1 to 1824, 
and played the bass-viol with an un6lion that was inspiring. 
With the doftrines taught in that venerable san6luary he was in 
full accord and did all in his power to advance both the tem- 
poral and spiritual interests of the society. In some of her 
darkest hours his hopeful voice was raised. 

For a few years before the date of the above receipt, 1821, 
the writer attended his day school, and with a recolle6lion of the 
routine of study comes a feeling remembrance of the discipline. 
The rod was not spared, in those days, though Master Blanchard 
was not given to its severe use. But yet, when in the morning 
he announced that any boy who misbehaved during the day 
would be " made an example of," we all felt that there would be 
squalls before night, and our forebodings seldom failed of being 
realised. Reading, spelling, defining, writing, ciphering and a 
little grammar were taught ; and there were other important 
things impressed upon us which seem to be too much neglected 
in the schools of the present day ; namely, good manners, and 
corre6l deportment, as well out of school as in, as well in the 
street as in the parlor ; and especially was respe6l for superi- 
ors in age inculcated. 

Master Blanchard at one time lived in the old Merry house, 
which stood on the north side of Boston street, nearly opposite 
the foot of Mall. And in fancy the writer can at this moment 
see him, of a balmy summer morning, wending his way towards 
the scene of his scholastic labors, his whole air expressive of the 
combined dignity of classic and musical erudition, his long, light 
calico gown swaying in the breeze as proudly as if it were 
a Roman toga investing some grave senator. 

As before remarked. Master Blanchard was the father of 
twelve children, ten of whom came with him when he removed 
hither from Exeter, N. H., in 181 1. The other two were born 
here. His daughter Levina became the wife of John Lovejoy, 
for many years a successful morocco manufa6lurer and resident 
of Market street, whose descendants remain. 

Such men as Master Blanchard leave an enduring impress 
upon a community. The influence of the good principles he 
enforced — for besides the routine of study, he usually devoted an 
hour or two every week to le6luring us on morals, manners, or 



ii6 Biographical Sketches. Bowler. Boyce. Breed. 

some didaftic subjeft, closing with a fervent prayer — has not 
ceased to this day, either in this community or in many other 
fields to which his restless flocks became scattered. Yet, his 
was not what would be called a pronounced chara6ler, but 
one of those we are apt to speak of as "non-committal." In 
discussion he did not like to offend, and hence did not, on many 
occasions, press his views with a vigor commensurate with their 
value. In manners he was genial, in habits social, in morals 
strift. He was intelligent, and ready and interesting in conver- 
sation but not much given to humorous diversions. He died on 
the 25th of May, 1842, at the age of 78 years. 

Bowler, Thomas. Mr. Bowler was born in Lynn, on the 3d 
of January, 1786, and died July 22, 1867. He led an unostenta- 
tious life, and no one stood higher as a consistent Christian than 
he. Adhering to the earlier Methodist views and usages, he 
often saw cause to lament over the worldly tendencies of many 
of the faith, especially the young, particularly in matters of dress, 
amusements and display. In 1831, when the anti-masonic party, 
of which he early became an adherent, gained the ascendancy in 
Lynn, he was ele6i;ed Town Clerk, and held the office sixteen 
years. His records were kept in a careful and neat manner, and 
those of us who remember him in his official capacity can bear 
testimony to his accuracy, uniform courtesy, patience, and dispo- 
sition to oblige. His manners were gentle, his voice low, and his 
aspe6l subdued ; but his spirit was far from cringing. He was 
married in 1807, and became the father of eleven children, none 
of whom, with one or two exceptions, lived beyond middle life. 

Boyce, William S. — president of the First National Bank — 
died August 27, 1873, aged 63. See Annals, 1873. 

Breed, Allen — ancestor of our fifth and ninth Mayors. 
"Breed's End" took its name from him. The surname was in 
old times spelled Bre^d. See Annals, 1630 and other early 
dates. A fac-simile of his signature is appended. 




-J^^cg, 






Biographical Sketches. Breed. wj 

Breed, Andrews — was the fifth Mayor of Lynn. He died 
in Lancaster, Mass., April 21, 1 881, at the age of 86 years ; and 
as a notice of him, with a portrait, may be found in our Centen- 
nial Memorial, little need be said here. But of one or two of his 
ancestors, not elsewhere under notice, a word may properly be 
said. 

His father, who bore the same christian name was keeper 
of Lynn Hotel, at the west end of the Common, for a number 
of years onward from 1813 ; and under his supervision the house 
attained an enviable reputation, especially for the excellence 
of its table and the promptness with which the largest demands 
of guests could be met. He was a very stirring man, and recog- 
nised by every one in the streets, as he sallied forth on his 
brawny roadster, in his yellow top boots and coat of sporting 
cut. In addition to his large business at the Hotel he did a 
good deal of farming, and many of us can well remember the jolly 
husking parties which in autumn assembled at his bidding to 
divest the yellow ears of their rustling robes, and at evening 
receive their reward at the banquet of baked beans and Indian 
pudding, with relays of apples and cider. He was not a man 
who could pass noiselessly through the world, or who could yield 
much to what he deemed the unreasonable demands of those 
about him ; in short, he was of what is called an arbitrary dispo- 
sition, rather boisterous in language, and stri6l in his require- 
ments of those in service under him. No lazy man's excuses 
weighed with him. Among his enterprises was the laying out 
of Centre street. He was a descendant of Allen Breed, the early 
settler who was father of the Breed family of Lynn. 

Then there was the long celebrated " Madam Breed," grand- 
mother of Mayor Andrews. She kept a school for very young 
pupils, on Water Hill, at the moderate charge for each of nine- 
pence a week — a ninepence being the Spanish real, of the value 
of twelve and a half cents. There was at that time very little 
silver of American coinage in circulation. Spanish pistareens, 
reals and half-reals constituted almost the whole change we had. 
Madam Breed was of such queenly dignity that it was said she 
would not allow even her own children to be seated in her pres- 
ence without permission. Where she would have ranked had 
the " Woman's Rights " question been agitated in her day it is 



ii8 Biographical Sketches. Breed. 

not easy to determine. But she was a good woman, though her 
education was hardly sufficient to answer the demands for a 
modern high school position ; yet her pra6lical view of the duties 
of life and conception of the dignity of the female charadler emi 
nently fitted her for the guidance of susceptible girlhood. Ovei 
her little subjefts in the school room she had good control, and 
inspired in them a wholesome fear of the tingling little rod that 
lay menacingly on her table. But it seems as if her usefulness 
would have been greater in a higher sphere and among more 
mature minds. She loved children : and the writer has specia 
cause for grateful remembrance of her ; for upon a certain Sun 
day morning, while posted on his accustomed seat in the Old 
Tunnel Meeting-house, he was startled by a sudden punch in 
the back, and on turning about beheld, thrust through the little 
creaking balustrade that adorned the pew, the hand of the venera- 
ble dame, displaying to his astonished gaze sundry yellow and 
red sugar-plums. His wonder at the condescension was so stu- 
pefying that he did not venture to seize the prize till a gracious 
nod assured that it was inten ed for him. And it is well remem- 
bered that more satisfa6lion was felt at the honor of the bestowal 
and on being referred to by his juvenile companions as " the 
fellow" to whom Madam gave the sugar-plums, than in the 
legitimate use of the gift. 

As elsewhere remarked, the Breed family is one of the largest 
and most respe6lable among us, as it is one of the most ancient. 
Mayor Andrews Breed was a man of medium size, ereft, well- 
proportioned, and adtive in his movements even after he had 
reached the age of eighty years. A fac-simile of his autograph 
is here given. 



(LyprL.(^ju*-<y^ 



^^■^ ^/-^ — ^ 



Breed, Dr. Bowman B. Doctor Breed died on the i6th of 
December, 1 873, of Bright's disease of the kidneys. He was born 
in Lynn, February 29, 1832, and was a son of Hon. Isaiah Breed. 
After pursuing his elementary studies in Phillips Academy, 
Andover, he entered Amherst college, in 1853, and continued to 
maintain a creditable rank in scholarship till he graduated. He 



Biographical Sketches. Breed. 119 

then chose the profession of medicine, and after a course of study 
here, visited Europe for study and travel. On his return he 
commenced practice in Lynn, continuing till the war of the 
Rebellion broke out, at which time he joined the Eighth Massa- 
chusetts Regiment, as surgeon. Subsequently he was put in 
charge of government hospitals and sanitary establishments in 
several places, and throughout his term of service acquitted him- 
self with fidelity and success. After the close of the war he was 
appointed Surgeon of the Military Asylum at Augusta, Me., and 
there continued till the destru6tion of the place by fire. After 
that he resumed pra6lice in Lynn ; but though skillful and de- 
voted his health was such that he could not apply himself with 
the constancy necessary for the building up of an extensive 
business. He finally relinquished his profession, and for a year 
and a half was co-editor and proprietor of the Reporter newspaper. 
He was a member of the City Council for several years, and a 
Representative in the General Court. As a member of the 
School Committee, likewise, he was attentive and efficient. In 
short, he took commendable interest and discreet a6lion in all 
that seemed most conducive to the highest good of his native 
place. Being a member of several organizations, benevolent, 
professional, and military, his funeral was attended by large 
numbers who had become attached by brotherly and social ties. 
By the City Council his decease was noticed in a manner that 
showed his loss to be regarded as a public calamity. 

Dr. Breed married Hannah Pope, October 20, 1859, ^'^^ by 
her had six children. 

Breed, Ebenezer. A biographical sketch of this individual, 
popularly known as " Uncle Eben," whose marvelous good fortune 
at one period and distressingly adverse circumstances at another, 
have furnished many an impressive lesson, is given in the 1865 
edition of the History of Lynn. He died in the almshouse, in 1 839. 
The following is a fac-simile of his signature, at the age of 31. 




I20 Biographical Sketches. Breed. Bridges. 

Breed, Hiram N. — the ninth Mayor of Lynn — is another 
creditable representative of the extensive family u^ho trace their 
pedigree to the early settler, Allen Breed. A notice of him, with 
a portrait, may be found in the Centennial Memorial. He was 
born on the 2d of September, 1809, and is still, 1881, in active 
life. A fac-simile of his signature follows. 



^■-r-^.^ A. /^. 



-r^- 



Breed, Isaiah — was for many years an active business man, 
in the shoe-manufa6luring line, and likewise took much interest 
in public affairs. He was one of the principal founders of the 
Central Congregational Society, and one of its chief supporters 
for a number of years. A brief biographical sketch of him may 
be found in the 1865 edition of the History of Lynn, page 541. 
He was born in 1786 and died in 1859. 

Bridges, Robert. Mr. Bridges — or Captain Bridges, as he 
was usually called — because of his having been, as one may say, 
the father of the first iron works in America, if for no other reason, 
should be held in remembrance. It was in 1642 that he took 
specimens of the bog ore found in Lynn, to London, and suc- 
ceeded in forming a company which soon after commenced 
operations here, ere6ling a bloomary and forge, the site of which 
is still shown by the " cinder banks," or heaps of scoria on the 
margin of Saugus river, in the vicinity of Pranker's mill. And 
although to its proje6lors the enterprise did not prove pecuniarily 
successful, it cannot be doubted that the result was of great and 
lasting benefit to the country at large, for it drew hither some 
of the most skillful workers in iron that England had produced, 
several of whom, even before the attempt had been abandoned, 
removed to other settlements and established works which under 
better management were highly successful, and added immensely 
to the general prosperity of the country. And it is a noteworthy 
fa6l that descendants of some of the operatives at these Lynn 
works, are at this day found among the leaders of the great iron 
trade of America. The iron turned out from the Lynn works 
was considered of very good quality, and it had a ready sale ; 



Biographical Sketches. Bridges. 121 

but the company was almost ceaselessly engaged in law-suits ; 
which was enough to ruin any incipient enterprise. 

The residence of Captain Bridges was in the vicinity of the 
works ; and Edward Johnson, in his " Wonder Working Provi- 
dence," says " He was endued with able parts, and forward to 
improve them to the glory of God and his people." And there 
is abundant evidence, from other sources, that his principles 
were of rigid puritanical stamp. He was an adling magistrate, 
and in that capacity did not always allow the kindlier sympathies 
to prevail when those brought before him dared to enunciate 
sentiments adverse to the prevailing faith or to question the 
authority of those appointed to guard against innovations. It 
was he who, in 165 1, granted the warrants for the arrest of Clarke, 
Crandall and Holmes, the Baptist missionaries from Rhode 
Island, concerning whose advent here, an account may be found 
in our Annals, under the date just named. And in the Essex 
County files may be found the following record of his official 
a6lion in the case of Thomas Wheeler, who appears to have been 
a man of chara6ler and some estate, and of whom a brief notice 
may be found in its alphabetical order in these pages : " 4th mo. 
1654. Thomas Wheeler, bound over to the Court by the wor- 
shipful Captain Bridges for sinful and offensive speeches made 
by him in comparing the Rev. Mr. Cobbet to Corah. It being 
proved by three witnesses, sentence of Court is, that he shall 
make public acknowledgment upon the Lord's day, sometime 
within a month after the date hereof, according to this form 
following, and pay the three witnesses £,12 2s. 6d. and fees of 
Court : [I, Thomas Wheeler, having spoken at a town meeting 
in February last, evil, sinful, and offensive speeches against the 
Reverend Teacher, Mr. Cobbet, in comparing him unto Corah, 
for which I am very sorry, do acknowledge this my evil, to the 
glory and praise of God and to my own shame ; and hope, for 
time to come, shall be more careful] The constable of Lynn is 
to see it performed." Mr. Cobbet, it need not be added, was the 
colleague of Rev. Mr. Whiting in the ministry of the First 
Church ; and the offensive words were probably spoken by Mr. 
Wheeler, in a heated town meeting debate, the ministers at that 
time being paid by the town, and the pastorate being regarded, 
in several particulars, as a town office. 



122 Biographical Sketches. Bridges. 

It was in 1649 ^^^^ ^^^ energetic protest against the wearing 
of long hair, " after the manner of ruffians and barbarous Indians," 
was promulgated, signed by the Governor and Assistants, of 
whom Captain Bridges was one. But the antipathy to the wear- 
ing of long hair, existing in those days, had a deeper significance 
than at first appears — a political tinge, indeed. In Cromwellian 
times, say for twenty years onward from 1640, the English roy- 
alists, cavaliers and high churchmen, delighted in " bravery of 
dress," and in long curling locks, while the puritans and par- 
liamentarians were distinguished by their round hats and by 
their hair " cut round according to a cup." This perhaps suffi 
ciently hints at a reason for the singular protest. But the 
antipathy began to manifest itself even before the time named. By 
the Salem records, " 21*^ of the &^ month, 1637," it appears that 
John Gatshell of Marblehead was fined ten shillings, to be paid 
in two months, for building on the town's land without leave ; 
but the proviso was added, that " in case he shall cut off his long 
hair of his head into a civil frame, in the mean time," five shillings 
of the fine should be abated. It is said, however, that he refused 
to be shorn of his darling locks. 

That Captain Bridges was a man of high chara6ter and very 
considerable attainment cannot be doubted. As a military officer 
he was in good repute ; as a diplomatist he was entrusted with 
important negotiations ; as a legislator he was for many years 
a6live in the public service, for ten years filling the responsible 
office of Assistant. In 1644 and '45 he was a Representative, 
and in 1646, Speaker of the House. 

His curious deposition in the case of Taylor against King, so 
well exhibits the simplicity and some of the peculiar customs 
of the times, that it seems well to introduce it here, with the prefa- 
tory remark that the a6lion was one brought to recover damages 
for the goring to death of the plaintiff's mare by the defendant's 
bull ; and Captain Bridges was a witness as to the vicious char- 
after of the bull. He says : " . . . myself being on horse- 
back with my wyfe behinde me, y^ s'^ Bull stood in the high way 
as I was riding a Longe. When I came up to the Bull, not 
knowing whos beast it was, neither thinking of any opposition, I 
struck at the bull, w'h my stick, to put him out of the way ; 
ymediately y^ bull made att my mare, and placed his home vpon 



Biographical Sketches. Bridges. 123 

her shoulder, and had well nigh overthrone both the mare and 
her riders ; and although I endeavored to shunne y'= bull, yet he 
still so prest vpon mee y' I cannot but conceave had not the 
neareman bin att hand to beat him off that some hurt had bin 
done, either to ©''selves or my mare, or both ; but gods good 
hand better provided." 

Captain Bridges was a member of the Ancient and Honorable 
Artillery, having joined in 1641. And in the codicil to the will 
of Robert Keayne, the eminent Boston merchant and first com- 
mander of that now historic corps, dated Dec. 28, 1653, this 
item appears : " I have forgott one Loveing Couple more that 
came not to my mind till I was shutting vp ; that is, Cap* 
Bridges and wife, to whom I give forty shillings." 

The foregoing is sufficient for a glimpse at various points in 
the charafter and career of one of the devoted men who so faith- 
fully labored in laying the foundations of the social fabric which 
has become our inheritance — men honest, religious, persevering, 
hopeful, and brave. Yet it must be admitted that Capt. Bridges 
was not of a specially genial disposition ; nor could he have been 
very popular in some of his relations. He had hard points 
of charafter ; was arbitrary, exacting, unyielding, in the smaller 
concerns of daily intercourse, and perhaps not sufficiently regard- 
ful of the minor rights of those about him ; for we all love to 
have our rights respedled even when they are of little value. 
In those days of difficulty and doubt minds were trained to meet 
the trials of life with a fortitude that amounted to heroism. In- 
deed, it was a favorite idea, that the affliftions men were called 
to endure were disciplinary ; that souls were purified by such 
means. This, however, was probably quite as much theoretical 
as otherwise, for the best of us would prefer to secure by obser- 
vation rather than experience, the good that might be derived 
from pain and suffering. 

In our Annals of early dates may be found many fafts concern- 
ing Captain Bridges not here alluded to. The Petition of Dame 
Armitage, presented in 1643, for license to keep the tavern, 
established by her husband in the westerly part of Lynn, as before 
remarked, was, no doubt, written by him. He was a remarkably 
good penman ; and his name is conspicuous among the signers, 
as may be seen by reference to page 106. 



124 Biographical Sketches. Brimblecom. Broivn. Bubier. 

Brimblecom, Col. Samuel — an early and enterprising shoe- 
manufa<5turer, public spirited, intelligent, and of genial manners. 
He was an admirer of the works of some of the old English 
writers and of the poets of later date, especially delighting in the 
writings of Pope, from which he was accustomed often to quote. 
He lived on Western avenue near Franklin street, and died April 
24, 1850, aged 81. See Annals, 1850. Brimblecom street, which 
after his decease was cut through a field belonging to the home- 
stead estate, took its name from him. 

Brown, Goold — a famous grammarian and author — lived on 
South Common street, and died March 31, 1857, aged 65. See 
Annals, 1857. 

Bubier, Samuel M. — was the fifteenth Mayor of Lynn. 
He was twice ele6led to the office, his inaugurations taking 
place on the first of January, 1877 and the seventh of January, 
1878. He is a native of Lynn, and was born in the Col. Mans- 
field house on Strawberry avenue, on the 23d of June, 18 16. 
His whole business life has been connefted with the shoe trade ; 
and he was a manufa6lurer for forty years, a considerable part 
of the time on quite a large scale. Few persons of his generation 
have done more to advance our staple industry than he, as he 
has ever held himself in readiness to introduce new and improved 
machinery, and to adopt any plan calculated to advance the 
interests of the trade. Some of the finest business buildings in 
the city were ere6led by him, and he has long been regarded 
as an enterprising, faithful, and meritorious citizen. On the 
30th of October, 1844, he married Miss Mary W. Todd, of Tops- 
field, Mass., and became the father of three sons and one 
daughter. Mr. Bubier, during the last few years, has gradually 
withdrawn from aftive business. A fac-simile of his signature is 
here given. 



0(yn<?n. 



iL^CJi^ ,^yC^ ' ^:^c^^L-<A«>-^ 



BuFFUM, James N. Mr. Buffum was our twelfth Mayor, and 
twice elected to the office. His first inauguration took place 
on the 4th of January, 1869, and his second on the ist of January 




Samuel M. Blibier, (Fifteenth Mayor of Lynn.) 



Biographical Sketches. Biiffiim. Biirrill. 125 

1872. He was born in North Berwick, Me., May 16, 1807, and 
his wife was a daughter of Dr. John Lummus of Lynn. A bio- 
graphical sketch, with a portrait, may be found in the Centennial 
Memorial, and a fac-simile of his autograph is hereto appended. 





^^C^ui^^cJ c/y , ^ i-y ///f/'t^l/^^V-^ 



BuFFUM, Jonathan. Mr. Bufifum was for many years promi- 
nent in public life and aftive in business. He was intelligent, 
and in his opinions firm to the verge of obstinacy. He had keen 
sympathies for the oppressed, and in the anti-slavery cause was 
a zealous worker. He lived on Union street, opposite the head 
of Washington, and died June 22, 1868, aged 74. See Annals, 

i; 



BuRRiLL, Hon. Ebenezer — a Crown Counsellor, and other- 
wise conspicuous, in provincial times. He lived in Swampscott ; 
was born in 1679 ^"^ ^^^^ ^"^ 1761. A biographical notice, with 
some account of the Burrill family, may be found in the 1865 
edition of the History of Lynn, page 492, et seq. 

Burrill, George — one of the first settlers, and head of the 
family once called the royal family of Lynn. He lived on the 
western slope of Tower Hill. See Annals, 1630. A fac-simile 
of his autograph follows. 






Burrill, Hon. John — a Representative for some twenty 
years, and Speaker of the House ten years. He was highly 
respe6led by his associates, and extolled for his ability as a 
presiding ofhcer. He lived at Tower Hill; was born in 1658 
and died in 172 1. A biographical sketch appears in the 1865 



126 Biographical Sketches, Burton. Carncs. Chadwell. 

edition of the History of Lynn. He was a good penman, as the 
fac-simile of his signature here given shows. 




om Si^rj^'^ 



Burton, Boniface. This somewhat noted individual died on 
the 13th of June, 1669, at the age of 113 or 115 years as has 
been repeatedly asserted. But it is claimed by others that he 
died at about the age of 90. His autograph appears among. 
those attached to the Armitage Petition, page 106. There was 
a propensity in early times to overstate the ages of elderly people ; 
yet we find no conclusive evidence that Mr. Burton's years were 
not as many as the largest number claimed. See Annals, 1630. 

Carnes, Rev. John — minister, magistrate, and politician. 
'Squire Carnes, as he was called, lived on Boston street ; and 
Carnes street, which was opened through land belonging to his 
estate, perpetuates his name. His dwelling was of wood, two 
stories in height, and stood where the last named street enters 
Boston street. A couple of enormous buttonwoods, looking as 
if reared for gate posts, stood in front. It was once a somewhat 
pretentious residence ; but in its last years was shabby, and 
presented anything but an inviting appearance. He died on the 
26th of 06lober 1802, aged j?,. See Annals, 1802. 

Chadwell, Thomas. The Chadwell family is one of the oldest 
in Lynn, and has always had prominent and worthy members. 
Thomas, the above-named, was here as early as 1630, and settled 
as a farmer in the seftion known as Breed's End. There was 
also a Richard Chadwell here, in 1636 ; but the next year he 
went off with the Sandwich settlers. See Annals, 1630. 

Lieutenant Harris Chadwell of the Revolution was a descend- 
ant of Thomas. So also was the late William Chadwell, for many 
years deputy sheriff of the county ; an officer in many respedls 
well qualified for the performance of his often disagreeable duties. 



Biographical Sketches. Chadwell. 127 

He was convivial in his habits, a6live and mirthful. After his 
retirement from the office of sheriff he was for a time ticket-master 
at the Central Depot ; and it was while he held this position 
that the depot safe was blown open and robbed, during a thunder 
storm, on the night of May 6, 1848. He was rather a strong 
political partisan ; took an adlive interest in town affairs ; and 
with many became unpopular by the ardor with which he op- 
posed the anti-masonic movement. He was a member of the 
craft, and quite as zealous as discreet. But he was far from 
being deficient in good points of chara6ler ; was companionable 
and unselfish ; and as an officer, willing to exercise a reasonable 
degree of forbearance. 

A vein of eccentricity seems to have cropped out here and 
there in the line, in former years, though we never heard of its 
assuming an offensive chara6ler. We remember one of the 
family who some sixty-five years ago was a hard working man, 
laboring somewhat at rough farming and in winter, when the 
swamps were frozen, cutting and teaming wood. He was long 
marked for his amusing vagaries of speech ; especially for the 
curious discourses to his cattle as they jogged along their 
weary way. He would make the most extravagant promises to 
them as to the quality and amount of fodder they should receive 
in return for putting forth a little extra exertion. " Come, now, 
my friend, you off-ox, put in a little more of the tug and let us 
get home before sun-down, for it will be a dark night. You shall 
have a good supper of English hay ; we '11 put off the old cow 
with salt hay rations ; come, another strong pull and we '11 be over 
these hubbies ; and you, old horse, you know where I keep the 
corn and oats, and if you '11 get us home by supper time, you 
shall have your fill, if it takes ten bushels and a half It is 
meeting night, you know, and I want to be in my place. Come, 
come, now let us try that quick step. We '11 haul up at the 
Major's corner, a spell, and you can rest while I go in and get 
a little something warming ; your treat will come when we get 
home." With such discourse, uttered in a voice so loud that 
the passer-by might conclude that he thought his animals deaf, 
was the tedium of the way beguiled by the kindly teamster, he 
really appearing, by his earnestness, to fancy that his cattle fully 
understood his proposals and promises ; and what is quite as 



128 Biographical Sketches. Chase. 

remarkable they seemed to have some comprehension of his 
meaning and be willing to exert themselves to merit his favor. 
It was Bayard Taylor, if we rightly remember, who claimed that 
there are minds which can establish intelligent communication 
with lower animals. Perhaps there are, and that this Mr. Chad- 
well's was one of them. 

Chase, Hezekiah. Mr. Chase was for many years a well- 
known and highly respefted resident ; was first president of the 
Nahant Bank, and long identified with the business enterprises 
of the day. His residence was on Western avenue, near the 
Summer street crossing ; and the grist, spice, and coffee mills, 
in that vicinity, so long known as Chase's mills, were owned by 
him, and from him took their name. His death, which occurred 
on the 26th of March, 1865, was occasioned by injuries received 
on being thrown down by a sudden jerk of the cars as they 
started from the West Lynn depot. His age was 72, and he was 
a native of Plaistow, N. H. 

Chase, John. Mr. Chase, at the time of his decease, was one 
of the few remaining old-time shoemakers, and had little pra6lical 
knowledge of the recent improvements in the mode of manufac- 
ture, as well as little taste for them. At the age of twelve, in 
accordance with the custom of the time, he finished his schooling 
and was put upon the shoemaker's seat. And upon that seat he 
worked for seventy years, using the same lap-stone and several 
of the same tools, for that long period. How many feet his 
labors must have helped to clothe during those many years, we 
need not pause to calculate. He was an intelligent, worthy man, 
adlive in politics, and among the early advocates of the abolition 
of slavery. For thirty years he was a member of the First 
Methodist church. The old seat on which he worked and some 
of his tools have been preserved as relics that will be appreciated 
by curious inquirers into the earlier history of the great manu- 
facture of New England. He died on the 2d of 06lober, 1876, 
aged ^-^ years. 

Chase, Rev. Stephen — minister of the Lynnfield parish some 
twenty-four years. See Annals, 1755. 



Biographical Sketches. Checver. Childs. Clapp. 129 

Cheever, Rev. Edward — first minister of Saugus parish. 
See Annals, 1747. 

Childs, Amariah — manufa6lurer of a famous kind of choco- 
late. His mill was on Saugus river, at the Boston street crossing, 
and his residence on Boston street, nearly opposite Bridge. He 
died January 21, 1846, aged 80. See Annals, 1846. 

Clapp, Henry — known during the latter years of his life as 
the " King of the Bohemians." He made his appearance in 
Lynn, in or about 1847, and while here kept up a pretty lively 
agitation on some of the reformatory questions of the day. He 
was a man of undoubted ability and good education, terse and 
bold as a writer, and eloquent as a speaker ; but his utterances 
were often too reckless and extravagant to have the desired effe6l. 
He was editor of the Pioneer, a weekly newspaper, of which 
Christopher Robinson, a well-known shoe-manufacflurer was pro- 
prietor, and of whom Mr. Clapp was a sort of protege. In his 
editorials were many striking and valuable ideas, but far too 
often there was a lurking venom or pungency of expression that 
overshot the mark and destroyed the good effe6l, 

Mr. Clapp died in New York, early in 1875, and the newspa- 
pers here and abroad had much to say about his erratic chara6ler 
and career. It was he who said of Horace Greeley, that " he 
was a self-made man, and worshiped his maker." His literary 
efforts were chiefly confined to the newspapers, though the mag- 
azines were occasionally enriched by his articles. In the fifteenth 
volume of Harper's Magazine may be found a paper of his enti- 
tled " How I came to be Married," and in the sixteenth volume 
another, entitled " Love Experience of an Impressible Man." 
The latter volume also contains a poem of his entitled " My 
Illusions Spare," which is far above the average of magazine 
poetry, and may yet be garnered up as one of America's literary 
jewels. 

The following, which appeared in a Boston publication soon 
after the decease of Mr. Clapp, furnishes a comprehensive glimpse 
of him and the class to which he belonged. 

With the death of Henry Clapp, long known as the " King of the Bohemians," 
fades the memory of one of the most peculiar cliques of roystering literary charaflers 

9 



130 Biographical Sketches. Clapp. 

ever known. Not long ago Ada Clare, the " Queen of Bohemia," died a vicftim 
of that strange malady, hydrophobia, and the rest of the colony that once met at 
Pfaff's beer saloon, on Broadway, to enliven the midnight hour with songs and jokes 
and reckless repartee, are either dead or dispersed, or turned respeftable. The 
most brilliant lights went out some years ago, when George Arnold and Fitz James 
O'Brien died, and Clapp retired from the Bohemian throne. Others are still living, 
but the haunts that once knew them know them no more. There is Walt Whitman, 
a confirmed invalid ; " Doestick" still lives, but the uniflion of his humor has passed 
with the increasing obesity of his body ; Ned House is in Japan, conne6led with the 
educational department of the government ; and Willie Winter has subsided into a 
taciturn and sedate, though bright and vigorous critic. There were women in Bohe- 
mia besides Ada Clare. There was Jenny Danforth, who is dead, or in obscurity 
almost as complete as death ; Dora Shaw, who claimed the authorship of " Beautiful 
Snow," but could not maintain the doubtful honor ; and Mary Fox, still lively and 
sharp-witted, the " M. H. B." of the St. Louis Republican. But then Bohemia is 
completely dead, though there are Bohemians enough of a straggling sort in Gotham 
yet, God wot. But the Bohemia over which Clapp presided, the bright, witty and 
wicked circle of writers in the basement beer saloon, whose quips and cranks were 
as sparkling and as evanescent as the foam on their glasses, is a thing of the past. 
It required a peculiar genius to call together and keep together such a company, 
and its existence and its opportunity are not likely to occur again in the present 
generation. 

The life of Henry Clapp was a strange one. He was born in Nantucket, and in 
his early life was a sailor. Afterwards he appeared as a temperance lefturer and an 
ardent advocate of the abolition of slavery, travelling extensively in the cause 
of reform. He was for some time in Paris, and after his return he made translations 
of some of the prominent socialistic works of Fourier. His first journalistic expe- 
rience was in editing an anti-slavery paper in Lynn, but he was best known as the 
founder of the "Saturday Press," and "Vanity Fair," in New York. Both of these 
were too bright and too impracticable to last. Many of the brightest of the Bohemi- 
ans were contributors to Vanity Fair, but all their wit could not keep it alive. Clapp 
afterwards became well known as " Figaro " of the Lander, a paper at one time 
owned and edited by Mayor Hall, and latterly he obtained a precarious livelihood 
by writing paragraphs for the Daily Graphic and sending occasional contributions to 
dramatic and musical journals from a New Jersey farm-house. His talent was 
essentially that of the French F'euilletonistes, bright, keen and witty, but unsub- 
stantial and ephemeral. In character he was of the essence of Bohemia, reckless 
and witty, caring and thinking little of the serious concerns of life, but living as those 
who say, " Let us eat, drink and be merry, for to-morrow we die." That to-morrow 
of death has come for tienry Clapp, and no one can have the heart to throw anything 
but the mantle of charity over his bier. 

There would, perhaps, be little reason for introducing Mr, 
Clapp in this connexion, were it not that he played so conspic- 
uous and sensational a part while here. He fraternized with the 
" Comeouters," though guiltless of the extremes that chara61:er- 
ized the condu6l of some of the earlier ones, as noticed in our 
Annals, under date 1841. And it may be pardonable to add that 
the writer was well acquainted with him, and in common with 



Biographical Sketches. Cobbet. Coffin. Collins. 131 

others esteemed him highly for his generous and genial qualities. 
It was likewise our fortune, while a resident of New York, to 
very well know one or two of the other " Bohemians " named 
above. The fa6l is, that " clique of roystering literary char- 
afters " led a sort of dual lives — now in the society of the better 
class of literary workers, supplying, with amazing facility, elab- 
orate papers and high-toned critiques, and anon at some Pewter 
Mug rendezvous, bandying quibs and relating wild adventures. 
Their condition and appearance were attributable to utter impro- 
vidence. They could earn money, and some of them did get high 
prices for magazine articles and editorial assistance ; but what 
did they do with their earnings .'' 

The writer one day, during a later visit to the city, on 
passing down Fulton street met one of the " Bohemians " named 
in the foregoing extra6t, whom he had not seen for months, and the 
greeting was cordial. The meeting happened to be near a res- 
taurant and it was about noon. " Come, come," said he '* now 
let us step right in here, and I '11 order something for the encour- 
agement of the inner man ; and over the supply we '11 have a 
talk." " But I can't," was the repl}^ for I am now on the way to 
a steamer, and cannot delay," " Well, then, good-by ; and per- 
haps," he added with his old air of mock gravity, " it is about as 
well that you declined my generous invitation, for six cents is the 
grand sum-total of my funds." But he forsook the Bohemian 
life, is yet living, and his fame as a writer is second to that 
of but few either here or in Europe. 

Cobbet, Rev. Thomas — was settled over the Lynn church, 
in 1637, as colleague with Rev. Mr, Whiting. He was a marked 
chara6ler among the early New England divines. His autograph 
is attached to the Armitage Petition, page 106. Cobbet school, 
Franklin street, takes its name from him. See Annals, date 1656. 

Coffin, Dr. Edward L. — physician, scientist, and writer. 
He lived on Market street, and died March 31, 1845, ^g^d 50. 
A biographical notice appears in 1865 edition of History of Lynn. 

Collins, Micajah — minister of the Friends' society, and 
teacher of the Friends' school. He was born in Lynn, in 1764 



132 Biographical Sketches. Cooke. Curtin. Davis. 

and died in 1827. In the 1865 edition of the History of Lynn, 
appeared a biographical notice. 

Cook, Rev. Joseph — for a short time minister of the First 
Church — a pungent preacher and popular lecturer in America 
and Europe. See Annals, 1871. 

Cooke, Rev. Parsons — minister of the First Church, twenty- 
one years ; a rigid Calvinist, and warm controversial preacher 
and writer — born in 1800, died in 1864. See Annals, 1864. 

CooLiDGE, Oliver B. — well-known in various public positions. 
He died June 6, 1874, aged ^6. See Annals, 1874. 

CowDRY, William — whose autograph may be seen among 
those appended to the Armitage Petition, page 106, came here 
in 1630, but did not remain many years. He became one of the 
first settlers of Reading, and was very conspicuous there ; was a 
deacon of the church, a representative, sele6tman and town clerk 
from the beginning of the settlement till his death, in 1687, at 
the age of 85. He was born in 1602, and was a farmer. 

Curtin, Enoch — a poet and prose writer. He lived in the 
eastern section of the town ; was born in 1794 and died in 1842. 
For biographical sketch, with poetic specimens, see 1865 edition 
of History of Lynn. 

Dagyr, John Adam — famed throughout the province as a 
fashionable shoemaker. He died in the almshouse, in 1808. 
See Annals, 1750. 

Davis, Edward S. — the eighth Mayor of Lynn. For Bio- 
graphical notice, with portrait, see Centennial Memorial. 




Biographical Sketches. Doak. Doolittle. Downing. 133 

Dexter, Thomas — one of the most enterprising and noted 
of the early settlers. See Annals, 1630, et seq. The following 
represents his signature. ^ ^ c\ f? 

Doak, Benjamin F. Mr. Doak died at his residence, corner 
of Atlantic and Ocean streets, on the 8th of November, 1876, 
aged 50 years. He was a native of Lynn though of a Marble- 
head family, and after receiving a fair common school education, 
in early manhood began business in a small way as a shoe-man- 
ufafturer. By industry and shrewd management he soon attained 
a position among our first class business men. He was a con- 
spicuous and highly respe6led member of the First Universalist 
Society, and a much esteemed citizen and friend. At various 
times he filled positions of public trust, and on the day of his 
burial a number of large business houses were closed in token 
of respe6l for his memory. By will, he bequeathed " to the City 
of Lynn, the sum of ten thousand dollars to be invested by the 
City as a separate fund, the income thereof to be expended by 
said City for the benefit of its poor, in such manner as the City 
Council may direct." This bequest is what is now called " The 
Doak Fund." Mr. Doak was for some years known as Benjamin 
F. Doak, 2d, there being two others of the name, in the vicinity, 
his seniors. 

Doolittle, John — a settler of some note ; was one of the 
appraisers of the estate of Edward Holyoke. He removed to 
Boston, and was a constable in 1653. The Armitage Petition, 
page 106, bears his signature. 

Downing, Elijah — an early and zealous Methodist ; an a6ting 
magistrate and one interested in town affairs. He was born in 
1777; was a cabinet-maker; lived on North Common street, 
corner of Park ; died in 1838. See History of Lynn, 1865 edition, 
for a biographical notice. 

Downing, Rev. Joshua Wells. Mr. Downing was one of 
the most promising young men Lynn has produced, and by his 
early death she no doubt lost one who would have done much to 



134 Biographical Sketches. Draper. Driver. Fay. 

extend her fame. He was born here on the fifth of March, 1813, 
and was a son of Elijah Downing, named next above. At the age 
of seventeen he entered Brown University, and graduated in 
1834. His original design was to adopt the legal profession as 
the business of his life ; but being brought to a deep sense of 
the greater dignity and importance of a profession that more 
nearly touched the higher concerns of men, he soon diredted his 
attention to the ministry, and in June, 1835, was received into 
the New England Methodist Conference, and stationed at Ran- 
dolph, in Norfolk county. The next year he was appointed to 
the Salem charge, and in the short space of two years after, that 
is, in 1838, had attained such a reputation as to be placed in 
charge of one of the oldest and most opulent churches of the 
denomination in New England — the Bromfield Street Church, 
in Boston. And in that charge, secure in the afife6lions of his 
people, and with an ever increasing reputation in the community 
at large, he remained till the time of his death, which occurred 
on the 15th of July, 1839. About one year before his death he 
married May Ann, a daughter of Daniel L. Mudge, who survived 
him ; but he left no children. His brother, the Rev. Elijah 
Hedding Downing, now a minister in the Protestant Episcopal 
Church, and who is a graduate of Bowdoin College, prepared a 
very sympathetic and interesting memorial volume, which was 
published in New York, in 1842. The sermons and addresses 
embodied in it evince a remarkably pure, well-trained, and ear- 
nest mind, and are composed in a terse, vigorous, and attra6live 
style. 

Draper, Alonzo G. — a commander in the war of the Rebel- 
lion ; shot from his horse, apparently by accident, in Texas, 
September, 1865. See Annals, 1865. 

Driver, Robert. Respe6lable descendants have sprung from 
this early settler, though not much is known of him. His auto- 
graph is on the Armitage Petition, page 106. He died in 1680, 
aged 87. See Annals, 1630. 

Fay, Richard S. — owner of the beautiful Mineral Spring 
estate — (Lynnmere). He died June 6, 1865. See Annals, 1865. 



Biographical Sketches. Forman. Fuller. Gardner. 135 

Fitch, Zachary, whose autograph is last on the Armitage 
Petition, had " 30 and ten acres " allotted to him in the land 
distribution of 1638. He moved to Reading, in 1644, and became 
a deacon in the church there. Fitch's Hill, so called, was a part 
of his estate. Few of his descendants are now found here. 

Flacg, Dr. John — a highly esteemed physician and revolu- 
tionary patriot ; lived on Marion street ; born in 1743, died May 
"^h 1793- See Annals, 1793. 

Flora — a pious negro woman of touching history; died in 
1828, aged 113 years. See Annals, 1828. 

Forman, Eugene F. — editor of the Lynn Daily Bee. His 
death was occasioned by a singular and distressing accident, 
September 3, 1881. See Annals, 1881. 

Fuller, Joseph — first Senator from Lynn, and first presi- 
dent of the first bank here — was born on Water Hill, March 
29, 1772. See History of Lynn, 1865 edition, page 505. 

Fuller, Maria Augusta — poetess and prose writer — was 
born in Lynn, Dec. 9, 1806, and died January 19, 183 1. A bio- 
graphical notice, with specimens of her writing may be found in 
the 1865 edition of the History of Lynn. A fac-simile of her 
signature follows. . . /' /ty 



Gardner, Dr. James — a physician of high standing, and 
much respefted for his good judgment and benevolence. He 
died December 26, 1831, aged 69. His residence was on Boston 
street, near Bridge. See Annals, 1831. 

Gardner, James H. — was born in Lynn July 29, 1796, and 
died in Richmond, Va., September 10, 1877. He was a son 
of Dr. James Gardner, just named, and a grandson of Dr. Flagg, 
who occupied the "Billy Gray" house. He became a resident 
of Richmond in early life, and for many years carried on a large 



136 Biographical Sketches. Gates. Gillow. 

and successful business there, maintaining a chara6ler for integrity 
and liberality attained by few. The Richmond Despatch, in an 
obituary notice, said of him, "There was no man who was more 
worthily loved and respedled, and no man whose life was more 
exemplary." He always entertained the highest regard for his 
native place, and until the infirmities of age overtook him, made 
an annual visit, encouraging her public enterprises and liberally 
bestowing in charity, from his large means, which, however, 
became sadly reduced by the calamities of the civil war, an 
occurrence which he deeply deplored. He was an a6live member 
of the Protestant Episcopal communion, and even as far back 
as 1 8 19, when the first attempt was made to establish a church 
here he looked hopefully forward to the time when her benign 
influence would pervade the community ; was a strong and help- 
ing friend to St. Stephen's in her darkest hours, and happily lived 
to see her in comparative prosperity. A memorial window has 
been placed in the church at Richmond, where he worshiped, 
and in which he was a vestryman and Sunday school superin- 
dent many years. 

Gates, Isaac — a shrewd but eccentric lawyer. His office 

and residence were on Market street, that street then being 

chiefly occupied by residences. He died Nov. 9, 1852. See 
Annals, 1852. 

Gillow, John. There were several Gillows here at an early 
period, but it does not appear that any of their descendants 
remain. The John whose autograph is to be seen on the Armi- 
tage Petition, page 106, was doubtless the shrewd individual who 
so successfully turned the tables on a pestilent fellow who sued 
him for the loss of a cow. The case occurred in 1638, and is 
thus related by Winthrop : " A remarkable providence appeared 
in a case which was tried at the last Court of Assistants. Divers 
neighbors of Lynn, by agreement kept their cattle by turns. It 
fell out to the turn of one Gillow to keep them, and as he was 
driving them forth another of these neighbors went along with 
him, and kept him so earnestly in talk, that his cattle strayed 
and gate in the corn. Then this other neighbor left him, and 
would not help him recover his cattle, but went and told another 



Biographical Sketches. Gould. Gray. 137 

how he had kept Gillow in talk, that he might lose his cattle. 
The cattle getting into the Indian corn, eat so much ere they 
could be gotten out, that two of them fell sick of it, and one 
of them died presently ; and these two cows were that neighbor's 
who kept Gillow in talk. The man brings his action against 
Gillow for his cow (not knowing that he had witness of his speech;) 
but Gillow, producing witness, barred him of his action, and had 
good costs." Mr. Gillow died in 1673. 

Gould Dr. Abraham — A skillful physician, of large praftice. 
His residence was on Boston street, a furlong east of Tower Hill, 
and he died February 27, 1866, aged 58. See Annals, 1866. 

Grav, George — the Lynn Hermit — lived on Boston street, 
nearly opposite the entrance to Pine Grove Cemetery, and died 
February 28, 1848, aged 78. See Annals, 1848. 

It was natural enough that many wonderful stories touching 
the career of such a mysterious personage as Mr. Gray should 
have gained currency. The writer had occasional interviews 
with him, and knew that he was well aware of the gossiping 
indulgencies of his neighbors. But he was shrewd enough never 
to admit or deny the truth of anything that was said about him. 
Among the most interesting incidents in his veritable or imagin- 
ary history was his alleged connection with the fate of the French 
Dauphin, Charles Louis, son of Louis xvi and Maria Antoinette. 
It is easy enough to see how in a fertile imagination such an 
alluring connexion may have been suggested by the following 
fadls : A number of years ago the Rev. Eleazer Williams, a 
respe6table clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church, who 
had for a considerable period been laboring as a missionary 
among the St. Regis Indians visited Lynn. An article had 
about that time appeared in Putnam's Magazine, a periodical 
of high standing, presenting quite an array of evidence tending to 
show that this Mr. Williams was in truth the scion of royalty 
whose death history had all along informed us took place in 1795, 
through the cruel treatment of Simon, into whose relentless 
custody the revolutionary miscreants had resigned him. There 
were many, however, who did not feel assured that history, in 
this instance, spoke the exa6l truth. 



138 Biographical Sketches. Gray. 

Mr. Williams, during his visit to Lynn, which was brief» 
called on the writer, for the chief purpose of obtaining a specimen 
of the handwriting of the Hermit ; and no doubt he had interviews 
with others. That he felt confident that he really was the Dau- 
phin may not be disputed, the theory being that he had become 
well nigh demented by the heartless treatment of Simon — his 
memory and power of observation almost extinguished — and in 
that condition was secretly taken from that austere custody, 
brought to the wilds of America, and given in charge of a woman 
of the St. Regis tribe, who nurtured him lovingly. He believed 
that he had always been kept in sight by French partisans, and 
mentioned the fa6l that the Prince de Joinville, when in this 
country sought him out and had an interview at Green Bay, but 
was shy about stating the obje6l or result of the interview. The 
magazine article, however, intimated that the Prince had enjoined 
conditional secresy, and added that Louis Philip himself, after 
the return of his son, wrote to Mr. Williams. The almost idiotic 
condition to which the Dauphin had been reduced was urged as 
a reason why Mr. Williams had no clear recolleftion of things 
that happened before he attained the age of thirteen or fourteen — 
only a few dream-like catches. It was likewise mentioned as a 
significant fa6l that in the reign of Louis xviii the name of the 
Dauphin was omitted in the funeral solemnities for the deceased 
Bourbons. The Indian woman was said never to have claimed 
that the child was her own ; and it is asserted that when Professor 
Day placed before him a portrait of Simon, he gave a shudder ; 
and further, that he recognized a portrait of Madam Elizabeth as 
the likeness of one whom he had seen. It was also said that the 
ambassador Genet declared that the Dauphin was alive, in New 
York state, in 1817, though it is not known that he located him 
in St. Regis, which is in that state, and that a Frenchman named 
Boulanger, who died in New Orleans, in 1848, on his death-bed 
declared that he had a hand in bringing the royal child to 
America, 

These circumstances, in connexion with the fa6l that Mr. 
Williams was so anxious to obtain a specimen of the handwriting 
of the Hermit furnished a basis for a very interesting superstruc- 
ture. And it was soon claimed — on what authorit}' we have 
yet been unable to determine — that Gray was in France, a red 



Biographical Sketches. Gray. 139 

republican, during the most sanguinary days of the revolution, 
and was one of those who brought hither the ill-fated boy. 

What the truth in this mysterious matter is, it is now probable 
will never be known ; and though it may detra6l something from 
the romance of the narrative, we feel bound to add a few fa61s 
of a different aspe6l touching the identity of Mr. Williams. The 
name Williams has been long known in the St. Regis tribe, for 
it will not be forgotten that the minister of Deerfield who with 
his family was taken captive among others on the terrible night 
of the savage attack on the settlement, in 1703, was the Rev. 
John Williams. The captives were, with a few exceptions, finally 
redeemed. But his daughter Eunice had become so enamored 
of Indian life that she could not be induced to return to civiliza- 
tion, though she occasionally visited her early friends. Now we 
find it stated in the Historical Collections of New York, that 
this very Eleazer Williams was a grandson of Eunice who ad- 
hered to the surname of her father, and that he was educated by 
her Christian friends. For many years he was a devoted mission- 
ary in the tribe, and did much to ameliorate their condition. A 
late chief of the tribe bore the name of Williams, and was, no 
doubt, another descendant of Eunice. Assuming that these state- 
ments are all authentic, they would preclude a belief that Mr. 
Williams was the French Dauphin. But there is no conclusive 
evidence on the point, his own recollection being entirely at fault. 
He possessed one physical feature which was quite observable, 
namely, an unmistakable Bourbon nose. 

We remarked that when here Mr. Williams was anxious to 
obtain a specimen of the handwriting of the Hermit ; but he 
seemed to desire it for use in efforts then being made to secure 
the property left by Gray, who had lately died, for a claimant in 
whom he felt an interest, but whether one conne6led with old 
French affairs is not known. The following is a fac-simile of the 
Hermit's signature. 

Gray, William — best known by the inelegant sobriquet 
"Billy Gray" — an eminent merchant, and Lieut. Governor 




140 Biographical Sketches. Halsey. 

of the State. He was born in the Dr. Flagg house, Marion 
street, and died in Boston, November 3, 1825, aged 75 years, 
leaving many descendants. Rev. William Gray Swett, who was 
installed minister of the Unitarian society, January i, 1840, was 
a grandson of his ; and Chief Justice Gray, of our Supreme Court, 
and later an Associate on the Supreme Bench of the United 
States, was likewise a grandson. For biographical notice see 
1865 edition of History of Lynn. 

Halsey, Thomas. Not much will be found in our Annals, 
relating to this individual, though he was allowed a hundred 
acres in the land distribution of 1638, for he became interested 
in the Long Island enterprise, and was one of the settlers of 
Southampton. In his new location he became prominent and 
comparatively wealthy. Among his numerous descendants, scat- 
tered all over the country, several have won their way to distinc- 
tion and useful positions. Among the few from the eastern part 
of Long Island who joined the Continentals on the opening of the 
Revolution, was Jesse Halsey, who, on hearing of the battle 
of Lexington, started for the scene of conflict. He left his horse 
at Sag Harbor, crossed in a boat to New London, and after a 
tedious journey reached Boston just too late for a part in the 
battle of Bunker Hill. He became a Captain in the Continental 
forces, and as is stated by Mr. Howell, in his History of South- 
ampton, was standing near General Lee, at the battle of Mon- 
mouth, when Washington rode up, foaming with indignation, and 
demanded, " In the name of God, Lee, what do you mean .'' " and 
these, he ever afterwards declared, were the exa6l words of Wash- 
ington as distinftly heard by him on that momentous occasion. 
Daniel Halsey, another descendant, was born in the latter part 
of the last century, on the estate of his fathers, and became 
of some note as a poet. He had a good education, and enjoyed 
a high reputation as a teacher. The following opening stanza 
of a spirited ode written by him for a fourth of July celebration 
will remind some of our more elderly readers of the lyrical fire 
and patriotic sentiment pervading the produ6lions of Enoch 
Curtin, furnished for similar occasions : 

When the Goddess of Liberty found not a place 

Where the sole of her foot in the old world could rest. 



Biographical Sketches. Handford. 141 

She direfled the daring Columbus to trace 

A path to the new world unknown in the west ; 

In the wilds which she chose 

An empire arose, 
As by magic, of freemen redeemed from their foes, 
Redeemed from the hand of oppression and wrong, 
To the rights which by nature to all men belong. 

There is preserved another effusion of Mr. Halsey, written at 
the request of a tavern keeper for an appropriate inscription to 
be put upon his sign-board. It is rather suggestive, and reads 
as follows : 

Rum, whisky, brandy, cordial, porter, beer, 

Ale, applejack, and gin, are dealt out here, 

Diluted, raw, or mixt, in any measure, 

To all consumers : come and act your pleasure, 

The above specifics will, in time, God knows, 

Put to a period all your earthly woes ; 

Or would you bring life to a splendid close. 

Take double swigs, repeating dose on dose ; 

A panacea this for every ail ; 

'T will use you up ; 't was never known to fail ; 

Use up your property, ere scarce you know it, 

Use up your chara6ler, or sadly blow it, 

Use up your health and strength, and mind repose, 

And leave, mayhap, your carcass to the crows. 

And the following fragment, smooth in expression, and charged 
with wholesome truth, may be well worth the space it occupies : 

Hear when the widow and the orphan cry, 
And with a liberal hand the poor supply ; 
Nor with an envious eye the rich behold ; 
None are the better for their sums of gold. 
A virtuous mind should be our only test ; 
He is the worthiest man who is the best. 
Wealth can no real happiness bestow ; 
How few in higher life contentment know ; 
Then to the will of Heaven be thou resigned. 
Enjoy thy fortune and contentment find. 

Handford, Nathaniel. This is the " honest old man " who 
saw the wonderful apparitions in the air on a Sunday evening 
in March, 1682, when looking for a new moon, after a violent 
storm of wind, hail, thunder and lightning, as noticed under that 
date, in our Annals. From the account given by Rev. Mr. 
Shepard it is concluded that he was of an apprehensive and 
superstitious cast of mind ; but perhaps not more so than was 



142 Biographical Sketches. Haudford. 

common in those days. And that in his latter years he felt like 
retiring from life's combats, its cares and vexations is evident 
from the fa6l of his conveying the chief part of his estate to his 
kinsman Nathaniel Newhall, on condition of his providing a 
suitable home for him and his good wife Sarah, for their closing 
years. And we hope the trust was more faithfully executed than 
is sometimes the case at this day. Some passages in the deed 
of conveyance exhibit a meek, pious and trustful spirit, though a 
little weak withal, and may interest the reader : " To all Chris- 
tian people to whome this present Deed of Gift shall come, 
Nathaniel Handford of Lynn in y^ County of Essex, Gentl"" and 
Sarah his wife doe send greeting : . . . . Know ye that wee y^ 
said Nathaniel Handford and Sarah his wife being well stricken 
in yeares and thereby waxen weake and not fitt to continue alone 
and dwell by ourselves as wee haue done for a long space nor 
able to doe one for another as wee should in duty & loue would 
still bind us and should did not our natural strength faile us which 
we belieue y® Lord our good God and Sauiour in Jesus Christ 
will accept in and through him and not impute sin unto us but 
y^ consideration of y^ premises and duty bindeth us to take y* 
most effe6tuall course that wee can for our more easy and com- 
fortable liuing while our time is appointed which wee willingly 
wait on God for : And Seeing it hath pleased god to raise up 
our beloued kinsman Nathaniel Newhall of y^ same Towne and 
County aforesaid a ship-carpenter who had his name Nathaniel 
giuen to him in his Infancy for our sakes by his parents now 
Serjeant John Newhall Secundo and his now wife and our neer 
kinswoman and this said Nathaniel Newhall hauing shewed us 
kindness already and hath taken as wee Trust a good wife and 
hath obtayned a good and comfortable house to entertaine us 
and a convenient roome for us to Hue in our old age together 
where wee shall not be troubled with too much company and our 
said cousins are very willing to haue us to leaue our solitary 
place and condition and to remoue our selues into our Cousin 
Nathaniel Newhall aforesaid his house where he and his wife 

now dwelleth Wherefore for and in consideration of y* 

premises and being willing to free our selues of y^ Troubles and 
cares of y^ world and y® better to prepare our selues for our 
great and solemn change wee doe therefore accept of y^ kind 



Biographical Sketches. Hannibal. Hart. 143 

loue of our cousin Nathaniel Newhall and Rest his now wife." 
.... And then follow the proper terms of conveyance for the 
purpose shadowed forth in this excursive preamble. The instru- 
ment bears date March 31, 1687. 

The Nathaniel Newhall to whom the conveyance was made 
removed to Boston, a few years after, probably because his busi- 
ness as ship-carpenter was better there, and there he died, in 
173 1. His grave-stone may yet be seen in Copp's Hill burying 
ground. He was born in 1658, and was a grandson of Anthony 
Newhall, brother of Thomas, from whom most of the present 
Newhalls of Lynn descended. 

Mr. Handford was a haberdasher from London. See Annals, 
1635 and 1682. 

Hannibal — sexton of the Old Tunnel — a pious and worthy 
man — once a slave. See Annals, 1780. 

Hart, Samuel. Some uncertainty exists as to the precise 
time when this individual -first appeared in Lynn ; but he prob- 
ably came in or about 1643, and was employed at the iron works. 
The Harts became a noted family. Among the descendants of 
this sturdy settler not elsewhere spoken of, was Captain Ralph 
Hart, for many years a prominent and influential resident of 
Boston. He was born in Lynn, June 12, 1699, and was, we think, 
a grandson, though he is in some genealogical accounts set down 
as a great-grandson, of Samuel. In 1742 he was commissioned 
by Governor Shirley as " Lieutenant of the foot company of the 
Town of Boston," and in 1754, as Captain of the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery. He married Mary Hudson of Lynn, Nov. 
27, 1722, and she died August 2, 1733, aged 34. His second 
wife, Lois, died November 5, 1751, aged 46. Their grave-stones 
are still to be seen in Copp's Hill burying ground, in Boston, 
bearing little or no mark of injury by the ravages of the British 
soldiers during their occupation of the town. A daughter of his 
married Joshua Bowles, who belonged to a highly conne6led 
family, and was brother-in-law of Benjamin Lynde, Chief Justice 
of the Province. Their son, Captain Ralph Hart Bowles, served 
faithfully during the whole of the Revolution ; and after the war 
was over, settled on the outskirt of civilization near the Maine 



144 Biographical Sketches. Hart. 

frontier. His wife was distinguished for refinement, elegant 
manners, and true dignity and strength of chara6ler ; and her 
influence in molding the social condition of the little wilderness 
community was excellent and enduring. She died in 1847, at 
the age of 82, and her remains were entombed at Mount Auburn, 
in the lot of her son Stephen J. Bowles. Samuel Bowles, so 
long conspicuous and influential as editor of the Springfield 
Republican was a descendant. 

Then there was Edmund Hart, the skillful naval architeft, a 
native of Lynn, who lived in the Lois Hart house, on Boston 
street a few rods west of Federal. The famous frigate Constitu- 
tion was built at his ship-yard, in North End, Boston ; and as a 
good view of the yard could be had from Noddle's Island, now 
East Boston, hundreds went over from the town to see the 
launch. But the land which the ship-yard occupied does not 
seem to have been well chosen, as it was found that the ways 
were liable to sink. Two unsuccessful attempts were made 
before the frigate took kindly to her destiny. Sometime before 
the Revolution, Admiral Montague favored the project of having 
a British navy yard at the island, remarking that " the devil had 
got into the government when they fixed the navy yard at Hali- 
fax," for " God Almighty made Noddle's Island on purpose for a 
dock yard." But if it was preferable to Charlestown why did not 
our own government establish the navy yard there } Had a 
British dock yard been established there, in provincial times, 
instead of at Halifax, how different would probably have been 
the series of events that followed, and how different the condition 
of the whole country at this day. 

The Hart family is extensively distributed over the country ; 
and it seems quite certain that they did not all come from one 
family of immigrants. There was a John Hart, a Quaker preach- 
er, who came with William Penn, and settled in Pennsylvania, 
having purchased a thousand acres of land before coming over. 
He left male descendants, one or two of whom, having abjured 
the faith of their fathers, became conspicuous as military leaders 
in Indian confli61;s and in the Revolution. The similarity of 
christian names, however, rather indicates that all came from the 
same stock, not many generations back. " Honest John Hart," 
a well-to-do New Jersey farmer, whose name appears on that 



Biographical Sketches. Hart. 145 

world-famed instrument, the Declaration of American Independ- 
ence, and who for his temerity in thus employing his autograph, 
was subje6led to great hardship and loss, will never be forgotten. 
And a grandson of his, living in West Virginia, had five sons in 
the Union army during the war of the Rebellion. 

A neat volume of six hundred pages, embracing a genealogical 
history of Deacon Stephen Hart and his descendants evidently 
prepared with a good deal of care by Alfred Andrews of New 
Britain, Ct., was published a few years since ; and in the intro- 
duction is given a roving view of the family at large, which 
embraces some gatherings of much interest. In it are found the 
names of thirty-one authors, with the titles of their principal 
works ; among them Francis Bret Harte, the rollicking humorist, 
author of " Luck of Roaring Camp," &c. Then there are the 
names of twenty-seven physicians, twenty-five clergymen, and 
of soldiers who have served their country in various wars, two 
hundred and thirty. Few families can show a better record than 
the Hart. The earlier and more prominent of those in Lynn, 
seem to have located along Boston street, especially in the vicin- 
ity of Federal. Joseph Hart, a farmer, owned and occupied the 
ancient Richard Haven house that stood on the south-west 
corner formed by the two streets just named, and was for many 
years noticeable from the huge buttonwood standing in front. 
This house was the same that disappeared in a patriotic blaze 
on the morning of July 4, 1876, the centennial anniversary, as 
noticed in our Annals under that date. And upon the lot next 
west was the home of Edmund and Ralph Hart. There too 
lived their near kinswoman, Lois Hart, a strong-minded woman 
of the rougher sort — rough in speech and manners — made so, 
perhaps, in some degree, by the hard fortune to which she was 
subje6led. 

There is some doubt as to when the first person of the family 
name appeared in Lynn. There was an Isaac Hart here in 
1640, who is said to have afterwards removed to Reading. And 
if, as seems probable, he was the individual referred to in the 
following entry found on the Colony Records under date July 
30, 1640, there was some reason for his removal, and no cause 
for lamentation at his departure : " Isaack Hart bound himselfe 
in 20/. to bee of good behavio"", and M"" Rob^ Saltonstall bound 

10 



146 Biographical Sketches. Haven. Hawkcs. 

himselfe in 10/. for the said Isa : Hart his good behavio'', till he 

dep* out of the plantation, or bring a note from 

that he is free from fear." It does not appear what the rogue 
had done or left undone ; but it looks as if he was put under 
bonds for some sort of a threat. For genealogical tracings see 
Annals, 1650. The name has prevailed to some extent in Lynn 
for considerably more than two hundred years. And if there is 
an ambition to conne6l it agreeably with old-world associations, 
it may be mentioned that Shakspeare's sister Joan married a 
Hart, and that the illustrious bard left legacies to his three 
nephews, her children, the bequests being in these words : " Item : 
I give and bequeath unto her three sons William Hart, [Thomas] 
Hart and Michael Hart, five pounds apiece, to be paid one year 
after my decease." 

Haven, Richard. Mr. Haven was ancestor of the large 
family of the name now scattered all over the country. His 
wife, Susanna, was a sister of Thomas Newhall, the first white 
person born in Lynn, and they had twelve children. He lived 
in the old house that stood till 1876, on the south-west corner 
of Boston and Federal streets, when it was consumed in the 
centennial bonfire, on Reservoir Hill. Bishop Gilbert Haven 
and his cousin Bishop Erastus O. Haven, of the Methodist 
church, were lineal descendants of his. Samuel F. Haven, ll. d., 
a son of Judge Haven, who died in Worcester, September 5, 1881, 
at the age of 75, having served forty-three years as librarian 
of the American Antiquarian Society, was also a descendant ; 
and a son of the latter, a surgeon of great merit, who was attached 
to the Fifteenth Massachusetts Regiment, in the civil war, was 
killed in the battle of Fredericksburg. See Annals, 1640, and 
other early dates. 

Hawkes, Adam. This individual was one of the first comers, 
and located upon our inland border, in what is now known as 
North Saugus, having a grant of land which included the terri- 
tory containing the ore first used at the iron works. Possessing 
rather a lively suspicion that the company were inclined to 
encroach upon his rights, he was not always at peace with them ; 
and to him and his neighbor Dexter is no doubt to be attributed 



Biographical Sketches. Hazeltine. 147 

somewhat of that harrassing legal warfare that proved so disas- 
trous to the enterprise. A large and interesting gathering of his 
descendants was held on the original farm, on the 28th and 29th 
of July, 1880, of which a notice may be found in the Annals 
of that year. See also Annals, 1630. 

Hazeltine, Dr. Richard. Do6lor Hazeltine was one of those 
staid and sober gentlemen who have great weight in a community ; 
whose movements, professionally and socially, are well-considered, 
and who are not liable to be swayed by notions instead of prin- 
ciples. He was kind in manners, but very precise, and came to 
be popularly regarded as a strait-laced old-school gentleman. 
In short, he was just one of those persons who enjoy the respe6t 
but not always the love of those by whom they are surrounded. 
For professional dignity and propriety he was a great stickler ; a 
characleristic aptly illustrated by a little occurrence which took 
place when Dr. Barker came here, in 1832, and which the latter 
himself described to the writer in his inimitable semi-serious 
way. He had located near Lynn Hotel, into the hospitable public 
room of which gentlemen from all quarters of the town were 
accustomed to drop, to look over the newspapers — for no dailies 
were then distributed by carriers — and hear the gossip of the 
day. Deacon Field, as we all called him, was the managing 
spirit though not the proprietor of the establishment. He was 
adlive and polite, and indefatigable in his endeavors to make his 
domain attraftive and his visitors at ease. 

One morning, while Dr. Barker, who had been very kindly 
received by the four or five other physicians then resident here, 
was in the room, Dr. Hazeltine dropped in, and the Deacon 
availed himself of the opportunity to efife6t a formal introdu6lion. 
Dr. H. as soon as he heard the name of Dr. B. assumed one 
of his lofty looks — and he was so tall that he could look over 
the heads of most people — and without offering his hand, re- 
marked, " Ah, yes, I have heard of a Mister Barker coming to 
Lynn, as a physician ; but having examined the Medical Soci- 
ety's catalogue without finding his name I feel constrained to 
withhold professional recognition till further informed." Do6i:or 
Barker, naturally enough, not knowing the peculiarities of the 
other, felt a little nettled, and tartly replied, " But, Dr. Hazeltine, 



148 Biographical Sketches. Hazeltine. 

your examination was not thorough, or you would have seen by 
the errata that my name was accidentally omitted in the proper 
place." "Very well, Mr. Barker," rejoined Dr. H., " I will im- 
pose upon myself the duty of a further examination. In the 
mean time allow me to welcome you as a new resident of our 
town, and to bid you a very good morning." A few days after, 
Dr. H. called on Dr. B., informed him that he had re-examined 
the catalogue, found the fa6l as claimed, and with great cordiality 
welcomed him as a professional brother. And that he was sincere 
and retained his good feeling is abundantly shown by entries in 
his journal. 

Dr. Hazeltine also served as a magistrate, and his judgments 
bore the impress of careful and conscientious investigation and 
consideration. His copy of old " Dickinson's Justice," with its 
many marginal notes, in his clear and compa6l hand-writing is 
now in possession of the writer. But of course the great busi- 
ness of his life was the medical pra6lice. In that he was faithful 
and trustworthy though some thought him a little too strongly 
bound by old customs and traditions. He had great faith in the 
virtue of hops, especially in the simple form of a tea, and so 
frequently prescribed the infusion that some were so impolite as 
to call him " the hop-tea do6tor." Indeed certain libelous articles 
touching this peculiarity of his appeared in the Mirror, written, 
it is believed, by Enoch Curtin, in a playful mood. The editor 
was proceeded against, and the jury awarded the Do6lor a con- 
siderable amount in damages ; but he, as the editor long after 
informed the writer, very readily relinquished all but his adlual 
costs, and continued to treat him as if no occasion for difference 
had occurred. 

The books of daily charges kept by Doftor Hazeltine, were, a 
number of years ago, placed in the hands of the writer ; and a 
few extracts, which can harm no one, will no doubt be interesting 
as showing the scale of professional charges, and at the same 
time exhibit the precise and detailed manner in which he was 
accustomed to record his transadlions. The first book of the 
series bears the inscription, " Richard Hazeltine's Day Book 
He removed with his family from South Berwick to Lynn, May 
30, 1 81 7." He however must have been here himself some time 
before he brought his family, for the first charge to a patient i.'' 



Biographical Sketches. Hazeltine. i^c^ 

under date May 13, and stands thus: "Samuel Chase, Dr. to 
18 visits; i.e. 2 visits a day from Sabbath the 4th inst. to 
yesterday, including both, and sundry articles of medicine, such 
as [enumerating,] 10.25." 

The Do6lor must have soon secured a large pradlice, judging 
from the number of his charges ; but to a physician of this day 
his fees would seem amusingly low, a fa6l which in a great 
measure may account for the statement that he made a little 
before his death, to the efife6l that his profession had scarcely 
yielded enough to pay expenses during his whole residence in 
Lynn. A much greater proportion of " bad debts " no doubt 
accumulated in those days than in later times, in all professions. 
But let us present the promised samples of the Doctor's every 
day entries. 

1817. Aug. 2. George Hamlin, credit by 2 phials and med. returned, .13. 

1817. Aug. 6. Frederic Newhall, Dr. to calling and waiting some time to see your 

sister, i.oo. 
1819. Feb. 21. Enoch Mudge, Dr. to calling from the meeting-house and e.xtra6ting 

a tooth for yourself, .50. 
1819. March 6. James Lewis, Cr. by a fresh fish, weighing 8 lb. at 2 cents a pound. 
1819. March 21. Peter Shott, Dr. to calling to see you this morning, .25. 
1819. April 9. Benjamin Burrill, Dr. to a visit, and making lint for your sore, .50. 
1819. June 10. Stephen Oliver, Dr. to a three dollar bill, for one that I borrowed 

of you, last week. 

1819. July 21. Jonathan Connor, credit, by six cords of wood, taken on the wharf, 
at $6 a cord, to be paid for in 60 days. 

1S19. Sept. I. John Newhall, Dr. to calling to see your aunt Nabby, 0.25. 

1820. March 4. Abel Houghton, Dr. to a visit for yourself, .25. 

1820. March 8. Rufus P. Hovey, Esq. Dr. to a visit and a phial and vin. ipecac for 

yourself, 84. 
1820. March 13. Henry A. Breed, credit by i lb. 8 penny and i lb. 6 penny wrought 

nails, at 18 and 22 cents, .40. 
1820. April 10. Henry A. Breed, credit, by i gal. Lisbon wine, at $1.50, and i 1-2 

pint of brandy, 33, $1.83. 
1820. April 15. Miss Lydia Stackpole, credit by your assistance in my family since 

Monday morning, before breakfast, till this morning, after breakfast. 
1820. April 28. Preserved Sprague, Dr. to a visit, making lint, &c., and dressing 

your wound, and to a piece of bandage. .75. 

1820. May 16. Jonathan Buffum, Dr. to a visit this morning and to 10 oz. of tama- 
rinds, sent this evening by my boy, 0.42. 

1821. March 5. This evening Mr. Trevett borrowed Hannah More's St. Paul, Dr. 
Worcester on Baptism and Medical Dissertations. 

1821. March 28. Mrs. Mary Carter, Concord, N. H. : Her little son William 
Franklin Carter came to my house last Monday evening, to board and go to 
school. I am to board him for his schooling [?] and what services he will 



150 Biographical Sketches. Hazeltine. 

render in my family. This morning he gave me sixty-five cents in cash, which 

he brought with him, and for which I am accountable to his mother. 
1S21. July 10. Abel Houghton, credit, by mending my boot a little, yesterday, .06. 
1821. Nov. 2. Amos Breed, credit by a barrel of cider [I found the barrel] and by 

6 hoops and paying for setting them — hoops 2 cents each, setting 4 cents 

each, .36 ; cider, 2.50. 2.86. 
1821, Nov. 3. Enoch Curtin, Dr. to a visit early this morning and another at 11 

o'clock, and assisting in moving you, 1.50. 

1821. Nov. 28. Thomas Hamlin, credit, by repairing my chaise apartment door, 
i. e. putting on hinge, .06. 

1822. Jan. 3. Abner Alley, Dr. to a visit, post m. for your daughter, she having 
injured her hand by striking on a hair comb. .50. 

1834. March 3. Mrs. Mary Mailey, Dr. to a visit this a. m. for yourself, .25. 
1834. March 7. Charles Chase, Dr. to a visit this a. m. for your daughter Mary, 0.25. 
1834. March 8. Mark Alley, Dr. to a visit this evening and 12 pills for Mrs, 

Alley, .38. 
1S34. March 11. David EUis, Dr. to a visit this evening in co. with Dr. Barker, for 

your little boy, i.oo. 
1S34. March 19. John B. Chase, credit by a five dollar bill paid me this a. m. equal 

to six dollars, because paid within sixty days. 
1834. March 24. Abel Houghton, Dr. to visit this a. m. and 9 small p. ip. for 

yourself, 0.42. 
1834. March 28. Levi Frost, credit, by repairing chaise harness, .06. 
1834. March 29. Alonzo Lewis, Dr. to a visit this morning and another this p. m. 

2. pil. and some vin. ant. for yourself and some cal. added in the morning to two 

former powders, .92. 

1834. April 7. Alonzo Lewis, Dr. to a visit this morning for yourself, .25. 

1835. Feb. 18. Capt. Charles Merritt, Dr. to 12 pills delivered yourself this a. m. 
at the postoffice door, and consilium, .25. 

1836. May 6. Nathaniel Ingalls, Dr. to cash paid you to-day, 67 cents. Credit, by 
assisting Mr. Merrill, the carpenter, about putting down some posts for fence, 
for me, yesterday, at Woodend, 67 cents. 

1836. May 21. Daniel Moulton, credit, by 2 hours' assistance, at 8 cents an hour, .16. 
1836. May 21. Esquire Daniel Henshaw, credit, by making out my last will, to-day, 
and attending to its signature, &c., 2.09. 

The Abel Houghton named in two or three of the foregoing 
items, first, under date March 4, 1820, lived in Pearl street. He 
took great interest in horticulture, and it was from him that the 
Houghton Horticultural Society took its name. To him, also, we 
are indebted for that superior gooseberry known as the Houghton 
seedling. Riifiis P. Hovcy, named under date March 8, 1820, 
came to Lynn in or about 18 16, and opened an office near the 
Hotel. He was a young lawyer of good education and fine abil- 
ities but destined soon to close his life. He died of consumption 
before attaining the fame and honorable position which his 
friends fondly believed awaited him. Under dates March 13 and 



Biographical Sketches. Hazeltine. 151 

April 10, 1820, appears the name of Henry A. Breed. This gen- 
tleman, who is still among us, a6live and genial, was then a young 
business man. At the time of the transa6lions recorded he kept 
a " West India goods and variety store," in the west wing of the 
Hotel. A few years after, he became extensively engaged in 
building and other semi-speculative enterprises, some of which 
were on a large scale. Possessing a sanguine temperament and 
great physical aftivity, he did more than almost any other to give 
" a start " to the Lynn of that period, and is deserving of the 
gratitude of many now living for personal aid. But he has had 
his ups and downs ; his share of praise and censure ; and has 
shown himself neither a fawner nor a misanthrope. We can 
hardly call to mind one who has more reason to keenly feel the 
disregard of some now in prosperity who owe the foundation of 
their good fortune to him. Preserved Spragiie, who is charged 
by the Do6lor with a visit on April 28, 1820, was a farmer, and 
lived on Nahant street. He wore a long beard, which excited 
the wonder, if not the admiration of almost every one he met, as 
it was the fashion, at that time, for men to be close-shaven ; 
mustaches, especially, being an utter abomination. Esquire 
Daniel HensJiaw, who under date May 21, 1836, is credited with 
writing the Do6lor's will — at a price which would make a lawyer 
of this day stare if it did not induce some ejaculation indicated 
by a verb that rhymes with stare — was a legal pra6litioner who 
settled in Lynn, in or about 1833. He had a classical education ; 
but being one who had that rigorous sense of justice which for- 
bids the advocacy of any cause of even doubtful right, and being 
withal of a retiring disposition, never had much of an a6live 
court business. He was a good writer, with very little of the 
pi6luresque in his style, and as editor of the Lynn Record — 
the first paper of that name here — then under the proprietor- 
ship of Jonathan Buffum, produced articles that were extensively 
quoted and deservedly praised. The Record was an energetic 
advocate of the anti-masonic cause, of temperance, and anti-sla- 
very. It was to the house of Mr. Henshaw that the guard 
of ladies condu6led George Thompson, the English anti-slavery 
orator, from the First Methodist meeting-house, when violence 
was threatened by the excited crowd ; an account of which 
occurrence may be found in our Annals, under date, 1835. Mr. 



152 Biographical Sketches. Haseltine. 

Henshaw was a man of strong religious principles conformable 
to the old Calvinistic faith. 

Several other prominent residents whose names appear in 
these book charges will be remembered by our elderly people. 
But as something concerning most of them may be found where 
they are introduced, in alphabetical order, in this volume, it 
is unnecessary to go into details here. The Enoch Miidge for 
whom the Do6lor drew a tooth, Feb. 21, 18 19, being called from 
the meeting-house, was Rev. Enoch Mudge, father of the late 
Hon. Enoch Redington Mudge, and a most worthy minister 
of the Methodist denomination. Stephen Oliver, to whom ^3, 
borrowed money, were paid, June 10, 18 19; Jonathan Con^ior, 
who sold the Do6lor six cords of wood, July 21, 1819; and 
JonatJiaii BiLJfjivi, who had 10 ounces of tamarinds, May 16, 
1820, were all among the best-known business men in the place. 
Mr. Trevett, who borrowed the books, March 5, 1 821, was Robert 
W. Trevett, the lawyer, who was at that time among the foremost 
of the Essex bar, and could understand the value of a good book 
as well as any man in town, Enoch Curtm, who was so sick as 
to require two visits, Nov. 3, 1821, was the poet whose pen was 
the one usually in requisition for odes, hymns, and other occa- 
sional pieces. Alonzo Lewis, who also needed two visits, and 
medicine, March 29, 1834, was the Lynn bard and historian. 
Capt. Charles Merritt, who was supplied with pills, Feb, 18, 1835, 
at the postofifice door, was the deputy sheriff who so acceptably 
filled that disagreeable office for forty years. 

The items quoted above from the books of Do6lor Hazeltine 
are quite enough to show his exa6lness and methodical way of 
doing things even in those minor details which to most people 
appear frivolous. But that orderliness, no doubt, saved him from 
much of the tedious ransacking of the memory and many of the 
petty disputes to which less careful persons are constantly sub- 
jefted ; and it was certainly an improvement on the method 
of keeping accounts adopted by another Lynn physician, well 
known to the writer, who made his charges on all sorts of odd 
scraps of paper, which he thrust indiscriminately into a bag, to 
which he resorted and drew out for colle6lion when money was 
wanted. Some of the extradls ma}'' look as if sele6led for their 
quaintncss or merely as curiosities ; but we have no such object. 



Biographical Sketches. Hazeltine. 153 

The design is to show the Do6lor's great conscientiousness and 
care, as well as something of the state of things at that time. 

In his religious connexions, Dr. Hazeltine ranked with the 
Calvinistic Congregationalists. He was rigid and consistent, 
but yet too high-minded not to deferentially regard the opinions 
of others. His only daughter, Phebe, a very intelligent and alert 
lady, though not without noticeable peculiarities, became an 
Episcopalian ; and we have some recolleftion of her once re- 
marking that her father expressed approval rather than disappro- 
bation of her sentiments. His religious tendencies were not 
merely theoretical, for there was evidently an earnest desire to 
give them a pra6lical bearing upon the daily walk. His first 
book of charges is prefaced by two pages of '^Precepts to be 
read and duly regarded before eharging." They are chiefly taken 
from the Scriptures, and if lived up to, would make an almost 
perfeft man. The twenty-ninth appears as a didlate of " con- 
science," and reads in this wise : " In all thy endeavors to alle- 
viate human misery, be careful by no means to increase it, either 
by negligent, careless, or unfeeling attention to the sick, nor by 
extravagant charges for thy services, nor by oppressive or inhu- 
man measures in collefting thy demands." That he was truly 
conscientious, and never disposed to thwart the kindly endeavors 
of nature to restore health, by uncertain experiments, cannot be 
doubted. 

The house in which Dr. Hazeltine lived during the whole 
of his life here, is still standing on the south side of Essex street, 
between High and Pearl streets. It was for many years one 
of the best and most conspicuous in town, and no other building 
was near enough to obscure the very commanding view. The 
site was for a hundred and fifty years the chosen seat of a line 
of worthies of the healing art. Dr. John Henry Burchstead, 
who came from Silecia, in 1685, settled here ; after him, his son. 
Dr. Henry Burchstead, lived on the place, and it is thought built 
the present house, which was subsequently the residence of Dr. 
Peter G. Robbins-, who came in 1805. From the latter, Dr. 
Hazeltine had it, in 18 17, probably at first, as a tenant, the earliest 
entry in one of his books being a charge against Dr. Robbins 
for money paid Micajah Cutler for whitewashing and laying 
a hearth. It is now so hemmed in by other buildings that a 



154 Biographical Sketches. Henchmaji. Hitchings. 

passer-by would hardly notice it. For many years it was known 
as the house with the great whale bones for gate-posts, and more 
often inquired for by strangers, than any other house in town, as 
the cottage of Moll Pitcher, the celebrated fortune-teller, stood 
on the opposite hill-side, and the stealthy visitor thus sought to 
conceal the real obje6l of his inquiry. Dr. Robbins was father 
of Rev. Chandler Robbins, a prominent Unitarian minister, in 
Boston, and Rev. Samuel D. Robbins, the third minister of the 
Unitarian society in Lynn ; and in that house the reverend bro- 
thers were born. 

Dr. Hazeltine was born in Concord, N. H., Nov. 28, 1773, and 
died July 10, 1836, as noted in our Annals of that year. 

Henchman, Rev. Nathaniel — minister of the First Parish, 
forty-one years ; settled in 1720; died in 1761, aged 61. His 
residence was on North Common street, a few rods east of Mall. 
See Annals, 1761. 

Hentz, Caroline Lee — an accomplished prose writer. See 
Annals, 1680. 

Hitchings, Major Ezra — was born April 15, 1765, in what 
is now Saugus, and died at his residence in Lynn, Nov. 26, 1829. 
For many years he was one of the most marked chara6lers in 
the town and had great influence, though not generally in the 
most prominent offices. His military title was conferred b}/ 
the position he held in the militia regiment of Lynn. He was 
also a freemason, a member of the old fire-club — a voluntary 
organization for mutual assistance in case of fire — and one or 
two other brotherhoods, social or benevolent. He loved music 
and with his neighbor. Master Blanchard, and his bass-viol, no 
doubt passed many an enjoyable evening hour. 

But the image of the Major looms up most conspicuously at 
his West India goods store, on Boston street, at the corner of 
Federal. There he was to be found at all, reasonable hours, 
ready to deal out his commodities, even to the cent's worth, to 
discuss religion with the minister or deacon, politics with 'Squire 
Carnes, Amos Rhodes, the elder, Benjamin Massey, Samuel 
MuUiken, Daniel Collins, or any town notable ; or to sally forth 



Biographical Sketches. HitcJdngs. 155 

with measuring rod in hand at the beck of any teamster with his 
load from the woods. And, shifting the scene a little, we behold 
him if it be a day of military parade, standing at his <Joor, 
intently watching the evolutions of a straggling militia company 
in the elaborate exercise of whipping-the-snake, or some similarly 
pifturesque manoeuvre, in the little square fronting his premises. 

The business of the Major yielded him a comfortable mainte- 
nance, but nothing more, for the multiplicity of bad debts, in 
those days, was a sad draw-back to the retail trader. It was a 
day of small things. The shoe-manufa6lurers did a limited 
business, drew orders on the retailers, and in some cases made 
periodical failures. He was a careful purchaser and avoided all 
dishonest tricks of trade ; would not even water the rum he sold ; 
and could not comprehend the exalted morality of those virtuous 
brethren in the trade who, with consciences as weak as their 
own " extended " liquors, sought to convince him that to reduce 
the drink was a mercy to the poor deluded toper. 

The Major was in many ways a most valuable man for any 
neighborhood ; sound in judgment, liberal in opinions, and ever 
ready to give his best advice to those who sought his counsel. 
He was not much given to hilarity or jets of humor, but rather 
inclined to the dignified and thoughtful mood, though by no 
means unsocial. With his stern sense of duty he had kindly 
sympathies, though occasional bluntness of expression might givt 
a false coloring to his real feeling. Elderly people paid much 
deference to him, but from some cause, he failed to secure the 
good-will of the juvenile fraternity. In short, the boys had little 
love for him, though it is not believed that any were inclined to 
manifest their dislike in a rough way. His dignity of bearing 
was enough to have prevented any thing of that sort. It was 
probably difficult for him to come down to their level, if, indeed, 
he had power to discern where they stood. Some of us were 
inclined to think he never could have been a boy himself One 
day a little fellow went into his store and asked for something 
for Mr. Benjamin Newhall, and was met with the repellent ejacu- 
lation, uttered in a voice not the most placid and with an air 
any thing but winsome, " Why do'nt you say your father ; don't 
you suppose I know who you are, and who your father is ; I 
hope I know neighbors who have always lived next door." The 



156 Biographical Sketches. Holyoke. Hood. 

same lad had occasion presently again to go to the store, and 
remembering the admonition was careful to say " for my father." 
" Aod who is your father } " was the quick response, in the old 
inclement voice; "do you suppose I know every boy in the 
street, and who his father is ; why do'nt you give your father's 
name .•' " That boy was pretty sure, ever after, to say, " for my 
father, Mr. Benjamin Newhall." These remarks are not made 
for the purpose of casting refleftions on a really worthy man, or 
to unnecessarily exhibit his foibles, but for the opportunity of 
suggesting that most of us might profit by the example. It is 
easy to win the good-will of the juvenile legion by whom we are 
surrounded, and quite as easy to lose it. And is it not much 
better to have the sympathy and friendship of those who are 
growing up around us, and on whom we shall surely be more or 
less dependent, than to have their ill-will and opposition ? But 
he was not blessed with any children of his own ; yet he 
adopted several, whom he brought up in the most creditable 
manner. In this matter, however, he was seconded by his 
excellent wife who was undoubtedly entitled to a large share 
of the praise due for such commendable benevolence. 

The Major was one of the early and a6live members of the 
Unitarian society, did what he could in a pecuniary way, but 
more efficiently aided by his exemplary life. His wife was of the 
same faith. She was a sister of Col. James Robinson, the first 
postmaster, and a6led well her part in the management of their 
hospitable and happy home. She was a woman of much force 
of charafter, lively and sensible; and her conversation, even in 
old age, was not only cheerful, but marked by a vein of attra6live 
humor, and replete with pleasing reminiscences. 

Holyoke, Edward — a farmer and large land-holder ; ances- 
lor of the respeftable Holyoke family of New England ; a man 
of note in the Colony and honored in her councils. See Annals, 
1630, and other early dates. His autograph is on the Armitage 
Petition. 

Hood, George — the first Mayor of Lynn — was twice eledled 
to the office, and inaugurated May 14, 1850, and April 7, 185 i. 
He died June 29, 1859, aged 52. For biographical notice see 



Biographical Sketches. Hutchinsoii. Ingalh. 157 

1865 edition of History of Lynn. See also Centennial Memorial 
for notice with portrait. A fac-simile of his autograph follows. 




HuMFREY, John — an original Colonial proprietor and Lynn 
settler — eminent for his attainments, respe6led for his high 
social position, and honored for his wisdom in council. See 
Annals, 1634, 1641, and other early dates. The following repre- 
sents his signature. 



^^; ^UArynj^^^^.^ 



HuRD, Rev. Isaac — minister of the First Parish — settled in 
1813. See Annals, 1816. 

Hutchinson, Jesse, of the Hutchinson family of singers. 
The picturesque stone cottage at High Rock, was built by him, 
in 1847. He died in 1853. See Annals, 1853. 

Hutchinson, Judson J. — also of the family of singers. He 
died at his residence. High Rock, Jan. 11, 1859, aged 38. See 
Annals, 1859. 

Ingalls, Edmund and Francis. " The first white men known 
to have been inhabitants of Lynn, were Edmund Ingalls and his 
brother Francis." So states Mr. Lewis ; but it is quite certain 
that others came with them. At the celebration of the two 
hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement — June 17, 
1879 — ^^ names of these pioneers were heard on every side, and 
much curiosity was manifested to view the vicinity wherein they 
first pitched their tents. The grand procession, in its march 
through Woodend, halted to enable those who desired, to take 
a near look at the spot on which stood the humble habitation 
of Edmund, near Gold Fish pond. At the celebration, too, were 
read letters from John J. Ingalls, United States Senator from 



158 Biographical Sketches. Ireson. Jacobs. Jaiks. 

Kansas, and Rufus Ingalls, an officer in the United States service 
descendants of Edmund. Many of the lineage have held useful 
and honorable positions here in the family home, and a number 
are now counted among our most worthy citizens. See Annals, 
1629, and other early dates. 

Ireson, Samuel Edwin. Mr. Ireson died of consumption on 
the 7th of September, 1875, at the age of 44 years. He was a 
son of Samuel J. Ireson, and a well-educated lawyer, as well as 
classical scholar, having graduated at Harvard, with the 1853 
class. After completing a regular course of legal study, he com- 
menced practice in Boston, but subsequently took an office in 
Lynn, his native place, and continued with a growing reputation 
and business, till failing health intervened. In 1873 and 1874 he 
was City Solicitor ; but his health still declining, he was induced 
in the spring of 1875, to visit the West Indies. Receiving no 
substantial benefit, he returned, to close his life in a few months. 
He was a man of genial manners and liberal views ; had a fine 
literary taste, and wrote a few poems which were much admired. 
His funeral took place from the Unitarian meeting-house, which 
had been his place of worship from childhood, and was attended 
by the chief officers of the city, by the brethren of the legal 
profession, and by many friends. He left a widow, but no 
children. 

Jacobs, Benjamin H. — undertaker at the First Parish for 
thirty years. He died June 16, 1869, aged ^6. See Annals, 1869. 

Jenks, Joseph. From all that appears, Mr. Jenks came hither 
from Hammersmith, England, as an operative at the iron works. 
But he was not destined long to remain in an obscure position, 
for his skill and ingenuity soon commended him to the notice 
of the Court and the country at large. And well may he be 
called the pioneer inventor of America. For his ingenious con- 
trivances he was granted several patents, and one or two have 
hardly been improved upon to the present day — notably his 
scythe. It is said that the dies for the famous pine-tree coins, 
which all bear date 1652 — though they were struck in different 
years — were made by him. In our Annals, under date 1654, it 



Biographical Sketches, yohnson. 159 

is stated that the sele6lmen of Boston agreed with Joseph 
Jenks " for an Ingine to carry water in case of fire," and that 
this was the first fire-engine made in America. The order of the 
town was in these words : " The Sele61: men have liberty to agree 
with Joseph Jynks, for Ingins to carry water in case of fire, 
if they see cause so to doe." This order, it will be observed, is 
permissive rather than imperative ; and there has been a question 
whether they did contra6t for an engine, or if they did, whether 
the contra6l was ever fulfilled, for it is asserted that Boston had 
no engine till after the great fire in November, 1676, at which 
time some forty-six dwellings were destroyed, besides shops, 
warehouses, and " a meeting house of considerable bigness." 
An opportune rain is mentioned as having done much towards 
arresting the flames, and some buildings were blown up. But 
nothing is said about an engine being there. Pemberton seems 
to have thought that as late as 1711 Boston had no fire-engine. 
Yet, on the 9th of March, 1702, the town voted that the Sele6l- 
men should " procure two water engines suitable for the extin- 
guishing of fire, either by sending for them to England, or other- 
wise to provide them." This must have been in addition to one 
before had, for it was on the same day voted that " The Sele6l- 
men are desired to get the Water Engine for the quenching 
of fire repaired, as also the house for keeping the same in." Now 
might not the one referred to as needing repairs in 1702 have 
been manufa6lured by Mr. Jenks on the order of 1654.'' It 
would have been an old " machine," to be sure, but was no 
doubt constru6led in a thorough manner, and not very frequently 
called into use. 

Mr. Jenks was ancestor of a rather remarkable line. Joseph 
Jenks, Governor of Rhode Island from 1727 to 1732, and who 
was not only applauded for his executive ability but renowned 
for his personal appearance, being seven feet and two inches tall, 
was a grandson of his. The late Rev. Dr. William Jenks, an 
eminent scholar and author, was likewise a lineal descendant. 
See Annals, 1662, and other early dates. 

Johnson, Caleb. Mr. Johnson is well entitled to be called 
one of the patriarchs of Nahant — Nahant, that charming "little 
dukedom," which so warmed the imagination of Secretary Ran- 



i6o Biographical Sketches, yohnson. 

dolph, some two hundred years ago, and inflamed his thirst for 
its possession. He was born in that se6lion of old Lynn, in 
December, 1778, and there passed his whole life, with the excep- 
tion of two years, which he spent in another part of the town, as 
an apprentice at the trade of shoemaking ; and there he died, in 
1867. At the time of his birth there were but three houses on 
Nahant, and no other house was ere6led there, till he had 
attained the age of twenty-two, at which time Capt. Joseph John- 
son built a large house on the western part, which was kept as a 
hotel, and which was destroyed by fire, on Sunday morning, 
August 28, 1803. 

Years passed on, and Mr. Johnson remained in the seclusion 
of his peninsular home, now and then, during the warm season, 
entertaining individuals or parties who resorted thither for health 
or recreation, occupying himself chiefly in farming and fishing, 
by which he gained an ample livelihood. 

By-and-by Mr. Tudor and other gentlemen of taste and culture, 
appreciating the delights of the place, went thither for summer 
sojourn, and a refined society accumulated. By the rise in the 
value of lands Mr. Johnson became comparatively wealthy; and 
being surrounded by a promising family, possessing a ^social 
disposition, and uncommonly good health, he had many sources 
of enjoyment. In 1791 he married Olive Hartwell, of Charle- 
mont, and by her had ten children — seven sons and three 
daughters. His sixth son, William Frederic, was Mayor of Lynn 
in 1858, and a Senator in 1862 and '63. 

Johnson, Otis. Mr. Johnson was a son of Enoch Johnson, 
by his wife Elizabeth Newhall, and was born in Lynn, in 1802. 
At the early age of sixteen he left his native place for Petersburg, 
Va., where he remained till 1820, when he removed to Savannah, 
Ga. ; and there, by diligence and enterprise was able, by middle 
life, to accumulate a moderate fortune. His business at the 
south was successfully continued till i860, when he returned to 
his native place for permanent residence. In the mean time, 
however, he had ere6led a fine mansion on the westerly side 
of Federal street, and embellished the grounds with rare flowers, 
and other tasteful adornments. And every season he busied 
himself with various experiments in the pleasant and instru6live 



a, 



?^7I^5?^T^ 



o 

O 

> 
z 

O 

r 
2 




Biographical Sketches, yohnson. i6i 

mysteries of horticulture. He did much to foster a taste for 
decorative gardening and the raising of choice fruit ; and for his 
highly beneficial influence in that direftion is certainly worthy 
of being long remembered. He was not ambitious of the ephem- 
eral distindlion conferred by public office, though he held posi- 
tions of trust and responsibility ; among them that of director 
in the City Bank, from the time of its establishment, in 1854, 
till his death. 

In 1824 Mr. Johnson married, at Savannah, Miss Virginia, 
daughter of Capt. R. G. Taylor, and by her had ten children, 
four only of whom survived him. He met death, with Christian 
serenity, at his residence, in Federal street, on the 17th of Feb- 
ruary, 1870, aged 68, and was mourned for as a man of kindh^ 
sympathies, unswerving integrity, and a good citizen. His widow 
died on the 5 th of. February. 1881, aged ']^. 

Johnson, Richard. Mr. Johnson was ancestor of the large 
and worthy family of the name still among us. His homestead 
estate was at the east end of the Common, and included the site 
of the present City Hall, together with a number of acres in and 
about Johnson street, a thoroughfare that perpetuates his name. 
His eldest son, Samuel, who was born in 1640, and died in 1723, 
and whose gravestone, though in a dilapidated condition, still 
remains in the Old Burying Ground, was known as Lieutenant, 
and earlier as Cornet Johnson. He and his brother Daniel served 
in the King Philip war, 1676, and both joined in the petition for 
remuneration presented in 1685. His name likewise appears as 
one of the official grantees in the Indian deed of Lynn, executed 
in 1686. The house which he, Samuel, built was a sort of semi- 
garrison, to which the neighbors might flee in case of any savage 
demonstration, and will be remembered by many now living as 
having stood where the present brick house of worship of the 
First Methodist Society now stands, on the northeast side of Park 
square. 

Nothing more than a glance at our pages of Annals will be 
needed to show that the Johnson family has all along presented 
examples of high chara6ter and great usefulness. The autograph 
of the patriarchal settler, Richard, appears on the Armitage 
Petition, page 106. See Annals, 1635 and other dates. 

II 



1 62 Biographical Sketches. Keene. Keyser. King. 

Johnson, William F. — seventh Mayor of Lynn — born on 
Nahant, July 30, 18 19. For notice, with portrait, see Centennial 
Memorial. A fac-simile of his signature is here given. 




T^-i^u^^^TTK 



Keene, Avis — a preacher in the Friends' Meeting, some 
sixty years. She died 061. 13, 1867, aged 87. See Annals, 1867. 

Keene, George W. — a conspicuous business man and aftive 
in public enterprises. He died March 27, 1874, aged 58. See 
Annals, 1874. 

Kertland, Philip — the first shoemaker here. His name 
appears on the Armitage Petition, page 106. See Annals, 1635. 

Keyser, George — a tanner — called by Mr. Lewis a miller; 
perhaps he followed both occupations. His autograph is on the 
Armitage Petition, page 106. See Annals, 1630. It was in Mr. 
Keyser's tan-pit that a child of Thomas Newhall was drowned in 
1665. "We Robart Potter and John Newhall: understandin by 
Too Testimonies," say a couple of witnesses in the case, " That 
Thomas Newhalls chilld was drounded in a pett which pett we 
heard George Keesar saye he digged : farther we doe Testifie 
that George Keser had a Tanfatt in that pett. I John Newhall 
doe furder Testifie that George Keyser did take up his fatt and 
left the pett open." This tan-pit was on the south side of Boston 
street, about where the tubular wells were driven, in 1880. 

King, Daniel. By referring to our Annals, of early dates, 
various fa6ls may be found concerning the King family, who 
were located chiefly about Swampscott, though they owned lands 
in other quarters. King's Beach perpetuates the name. They 
were an enterprising family, and in addition to farming and 
fishing, carried on a varied sort of commercial business, their 
traffic extending even to Barbadoes. Papers are yet to be found 
among our Essex County files, indicating to some extent the 



Biographical Sketches. King. 163 

nature and course of their trade. In a memorandum dated May 
6, 1653, Daniel King, jr. says : " I liave Rec. of my cosen William 
Guy [of London] a parcell of goods amounting to the valew of 
fforty ffive pounds, ffourteene shillings nine pence starling money, 
which goods I have Rec : upon the account of Guy as an Ad- 
venture by him promising to doe my outmost indeuor for the 
sale of the aforesaid goods, and to make him returns by Chris- 
mas next, if," &c. But such " ifs " seem to have intervened 
that a settlement was long delayed, and the matter finally got 
into court. Five years after, that is, in 1658, his father, Daniel 
King, makes the following statement: "Boston, this 14 of Au- 
gust, 1658. These presents Witnes that I, Daniell King of Lyn, 
Sener, doe aknowledge that Capt. Jn° Peirce, Commander of the 
Ship Exchang, hath bene with mee and demanded of mee a debt 
of aboutt forty fiue pounds which my sone Daniell did Receive 
in goods of M"" Wm Guy, of London, haberdasher ; and my 
Answer is that my sone Daniel is gone to burbados and hath 
carried with him goods in order to the making the Returne much 
more then I can judge will Ballance that ace". And I hope either 
by this time or very sudenly hee will Returne a satisfa6lory acc°." 
Two years after the foregoing, namely, in 1660, Mrs. Elizabeth 
King, mother of the delinquent Daniel, jr., comes to the rescue 
of her son's credit and reputation in the following propitiatory 
epistle to her nephew Guy : " from Linn, in New England, 
Decemb'' the 28"\ 1660 .... After Respeckts presented these 
earr to lett you under stand that yours wee have receued, Return 
you Manny thanks for your patiente lines But being much 
troubled that wee yett cannot Answer your ends According to 
your expecktations. Many ways wee have tryed. By Barbudoes, 
By Bills of Exchange, & By getting of Bever, for you, But as yet 
canno' proceure anny of them. But By the next shepping I 
hoape wee shall find out some way or other whereby you shall 
haue sattisfacktion ; my sonn Ralph & my sonn Blaenny douth 
Intend if pleas god the Hue and doe well to com for England ; 
soe heaping that you will bee pleased to Ad one mitt of patience 
unto your Aboundance which you have had soe. 

" Resting and Remaining your Ever Loueing 
Ante tell Death, 

Elizabeth King." 



164 Biographical Sketches. Laughton. Leonard. Lewis. 

The " sonn Ralph " was successful in his business, and accu- 
mulated quite a property for those times. The inventory of his 
estate, taken July 8, 1689, by Rev. Mr. Shepard, William Bas- 
sett, and John Ballard, gives an amount of ^^2365 4$-. The 
inventory of the estate of Daniel King, senior, who died May 28, 
1672, gives an amount of ;£i528 9^-. 

Ralph King's name appears first among the grantees in the 
Indian deed of Lynn. 

KxTTREDGE, Dr. Edward A, — a physician and humorous 
writer. He died in Newton, Feb. 25, 1869, aged 58. See An- 
nals, 1869. 

Laughton, Thomas. The name of this prominent settler, 
like the names of many others, was in old times spelled in various 
ways. He was ele6ted Town Clerk in 1672, and remained in 
the office several years ; was likewise a Seleftman for a number 
of years, and a Representative some ten. He held several other 
responsible offices ; was a farmer, and lived on Franklin street. 
Laighton street took its name from him. See Annals, 1635, and 
other early dates. His name is on the Armitage Petition ; and 
a fac-simile, taken from a signature of his made in 1668, follows. 



Y^^nsi^ ^^tt^iW^ 



Leonard, Henry and James. These brothers were conne6led 
with the ancient iron works on Saugus river, and became prom- 
inent in the iron manufa6lure of New England. See Annals, 1642. 

Lewis, Alonzo. A pretty full biographical sketch of Mr. 
Lewis the bard and historian, may be found in the 1865 edition 
of our History of Lynn. And in the Centennial Memorial a 
shorter sketch, with a portrait, may be found. It has been 
stated that Mr. Lewis, on one or two occasions, in early life, left 
his native place to seek his fortune elsewhere. His strong 
natural attachment to his home, however, always prevailed, and 
after a brief absence he was soon again among us. In 1832, at 
the age of 38, he removed with the determination, undoubtedly, 
to permanently reside abroad ; and the writer well remembers 



Biographical Sketches. Lewis. 165 

his emotion as he handed him the following touching lines for 
publication. But after an absence of a few months we were 
again favored by his presence ; and it is not recolle6led that he 
had, during the remainder of his life, any disposition to withdraw 
from the attractive scenes of his native place, its sunny hills and 
silvery streams, or to pitch his tent on any spot where the sound 
of old Ocean's harp could not be heard. We have always been 
impressed with the belief that the fourth stanza was founded on 
a singularly false apprehension, arising in an extremely sensitive 
mind. He had friends ; strong and loving friends ; and no real 
foes ; though there were those who could not avoid sometimes 
expressing annoyance at eccentricities which occasionally could 
hardly be called unobtrusive. 

THE BARD'S FAREWELL. 

Farewell ye streams, ye clear loved streams. 

Where I in childhood played. 
Upon whose marge my youthful dreams 

Have blest the peaceful shade. 
No more to hear your rippling song 

Shall I delighted bend, 
Nor with the loved your banks along 

In twilight converse wend. 

Farewell ye hills whose dewy brow 

These early feet have kisc 
While silent ocean lay below 

Half hid in sleeping mist. 
Your sunny tops at distance far 

These anxious eyes may view, 
But never shall the morning star 

Our vanished joys renew. 

Ye early friends, to whom this heart 

Affe6tion long has bound, 
The day has come when we must part. 

And share affeftion's wound. 
Your hopes o'er other joys may bloom, 

Your hearts with friendship swell ; 
But mine shall give no other room 

To aught, except — farewell ! 

And ye, without a cause my foes, 

As o'er life's waves I glide. 
May haply think upon the woes 

With which ye swelled the tide ; 



1 66 



Biographical Sketches. Lewis. 



The injured heart that would have died 

Your shghtest griefs to quell, 
Shall breathe from out its bleeding side 

Forgiveness — and farewell. 

As when the purple ocean flower 

From off its rock is torn, 
Submissive to the tempest's power, 

By which 'tis onward borne, 
So shall my heart sustain the storm 

Its hopes in vain would quell, 
And dying, breathe in accents warm, 

My friends — my home — farewell ! 

No extended notice of Mr. Lewis is required here, as the 
sketches already referred to will furnish sufficient information to 
meet all ordinary inquiries. But no more appropriate place will 
be found for the introdu6tion of a pi6torial view of the house in 
which he was born. It still stands on the north side of Boston 
street, nearly opposite Bridge. The writer well remembers it for 
at least sixty-five years, during which time the exterior has been a 
little modernized about the door-way, and the blinds have been 
added. The fence, likewise, is somewhat more artistic than the 
one Mr, Lewis built with his own hands, some forty years ago. 
We seem now to see him sitting in that door-way, just as he sat 
three score years since, in " contemplative mood," enjoying the 
cool of a summer morning, as we went whistling along towards 
the cow pasture. 




BIRTHPLACE OF ALONZO LEWIS. 



Mr. Lewis was born on the 28th of August, 1794, and died on 
the 2 1 St of January, 1861. And it may be of interest here to 



Biographical Sketches. Lightfoot. Longley. 167 



reproduce a pi6lure of the sea-side cottage in which he died, 
though it appears in our 1865 edition. 




COTTAGE IN WHICH MR. LEWIS DIED. 

Mr. Lewis was a fine penman, and somewhat ornate in his 
signature, as the appended fac-simile shows. 



6r?-e^:2:/p, 



^-e-'^f'Z-^^^ 



Lewis, Jacob M. — the fourteenth Mayor of Lynn, He is a 
native of the place, was born on the 13th of 06fober, 1823, and 
served in the mayoralty four terms. P'or biographical sketch, with 
portrait, see Centennial Memorial, A fac-simile of his signature 
is here given. ^ ^ /^ 9^ ' 




Lightfoot, Francis — whose autograph appears upon the 
Armitage Petition, page 106, was a man of small means, but 
respeftable charafter. He died in 1646. See Annals, 1635. 

Longley, William. This was no doubt the same individual 
who figured so strangely in the land claim spoken of in our An- 
nals, under date 1638 ; and his name is on the Armitage Petition. 
The Longleys seem to have been often at war with their neigh- 
bors on account of land claims. Thomas Newhall, so often 



1 68 Biographical Sketches. Longley, 

alluded to as the first white person born in Lynn, and who from 
all that appears was far from being of a quarrelsome disposition, 
was prosecuted in 1663 for assault and battery committed on the 
wife of this William Longley while assisting in running a land 
line. Among other evidence in the case was the following : 
" The testimony of Elizabeth Newhall y^ wife of John Senier, 
and Mary Haven whoe say'"^ y* Thomas Newhall Junier was 
desiered for to howld a poole for to rone a line between Will 
Longley and John Newhall : y^ say^ Thomas Newhall stode on 
y^ land of John Newhalls : then came y^ two dafters of y'^ say"* 
Longley ; namely Mary Longley & Anna Longley and threue 
stons at y^ say"^ Thomas Newhall ; afterwards y*^ say'^ Anna toke 
up a peace of a pulle & stroke y^ say'^ Newhall severall blows 
with it, & presently after y^ wife of y^ say'' Longley came with 
a broad axe in hir hand and cam to y*^ say'' Newhall and violently 
stroke at y^ say^ Newhall with y^ axe, but y*^ say'' Newhall sliped 
aside & soe y^ axe mised him ; o''wise wee cannot but thinke but 
y* hee had bine much wounded if not killed : then presently after 
y« wife of Will Longley laid howld upone y^ poole with hir two 
dafters to pull y^ poole away from y^ sayd Newhall : but y^ sayd 
Newhall pulled y^ poole from y'". All this time y^ sayd Thomas 
Newhall did stand upon y^ land of John Newhalls. Taken upon 
oath, 28 1""° '63." The Longleys, in their version, of course gave 
the affair a different coloring. They testified that Newhall was on 
one side of their orchard fence, and they on the other ; that they 
were striving to get the pole from him, all having hold of it ; and 
one of the daughters goes on to say, " wee had almost pulled 
the poole out of his hands but his brother John came and helped 
him and pulled it from us, and after the said Newhall had got 
the poole again he strucke my mother seueral blows with the 
poole so that one of her hands was black and blue severall dayes 
after." It must have been quite a spirited scene there at the 
orchard fence — the brothers Thomas and John in fierce combat 
with the sisters Anna and Mary, supported by their belligerent 
mother. And attention need not be called to the fa6l made 
apparent by this historical scrap, that then petty neighborhood 
quarrels, with their exaggerated details and strife-engendering 
tendencies furnished the same sort of unwholesome food for the 
inferior courts that they do in our day. 



Biographical Sketches. Lovering. Luinnms. 169 

LovERiNG, Henry B. — the seventeenth Mayor of Lynn — was 
born in Portsmouth, N. H. April 8, 1841. He was inaugurated 
January 3d, 1881, and so satisfa6lorily performed the duties 
of the office that in December he was eledled for a second term. 
He has been for nearly the whole of his business life connedled 
in some way with the manufa6lure of shoes. And that he is 
deemed a citizen of ability and trustworthiness is sufficiently 
apparent from the responsible positions he has been called to fill. 
On the 25th of December, 1865, he was united in marriage with 
Abbie J., a daughter of Harrison Clifford, and has four children 
During the civil war he served in the Union army twenty-six 
months. While attached to the Third Massachusetts Cavalry, 
under Gen. Sheridan, he had the misfortune to lose a leg, at the 
battle of Winchester. A fac-simile of his autograph is here given. 




'^^;^-t/cA.'^^c^(7^ 



LuMMUS, Dr. Aaron — a skillful physician, who was in prac- 
tice here nearly fifty years. He lived on Market street, and 
Tremont street was opened through his orchard. He died Jan. 
5, 1831, aged 74. See Annals, 1831. 

LuMMUS, Aaron — familiarly known as " Judge Lummus" — 
was a son of Dr. Aaron just named, and his title " Judge," arose 
from his having long presided as a police magistrate. He was 
grave and deliberate in the examination of causes, but not over 
cautious in preventing the accumulation of small cases. His 
occupation as a trial justice was superseded by the establishment 
of the Police Court, in 1849. He was a Methodist minister before 
assuming the judicial office, and besides preaching was at times 
connedled with denominational publications. He wrote consid- 
erable, but his writings, as a general thing, were didaftic and 
better calculated to instru6l than interest. As a preacher he was 
sound in do6lrine, but not eminent in the way of oratory. We 
remember hearing his brother, Charles F., who will come next 



I/O Biographical Sketches. Lummus. Mansfield. 

under notice, in his quaint way remark : " Well, there 's my 
brother Aaron ; he is a good exhorter, and that 's about all." 
He died March i, 1859, aged 62. 

Lummus, Charles F. — the first Lynn printer. He died April 
20, 1838, aged 37. For biographical sketch see 1865 edition of 
History of Lynn. A fac-simile of his signature follows. 



t^^^><-i^ A jLc 



CC^CX.<^<^C<A^A^ 



Mansfield, Andrew. Mr. Mansfield was, properly speaking, 
our first Town Clerk, and entered upon the duties of the office 
in 1660. He lived on Boston street in the seftion still known 
as Mansfield's end. The early dates of our Annals contain 
many references to him, as he was a6tive and conspicuous. To 
him we are indebted for the preservation of a record of the land 
allotments of 1638, which he copied from " out of the Town Book 
of Records of Lynn," March 10, 1660. And the fac-simile of his 
signature here given is taken from his autograph appended to 
that copy. 

Mansfield, Dr. Joseph. This individual, for many years a 
reputable pra6lising physician in Groton, Mass., was born on 
the 17th of December, 1770, in the old Mansfield house, known 
also as the Moulton house, on the north side of Boston street, 
opposite the foot of Marion, and was a lineal descendant of An- 
drew Mansfield, the first Town Clerk. He graduated at Harvard 
college in 1801, and soon applied himself to the study of medicine, 
the pra6lice of which he pursued as the business of his life, which 
terminated on the 23d of April, 183 1. 

Mr. Mansfield early exhibited poetic talents which bid fair to 
place his name among the foremost of American bards. But he 
seems not to have been ambitious of any such distinftion and 
hence did not cultivate his rare gift. On the 8th of January, 
1800, he delivered a poem in the chapel of Harvard college, for 
which he took the prize of eighty dollars, offered by the faculty 



Biographical Sketches. Ma^isfield. 171 

for the best metrical produ6lion. The poem is entitled Hope, 
and is two hundred and twenty-four lines in length. In reading 
it one is reminded of Pope's philosophical style ; though there 
are passages in a sentimental vein, and some in a playful. And 
as it was written at a period of intense political agitation, there 
are highly patriotic strains. The first and last stanzas, with a 
single intervening one will be here introduced. 

I am not blest, but may hereafter be : 
Who knows what fortune has in store for me.^ 
This is the language common to mankind. 
Nor is to age, or rank, or sex, confined. 
Hope points to each some not far distant day, 
When every blessing will his wish obey ; 
When to possess, he only need require ; 
Fruition's self will supersede desire. 
» « * * * 

See doting parents sedulously trace 
The opening beauties of their infant's face ; 
Commencing physiognomists, they find 
A world of wonders in its features joined ; 
The mother reads, and comments as she reads ; 
My child was born for more than mortal deeds ; 
Then Hope steps up and whispers by her side, 
You cradle in your arms creation's pride. 

***** 
We hope, long as the central orb attracts, 
Long as the force of gravitation a6ls. 
Long as the East is opposite the West, 
Long as the name of Washington is blest, 
Long as the atheist hopes to sleep in dust, 
Long as the sons of anarchy are curst. 
Long as the future differs from the past, — 
So long, Columbia, will thy freedom last. 
But should the monster Fa6lion break his chains, 
And fiery demagogues usurp the reins — 
We hope that future Washingtons may rise. 
Or rather make a visit from the skies. 

An accident which happened to Mr. Mansfield, as narrated 
by Mr. John T. Moulton, was so singular as to merit notice 
here. " While bathing near Chase's mill he was seized with the 
cramp in his limbs and so disabled that he could not reach the 
shore, and when found by his companions, who were at work, 
haying, on the marsh near by, was supposed to be drowned ; 
but by the application of the proper means he was resuscitated 



172 Biographical Sketches. Marble. Marshall. Martin. 

and taken home, but did not regain his consciousness for some 
days. Then, awaking from sleep, he suddenly exclaimed, ' Mo- 
ther, where have I been .'' ' He seemed to have lost what know- 
ledge he had acquired and his mind was like that of a child, so 
that it was necessary for him to begin and learn again his letters 
as he had done when a boy." 

Tt may not be inappropriate, in closing this notice, to remark 
that a poetic vein seems to have run in this family connexion. 
Mr. John T. Moulton, who delivered the much-applauded poem 
at the reunion of the High School graduates. May 19, 1865, is 
one of the line ; and Solomon Moulton, of whom a biographical 
notice with specimens of his writing may be found in the 1865 
edition of our History, and of whose poetic talents Mr. Lewis 
frequently spoke in high terms, was an uncle of John T. And 
this latter gentleman has, among his valuable collection, a number 
of poems, in manuscript, of Mr. Mansfield, the subje61; of this 
notice, which it is hoped may at some future time appear in print. 

Marble, Edwin — son of Hiram who in 1852 commenced, 
under supposed spiritual supervision, the excavation of Dungeon 
Rock. If possible, Edwin was more firm in the faith than his 
father. He died at the Rock, January 16, 1880, aged 48. See 
Annals, 1880. 

Marble, Hiram — a devoted spiritualist, who in 1852, under- 
took the herculean labor of excavating Dungeon Rock in search 
of gold and jewels supposed to have been secreted there by 
pirates, in 1658. He died at the Rock, November 10, 1868, 
aged 65. See Annals, 1658 and 1868. 

Marshall, Thomas — a jolly landlord of the old Anchor 
Tavern, in its palmy days ; and otherwise distinguished among 
his fellow-townsmen. His autograph adorns the Armitage Peti- 
tion, page 106. See Annals, 1635, and other early dates. 

Martin, Dea. George. Deacon Martin died on the 17th 
of December, 1868, aged 68. He was a native of Lynn and 
deacon of the First Church — Trinitarian Congregational — for 
the long space of forty-one years, and superintendent of the 



Biographical Sketches. Merritf. Moody. Moore. 173 

Sunday school for twenty-five years. His death was by heart 
disease, and occurred without warning, during a prayer meeting 
in the vestry of the church, on South Common street, corner of 
Vine. He had just closed a fervent prayer, when he fell and 
expired. He was a man of intelligence, kindly feeling, and great 
integrity of chara6ler ; was industrious and unobtrusive, and by 
his example turned many to a better life. He was zealously 
engaged in the temperance cause and other reformatory enter- 
prises of the day. 

Martin, Josiah — an eccentric chara(fi:er, much given to 
**pra6tical jokes," so called. He was landlord of the old Anchor 
Tavern, about the commencement of the Revolution. See An- 
nals, 1782. 

Merritt, Charles — for many years a Deputy Sheriff of the 
county, and otherwise conspicuous in public office. He lived on 
Western avenue near the jundtion of Summer street, and died 
March 13, 1877, aged 72. See Annals, 1877. A fac-simile of his 
signature is here given. -^y yy 

Montowampate — Indian Sagamore of Lynn. See History 
of Lynn, 1865 edition, page 36. 

Moody, Lady Deborah — a lady of great worth, wealth and 
influence, but being unsound in puritanical do6lrine, was subjedted 
to persecution and loss. See Annals, 1640. 

Moody, True — a faithful sable out-door attendant at Lynn 
Hotel, in its palmy days — a man of scrupulous honesty and much 
favored by travellers. He died June 17, 1855. See Annals, 1855. 

Moore, Henry — for more than twenty years principal of the 
Cobbet grammar school. He lived on Boston street, near Con- 
gress, and died March 29, 1879, aged 52. See Annals, 1879. 

MoTTEY, Rev. Joseph — minister of the Lynnfield Parish, for 
many years. See Annals, 182 1. 



174 Biographical Sketches. Moiilton. 

MouLTON, Joseph. Mr. Moulton was a native of Lynn, and 
spent most of his life among us. On the maternal side he was a 
descendant from Andrew Mansfield, the first Town Clerk. For 
many years he owned and occupied the house on Boston street, 
nearly opposite the foot of Marion, in which he was born and in 
which he died, and which is supposed to be the oldest dwelling 
now in Lynn. A few of his earlier years were spent in Vermont 
and western New York, where his fortunes were varied and not 
always free from hardship and discouragement. But industry, 
self-reliance, and perseverance, carried him successfully through. 
He was a tanner and morocco-dresser by trade and on his return 
to Lynn, in 1837, established himself in the latter branch, which 
he diligently pursued till it finally yielded him a competency ; 
and his latter years were passed in quietude, and far above 
pecuniary want, though he was not exempt from a share of phy- 
sical suffering, as cruel asthma long held its grip upon him. He 
was an accomplished antiquary ; was for more than twenty years 
a member of the Massachusetts Historic and Genealogical Soci- 
ety and furnished some interesting papers for their publications. 
In viewing the memorials and contemplating the scenes of the 
past, he took unwearied delight. With English history and 
literature he was more than commonly familiar, and there was 
scarcely a point of New England history on which he did not 
possess almost exhaustive knowledge. On matters pertaining to 
our local history he was often applied to for information. And 
he possessed one trait especially, rare as it is valuable, namely, a 
readiness to admit ignorance when it existed, and an equal readi- 
ness to resort to patient investigation. Often have we heard 
him say to an inquirer, " Well, well, I declare to you I do not 
know ; but will try to find out ; come again." His reading, 
however, was by no means confined to historical works. Many 
delighted hours he spent over the volumes of the old poets, 
essayists and novelists ; and his memory was so retentive that 
even in common conversation, he frequently quoted passages — 
sometimes in an amusing, always in a pertinent manner. He 
had a library, small but valuable, embracing a few rare works, 
and was not often deterred by any reasonable expense from 
gratifying his taste. The writer remembers one day meeting 
him with a couple of small volumes in his hand. " There," said 



Biographical Sketches. Moiilton. Mudge. 175 

he, " I have just received these little books from England, and 
they cost me thirty dollars." 

He was an intelligent horticulturist, and took much pleasure 
in his garden, especially in experimenting with fruit trees, vines, 
and flowers, producing some valuable seedlings and some novel 
and interesting results by inoculation. 

Soon after the breaking out of the civil war, he became the 
possessor of a bell which had done service on a Louisiana plan- 
tation, and this he sometimes, on occasions which seemed espe- 
cially to call for the expression of patriotic feeling, sent clanging 
through the streets, mounted on wheels. He afterwards gave it 
to the trustees of Pine Grove Cemetery, and it now hangs in the 
tower of the keeper's house. 

Mr. Moulton, while in Vermont, was united in marriage with 
Relief Todd, and by her had five children, to wit, Anne, James 
T., Charles H., John T., and Walter S. James T. and John T. 
inherit in a marked degree their father's love for antiquarian 
studies. He died, very suddenly, Feb. 10, 1873, aged 75 years. 

Moulton, Solomon — a writer of prose and poetry, of much 
promise. He died May 26, 1827, aged 19. For a biographical 
sketch, with specimens of his writing, see 1865 edition of the 
History of Lynn. 

MuDGE, Benjamin. Mr. Mudge was born in Lynn, Sept. i, 
1786. He was the seventh child of Enoch Mudge, who was the 
father of fourteen children, and was in his turn the father of eleven. 
Till 1 81 5 his life was passed in Lynn, excepting that for a short 
time he followed the seas under his brother Joseph. In 1808 he 
married Abigail Rich, who became the mother of all his children. 
She died in 1847, and the next year he married Miss Ardra Cobb, 
who, surviving him, died on the 14th of December, 1880, at the 
age of 92. 

In 181 5, with his family, Mr. Mudge emigrated to the then 
" far west," settling at Cincinnati, Ohio. The journey thither 
was at that time long and wearisome. At Laurel Hill, he had 
the misfortune to have his leg broken by being thrown from the 
top of a stage, the accident causing a tedious detention of some 
two months, and making a serious inroad upon his limited means. 



176 Biographical Sketches. Mudge. 

He opened a shoe store at Cincinnati, which he continued till 
1822, when he gave up and returned to Lynn, in anything but a 
satisfa6lory condition, pecuniarily. Possessing an aftive and 
enterprising mind, and being urged on by the requirements of a 
growing family, he industriously set to work, and for some years 
procured a livelihood by semi-literary pursuits. He was con- 
ne6led with Zion's Herald, the Masonic Mirror, and one or two 
other newspapers, appearing at one time as editor of the Lynn 
Mirror. In 1 831, he commenced, in Lynn, the Essex Democrat, 
a weekly paper, warmly spiced with politics of what was then 
known as the Jacksonian stamp. This he continued about two 
years, and afterwards derived a moderate income from minor 
political offices. 

In 1840 he was ele6led a Representative to the General Court. 
He was also an a6ling justice of the peace, county commissioner, 
and overseer of the poor. He was likewise postmaster from 1843 
to 1849. 

In 1854 he had the misfortune to fall near the rail-road track, 
in Ipswich, and before he could recover himself a train passed 
over his foot, so injuring it that amputation was necessary. 
Thus he became lamed for the remainder of his life. 

When about seventeen years of age he conne6led himself with 
the First Methodist Church, of which his father and mother had 
long been members, and thence pursued an exemplary walk, 
through his long life. 

He was Captain of the Lynn Artillery, from 18 13 to 18 16, and 
on a night during the war with England, on a sudden alarm 
instantly summoned his company and marched towards the 
quarter supposed to be in danger. It proved, however, to be a 
false alarm. His eldest son, Robert R., born in 1809, graduated 
from the West Point Military Academy, in 1833, and in 1835 
was ordered to Florida, to take part in the Seminole war, as 
Lieutenant under Major Dade, and was killed at Withlacoochie, 
together with the whole company of one hundred and seventeen, 
with the exception of three. 

Personally, Mr. Mudge was tall, well-formed, and eredl ; a6live 
in movement, and of pleasant countenance. He died on the 21st 
of March, 1874, at the age of ^y years, and was buried from the 
First Methodist meeting-house, where he had so long worshiped 



Biographical Sketches. Mudge. 177 

A large concourse gathered to take a last look upon the remains 
of one who in his various social, public, and business relations 
had maintained a high charafter for integrity and fellow-feeling, 

Mudge, Benjamin F. — the second Mayor of Lynn. He died 
at his residence, in Manhattan, Kansas, November 21, 1879, 
aged 62 ; and so great was the respe6l for him, that the citizens 
of that place ere6led a monument over his grave. See Annals, 
1879. I'^ the Centennial Memorial, is a biographical sketch, with 
a portrait. A fac-simile of his signature is hereto appended. 



^^T^^^^c^c 




Mudge, Rev. Enoch — an esteemed minister of the Metho- 
dist conne6lion, and a writer of some note. " Lynn, a Poem," 
published in pamphlet form, in 1826, was a production of his. 
His son Enoch Redington, was the donor of the beautiful St. 
Stephen's Memorial Church, ere6led in 1881. He died in Lynn, 
April 2, 1850, aged 74. In the 1865 edition of the History 
of Lynn may be found a biographical sketch. 

Mudge, Enoch Redington — son of the Rev. Enoch, just 
noticed, and the munificent builder of St. Stephen's Memorial 
Church. He died 061. i, 1881, aged 69 years. See Annals, 1881. 

Mudge, Ezra — a well-known citizen, much in public life. 
He died May 25, 1855, aged 75. In the 1865 edition of the 
History of Lynn, a biographical notice may be found. 

Mudge, Ezra Warren. In the Centennial Memorial appears 
a biographical notice of Mr. Mudge, with a portrait. He died at 
his home, on Neptune street, September 20, 1878, aged 66 years. 
Few persons have ever left the busy scenes of our community 
more respe6led and beloved or more worthy to be held in grate- 
ful remembrance. His father, Hon. Ezra Mudge, was thrice 
married, and by the second and third wives each had seven 

12 



178 Biographical Sketches. Mudge. 

children, the first wife having died childless. Ezra Warren was 
the fourth child by the second wife. He received his education 
in the schools of Lynn, and in 1828 entered the dry goods store 
of Chase and Huse, near the west end of the Common. In this 
store, first as clerk and then as partner, he remained till 1849, at 
which time the Laighton Bank — afterwards the Central Na- 
tional — was established, and he was elefled cashier, and contin- 
ued to fill the office in a most satisfadlory manner till his last 
sickness rendered it necessar}' to resign. He held various 
responsible positions under the old town government ; was a 
Seleftman, Town Treasurer, and member of the School Com- 
mittee. And after the City Charter was adopted he was for six 
years City Treasurer. In 1856 he was inaugurated as the sixth 
Mayor, and administered the office two years, his administration 
being marked by prudence, integrity, and impartiality. During 
the civil war he was a member of the board of Aldermen, and 
with that body his opinions deservedly had great weight. 

He had a taste for literature and took great interest in all 
educational enterprises, was identified with the Public Library, 
from its foundation, and at the time of his decease was president 
of the board of trustees. He had a well seledled library, em- 
bracing, at the time of his death, some three thousand volumes ; 
and many an hour of pleasant retirement did he spend with those 
refreshing though silent companions. 

In early manhood he married Miss Eliza R, Bray, of Salem, 
and became the father of nine children, four of whom survived 
him. His burial took place from the Second Universalist meet- 
ing-house, where he had for many years been a worshiper, and 
was attended by a large concourse of friends and citizens. His 
autograph, so familiar from its appearance on the bills of the 
bank with which he was so long conne6led, is here represented. 




Biographical Sketches. Mulliken. Mwiroe. Neal. 179 

MuLLiKEN, Samuel — third postmaster of Lynn. He died 
November 25, 1847, aged Z6. See Annals, 1847. 

MuNROE, Col. Timothy. Colonel Munroe was not of a tem- 
perament to pass noiselessly through the world ; yet though for 
many years conspicuous as an ardent politician, and otherwise 
a6live in local affairs, he was most widely known by his military 
record. He was a native of Lynn, and died at his residence in 
Franklin street, on the 25th of May, 1873, at the age of 72 years. 

He was for a number of years Captain of the Lynn Light 
Infantry, of which company he became a member as early as 
1 81 7 — a company which has ever maintained a high chara6ler 
for discipline. He was likewise commissioned as Colonel of the 
Eighth Massachusetts Regiment, and was in command at the 
time of the breaking out of the civil war ; at which stirring 
period his regiment was hastily summoned and departed for the 
scene of conflict, joining in the perilous march through Baltimore. 
He however continued in active service but a few months. 

In his religious views he was a steadfast adherent of the Uni- 
tarian faith ; was one of the early members of the society here ; 
and from their meeting-house his remains were followed to their 
last resting place in Pine Grove Cemetery. 

In early manhood he married Miss Rachel Lakeman, and 
became the father of five children. 

Munroe street, which was laid out through his father's land 
perpetuates the family name, 

Nahanton — an Indian "wise man." See History of Lynn, 
1865 edition, page 41. 

Nanapashemet — an Indian Sachem of extensive jurisdi6lion. 
See 1865 edition of History of Lynn, page 34. 

Neal, Peter M. — the tenth Mayor of Lynn. For notice, 
with portrait, see Centennial Memorial. A fac-simile of his 
signature is hereto appended. 




i8o Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 

Newhall, Anthony. See " Newhall, Thomas and Anthony." 

Newhall, Asa T., of Lynnfield — an intelligent farmer, con- 
siderably in public life. He died December i8, 1850, aged 71. 
A biographical notice appears in the 1865 edition of the History 
of Lynn. 

Newhall, Benjamin F., of Saugus — a man aftiv^e in business, 
public spirited, and full of industrial resources, intelligent, and 
a frequent writer for the public journals. He died 06lober 13, 
1863, aged 61. For biographical notice see History of Lynn, 
1865 edition. 

Newhall, Francis S. — was largely engaged in the shoe and 
leather trade, a Senator, and first president of Laighton — after- 
wards the Central National — Bank. He died Feb. 2, 1858, aged 
62. See notice in 1865 edition of History of Lynn. 

Newhall, Henry. Mr. Newhall was a lineal descendant 
from Thomas, one of the first settlers, and his father was Win- 
throp Newhall, who for many years successfully prosecuted the 
trade of tanner, his vats being on the west side of Market street, 
near where the Eastern Rail-road now crosses. The subje6l 
of this sketch, in company with his brother Francis S., just 
named, followed his father in the occupation, and added to it the 
manufafture of morocco. This was really the business of his 
life, though other pursuits to some extent engaged his attention, 
and he retired from a6five business with ample means but failing 
health. His habits were rather retiring than bustling, though 
he did not shrink from the performance of important public 
duties. He filled various municipal offices, was a bank dire61:or, 
and on the death of his brother Francis succeeded to the office 
of president of the Central National Bank, which he continued 
to fill till a few years before his death. His opportunities for 
education were limited, but he was fond of reading, and soon 
began to store his mind with information on almost every current 
topic, by no means overlooking the literature of the imagination. 
He was much esteemed for his gentlemanly manners and in 
rather a marked degree received the social deference so often 



Biographical Sketches. NewJialL i8i 

accorded to wealth. The Unitarian society, which was incorpo- 
rated in 1822, counted him among its early members, and to the 
end of his life he continued in the faith. He died July 15. 1878, 
aged 81 years ; and his remains were interred on Linden avenue 
in Pine Grove Cemetery, by the side of those of his brother 
Francis, in accordance with the expressed desire of both, who, 
having through life enjoyed uninterrupted brotherly attachment, 
wished to lie near each other in their final rest. 

Newhall, Dr. Horatio. Dr. Newhall was born in Lynn, on 
the 28th of August, 1798, and was a lineal descendant of one 
of the first settlers. His mother was Lucy, a daughter of Col. 
John Mansfield, who was commander of the Lynn regiment at 
the time the Revolution broke out. 

He fitted for college, at Lynn Academy, partly under the 
tuition of Samuel Newell, who, with his wife Harriet, afterwards 
became so famous for their missionary labors in India, and partly 
under Solomon S. Whipple, subsequently a lawyer in Salem. 
He entered Harvard College on his birthday, the 28th of Au- 
gust, 181 3 ; and in his class were some whose names will long 
remain conspicuous among the famous of our land ; among them 
George Bancroft the historian, Caleb Gushing the jurist and 
statesman. Rev. Dr. Tyng the divine, and Judge Emerson. He 
graduated with honor, and soon applied himself to the study 
of medicine, taking his degree in 1821. There had at that time 
been an emigration of a number of families from Boston and its 
vicinity to the then new State of Illinois ; and being in want of a 
reliable physician, they applied to that distinguished professor 
of the theory and pra6lice of medicine. Dr. James Jackson, for 
the sele6lion of one ; and he cordially recommended Dr. Newhall, 
who very soon after, with his letters of introduction, commenced 
the long and toilsome journey towards the western border of 
civilization, animated by youthful ardor and manly determination. 

He reached the then little French village of St. Louis in just 
one month, after travelling day and night. His place of destina- 
tion lay some fifty miles beyond, and how to reach it was a 
serious question, there being no public conveyance, and hardly a 
possibility of securing a wheeled carriage of any kind. However, 
he finally succeeded in obtaining a French pony and a sort of 



1 82 Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 

light wagon. And thus equipped he set forth with the phthisical 
apprentice of a friendly shoemaker as a guide and companion, 
and by whom the travelling equipage was to be returned. Dur- 
ing the first day they got lost on the prairie, but at night reached 
a log hut, where they were hospitably entertained by the propri- 
etor, whose name was Mather, and who proved to be a lineal 
descendant of Cotton Mather the celebrated New England divine. 

The next day they continued their journey over prairie lands 
in splendid floral garniture, it being the eighth of June. They 
also saw herds of deer roaming in every dire6lion. The young 
doctor was so inspired by the romance and beauty of the scene 
that he shouted and capered till his poor companion was seized 
with amazement and fears that he had become suddenly distra6ted. 
In the afternoon he arrived at the border of the prairie, where 
were a few settlers. There he dismissed his companion with 
good advice as to the treatment of the oppressive disease under 
which he was suffering, and began to administer to his first 
regular patient. 

At Greenville, in Bond county, he immediately opened an 
office, and soon found himself in a pra6lice extending over all 
the adjacent counties. He was in no sense given to idleness ; 
and besides being very industrious in his profession, was a6live 
in public affairs, working diligently to promote the prosperity 
of his new home. In benevolent enterprises he took an unwea- 
ried interest ; and it may safely be said that to him are attribu- 
table the foundation and success of some of the most worthy 
institutions that have proved such blessings to the great West. 
And he was a man who never despised small beginnings. In 
March,' 1825, the first Sunday school in Bond county, and the 
second in the state, was established through his efforts, and of it 
he was the first superintendent. It was at about that period, 
too, that he, together with a few other kindred spirits, succeeded 
in establishing a Bible Society, and one in aid of Domestic 
Missions. 

In 1827 Dr. Newhall removed from Greenville into the midst 
of the Indian country to the mining region. He arrived at the 
site of Galena, on the 31st of March, having occupied twenty-six 
days in the tedious and dangerous journey from St. Louis. For 
a short time he turned his attention to mining; but in 1828 



Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 183 

resumed his medical pra6lice, as more congenial. In 1830, he 
was stationed at Fort Winnebago, as an a6ling surgeon in the 
United States army. But in 1832 he returned to Galena and 
again went into praftice there, and in the Black Hawk war, 
had sole control of a general hospital. The Asiatic cholera, 
during its devastating march over the country, a couple of years 
later, proved a great scourge to this region ; and when General 
Scott removed his head quarters from Galena to Rock Island, 
he wrote to Dr. Newhall, beseeching him to come to the latter 
place and exercise his skill in the endeavor to arrest the progress 
of the pestilence. It fortunately happened that he had made the 
disease a matter of careful investigation, and was able to render 
very efficient service. 

During the civil war he did his utmost for the Union cause, 
though his advanced age was an impediment to his a6live parti- 
cipation in the stirring scenes of the field. In 1861 he was 
appointed physician of the United States Marine Hospital, at 
Galena, and continued to perform the duties till the institution 
was closed, in 1866. 

The first newspaper published north of the Illinois river — the 
"Miners' Journal," commenced in 1827 — was edited by him. 
And the Galena Advertiser, first issued in 1829, was likewise 
under his editorial charge. 

Having secured a comfortable home in the West, he became 
solicitous to share the blessing with a conjugal companion, and 
accordingly, in 1830, married Elizabeth P. P. Bates, a daughter 
of Moses Bates, of Richmond, Va. She was a superior woman ; 
of large and cultivated mind and amiable disposition. The union 
was a most happy one, and continued till 1848, when death 
deprived him of her endeared society. They had three sons 
and three daughters, all of whom survived their father. 

The religious element was marked in the charafter of Dr. 
Newhall from an early age. In 1835 he joined the First Pres- 
byterian Church of Galena ; some eight years afterwards was 
chosen an elder, and continued in the office during the remainder 
of his life. 

From his extensive correspondence many papers of exceeding 
interest might be sele6led. But we are compelled to be chary 
of our space. The following letter to an old college class-mate, 



184 Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 

however, which it will be observed was written but a few years 

before his death, contains such points of interest as will fully 

justify its insertion : 

Galena, July 8th, 1863. 

Col. James W. Seaver, Boston: 

Dear Sir : Your note inviting me to meet the surviving members of the 
Class of 1817, at the Revere House, on the 14th inst. is received. Absence from 
home must be my excuse for not answering it at an earlier day. I could not realize 
that a half century had elapsed since we entered college, until I reflected upon the 
vast stride our country has made in its wealth and population during that period. 
Since I l^ecame a resident of Illinois the population of the State has increased from 
fifty thousand to two millions and a half. Then, I was on the frontier of civilization ; 
now, my oldest son is a citizen of a State, two thousand miles farther West. It is 
only twenty-five years since I hired a Sioux guide to condu6l me to Carver's cave in 
a wilderness where now is the beautiful city of St. Paul, the capital of Minnesota. 
Thirty-three years ago, when I was stationed as surgeon at Fort Winnebago, I 
passed through an Indian encampment of twenty-five hundred Winnebagoes on the 
Four Lakes, where now is Madison, the seat of government of Wisconsin ; and I 
have just returned from commencement at Beloit college, of which institution I am a 
trustee. Thirty years since it was the hunting ground of the Winnebagoes. Less 
than forty years have passed since this city (Galena) was the favorite dwelling place 
of the Sacks and Foxes, and to-day we are celebrating the brilliant victories of our 
townsman. General Grant, the great Captain of the age. 

If I have been the means of aiding in moulding public opinion in this part of our 
beloved country, I owe it, in a great degree, to the education I received at old Har- 
vard. I should rejoice to meet my old class-mates on the 14th inst., but cannot leave 
home at that time on account of the situation of my family. Give my fraternal regards 
to those who may be present and believe me to be 

Truly and Sincerely Yours, H. Newhall. 

Dr. Newhall died on Monday, September 19, 1870. "Three 
days after," says the record of an affe6lionate friend, " we were 
present at the funeral which took place from the family residence. 
There were many, very many stricken hearts on that solemn 
occasion overshadowed with the gloom of the death presence. 
A large concourse of relatives, friends, neighbors and acquaint- 
ances assembled to express their sympathy with the living and 
their reverence for the dead. The room and coffin were profusely 
decorated with choicest flowers tastefully arranged. It was 
fitting ; he loved them in life ; and in the fulness of life above, 
he no doubt was enjoying the sweetness and beauty of those 
that bloom fadelessly in paradise — the garden of blessedness. 

" When at four o'clock on the 22d of September we affeflion- 
ately and sorrowfully committed his remains to the earth — dust 
to its kindred dust — we could not but feel, that, for his body, 
worn out in the service of duty, there was to be a glorious awak- 



Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 185 

ening and renewal by the Master, who said, ' I am the resurrec- 
tion and the hfe ; ' and there was deep solace in the Voice from 
heaven, saying write, * Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.' 
" Encircled in a garland of delicate flowers and green foliage 
was a miniature sheaf of ripe wheat lying upon the coffin which 
contained the inanimate form of the departed saint. The design 
was appropriate and significant : 'Thou shalt come to thy grave 
in full age, like as a shock of corn cometh in his season.' " 

Newhall, Isaac, of Mall street. By referring to page 540 
of the 1865 edition of the History of Lynn, the reader will find a 
notice of this individual, who was a native of the place, and estab- 
lished something of a literary reputation by his letters on Junius. 
It is hardly probable that he anticipated the rank his little work 
was destined to attain so soon after he had ceased to be moved 
by anything the world could say of it or of him. The writer 
well remembers that when the volume appeared, in 183 1, it was 
somewhat talked about, but probably not many copies were circu- 
lated in Lynn. The truth is, it was upon a subje6l concerning 
which very few in our community knew much, and to most 
of those few it had little interest. It was to the learned class 
of statesmen and politicians, rather than to the mere partisan, 
that it commended itself But yet a sort of romantic interest 
attended its advent, it being so unaccountable that a man of Mr. 
Newhall's hum-drum vocation, could, while pursuing his daily 
routine, be pondering on themes that agitated the minds of a 
Burke and an Eldon. 

In an address delivered by Hon. Charles W. Upham, of Salem, 
before the Essex Institute, in 1868, appeared a warm recognition 
of the success of Mr. Newhall, and interwoven were graphic allu- 
sions to his personal traits, habits, and pursuits. Said the 
speaker : " Behind the counter of a retail store on Essex street, 
[Salem] was to be found a person pursuing the daily routine of a 
most unpretentious life, apparently thinking of nothing else than 
the accommodation of customers, in the exhibition of his stock, 
and measuring out, by the yard, linen, cotton, ribbons, and tape. 
He was apparently beyond middle life, of a mild and courteous 
demeanor, quiet, and of few words. There was, it is true, in his 
mien and manners, a combined gentleness and dignity, that 



1 86 Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 

marked him as differing from the common run of men, but 
nothing to indicate the tenor of his pecuhar mental occupations 
The leisure hours of that man were employed in patient, minute, 
comprehensive and far-reaching researches in books, quarterly 
journals, magazines and political documents, guided by a culti- 
vated taste, keen discrimination, familiarity with the best models 
of style and thought, and intimate acquaintance with the bio- 
graphical details of all the prominent public chara6lers of Eng- 
land, and their personal, family, and party relations to each 
other, that enabled him to grapple with a subject that was 
engrossing and defying the ingenuity of them all, and thereby to 
place himself as a peer among the literati of his day." 

Mr. Newhall was not in any marked degree successful in life, 
as most people estimate success ; that is, he did not become 
rich ; but he lived in comfort, maintained a respeftable position, 
and died in peace, at the old family mansion, on Mall street, in 
which he was born, and which has since been removed to give 
place for the fine modern dwelling of Mr. John T. Moulton. He 
was an elder brother of Dr. Horatio Newhall, a sketch of whom 
has just been given, was born on 24th of August, 1782, and died 
on the 6th of July, 1858. 

Newhall, Isaac, of Marianna street. Mr, Newhall died at 
his picturesque residence near the eastern border of the city, on 
the 22d of February, 1879, ^^ the age of 65 years. He was a 
native of Lynn, and a direct descendant from one of the first 
settlers ; was a man of great decision of chara6ler and uncom- 
promising integrity ; aftive in business and public enterprises ; 
not easily diverted from any course deliberately adopted, nor 
over-patient with those who undertook to thwart his plans ; was 
faithful to friends, and no time-server or selfish cringer. He 
loved to retire from the unsatisfying turmoil of business to his 
rural estate upon our eastern highlands, where he possessed 
many acres which he had brought from a rough and unproduc- 
tive condition into rich bearing, there to enjoy the society of his 
afife61:ionate family, and social intercourse with friends and neigh- 
bors. He was not much in public office, though he served as 
an Alderman, in 185 i, and again in 1873. In his religious views 
he was liberal. Though of Quaker parentage, he in early life 



Biographical Sketches. Ncwhall. 187 

became attached to the Unitarian denomination. But in after 
years, with his family, he worshiped with the Methodists. By his 
own request, however, his remains were buried from the Friends' 
meeting-house, and the funeral services were attended by a large 
number of business men, as well as relatives and friends. For 
several years he suffered greatly from severe neuralgic attacks, 
which he bore with great fortitude, and for the relief of which he 
submitted to dangerous surgical operations. He made very free 
use of tobacco, insomuch that at one period of his life he was 
commonly spoken of as always appearing with a cigar in his 
mouth. Whether this habit occasioned or aggravated his terrible 
disease, was never, so far as the writer knows, determined. 

Mr. Newhall was twice married, and left a widow and several 
children. An elder brother of his — John Bailey Newhall — was 
possessed of an observing mind and roving disposition, and had 
he lived no doubt would have made a mark in the literary world. 
It is not derogatory to compare him to Bayard Taylor. They 
were about equally educated, and commenced their travels a-foot 
not far from the same time ; and their letters were similarly 
interesting and graphic in style. As it was, though he died 
young he gave some attra6live le6lures about the Indians with 
whom he fraternized during his rovings beyond the western fron- 
tier ; and his epistolary accounts of pedestrian rambles in Europe 
were much read. 

Newhall, Jacob — landlord of the famous tavern on the 
Boston road, in revolutionary times. He was born May 3, 1740, 
and died June 18, 18 16. For biographical notice see History 
of Lynn, 1865 edition, page 494. 

Newhall, James R. — was born on Christmas day, 1809, in 
the old Richard Haven house, afterwards known as the Hart 
house, which stood on Boston street, corner of North Federal, 
till 1876, when, at the dawn of the great Centennial Day, July 4, 
it " ascended up " in a patriotic blaze. For biographical notice 
and portrait see Centennial Memorial. 

Newhall, Joseph, mentioned on page 484 of the 1865 edition 
of the History of Lynn, was a man of considerable note in the 



1 88 Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 

town, and much respefted. In 1696, the town granted him 
liberty to " sett up a pewe in y^ east end of y^ meeting house 
Between y^ east dowre & the stares ; prouided itt does nott 
prejudice the going up y^ stares into y^ gallery, & maintains so 
much of the glas window as is against s^ pewe." He was a 
member of the General Court, and died while in office. And in 
this connexion it may be remarked that the pay of Representa- 
tives and indeed of all public officers, was at a rate that did not 
encourage that degree of hankering for official position so lament- 
ably prevalent in our time. Upon the records is found this 
item of account with Mr. Newhall : " Dec. 1706 to his serueing a 
Representative at the generall court in the year 1705, untill his 
death, y6 days at 3s per day — 11 ;^ 8^ o''." True, the value 
of money was at that time very different from what it is at present ; 
but the difference was not sufficient to make office the matter 
of anxious seeking that it now is. 

Mr. Newhall perished while on his way from Boston to Lynn, 
in a great snow storm, in January, 1705-6. His grave-stone is 
in the Old Burying Ground, near the western wall ; it gives his 
age as 47, and his title as Ensign. He had eleven children, all 
of whom survived him. 

Newhall, Josiah — a prominent and public spirited citizen — 
born January 17, 1790, died November 7, 1842. His residence 
was at the east end of the Common. For biographical notice 
see History of Lynn, 1865 edition, page 533. 

Newhall, Gen. Josiah. General Newhall was born in Lynn, 
in the distrift now constituting Lynnfield, on the 6th of June, 
1794, and was a lineal descendant from Thomas, the early settler. 
His long and aftive life closed on the 26th of December, 1879. 
During several years of his earlier manhood he followed the 
profession of teaching but as time advanced retired to the more 
congenial employment of agriculture. He however retained his 
love for study, and became quite proficient in some branches, his 
attainments bearing his fame even to the other side of the Atlan- 
tic, where, in 1876, he received the honor of being elected a 
fellow of the Royal Historical Society of Great Britain. He 
served in the war of 181 2, and was afterwards much interested 



Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 189 

in military affairs, attaining the rank of Brigadier General in the 
Massachusetts Militia. When General Lafayette reviewed the 
troops on Boston Common, during his visit to America, in 1824, 
he was present in command of a regiment. 

Lynnfield was incorporated as a separate town, in 18 14, and 
General Newhall was her first Representative in the General 
Court. He served also in 1826 and '27, and again in 1848. In 
the administration of President Jackson, he held an office in the 
Boston Custom House. He also at different times filled impor- 
tant local ofBces. But his most congenial and satisfying resort 
was the honorable occupation of farmer and horticulturist. There, 
the results of his experiments and suggestions were often of much 
value. He was kind-hearted, genial in manners, and ever ready 
to lend a helping hand to the deserving who needed assistance. 
The last time the writer had the pleasure of meeting him, was 
on the occasion of the celebration of the Two Hundred and 
Fiftieth Anniversary of the Settlement of Lynn, June 17, 1879. 
He seemed greatly to enjoy the proceedings, and as the open 
;arriage in which he sat moved along in the procession, on that 
pleasant forenoon, was in fine spirits and highly interested in 
observing the many evidences of thrift and improvement. 

His wife was Rachel C, a daughter of Timothy Bancroft, and 
they were the parents c^ nine children, only two of whom sur- 
vived him. 

Newhall, Thomas and Anthony. These two individuals, 
who were among the earliest settlers of Lynn, were brothers ; and 
the first white child born within our borders was a son of the 
former, who, at his baptism, which took place immediately after 
the arrival of Rev. Mr. Bachelor, received the name of Thomas, 
a name which seems to have been a favorite in the family as far 
back as it can be traced. In the 1865 edition of our History 
of Lynn may be found such genealogical references as v'U enable 
many of the line living at this day, to trace their kinshij,. Dr. 
James A, Emmerton and Henry F. Waters, Esq., of Salerh, * 
few years since, in their researches in the old country, found in 
the English archieves, the will of Thomas Newhall, dated in 
1498, and proved April 22, 1499 ; and from that testator, it is 
concluded, the Newhalls of Lynn descended. The will is in 



190 Biographical Sketches. NewJiall. 

Latin, and names the testator's brother Hugo, his daughters 
Margaret and EHzabeth, and other females, who may have been 
married daughters. It also names William, Stephen, and Thomas 
Newhall. To the latter, one cow is bequeathed. The executors 
nominated are, " Thomas Newhall and Emmota my wife," That 
the testator was a devout churchman is indicated by this bequest : 
" My soul to God, the blessed Mary and all the saints, and my 
body to be buried in the chapel of Witton." And to the " Abbat 
and Convent of the Blessed Mary of Vale Royal, 5 marcas," are 
given. If the worthy old yeoman could have anticipated the 
extent to which his New England descendants would have 
swerved from the faith he cherished, it is feared that he would 
not have left the world in a particularly serene state of mind. 

Oliver Cromwell seems to have been the owner of a manor 
called Newhall ; and indeed the writer remembers to have seen 
the names " Croumwell " and Newhall in some way conne6led 
far back in English history. But the Proteftor, finding the 
possession yielding but little, or perhaps being pushed for means, 
in 1656 expressed a desire to dispose of the estate. The following 
letter to his son-in-law, a photographic copy of which is in the 

Mint Museum, at Philadelphia, is upon the subjedt : " Sonn , 

you knowe there hath often beene a desire to sell New-hall, 
because in these 4 years past it hath yielded very little or noe 
profifit att all, nor ever did I heare you ever liked it for a seate. 
It seems there may be a chapman had whoe will give 18.000/. it 
shall be either layed out where you shall desire, at M"" Wallop's 
or elsewhere and the monie put into Spoffer's hands in trust to 
be soe disposed or I shall settle Burleigh w'^h yields me 1260 to 
1300Z. besides the woods. Waterhouse will give you further 
information. I rest y*" lovinge fifather Oliver, P. 

" My love to y"" father and mother and your dear wife. May 
29, 1656." 

There has been a question whether the names Newhall and 
Newell were originally identical. Many have contended that 
they were not ; yet there is a will of Thomas New^//, proved 24 
September, 1529, which mentions the testator's sister Margaret 
New/W/. Must not this same Thomas Newell have been the 
son and executor of the Thomas Newhall before named, for we see 
that he had a sister Margaret ? If the names were originally 



Biographical Sketches. NewJiall. 191 

separate, it is quite certain that they were sometimes used inter- 
changeably, perhaps through ignorance, for it is not too much to 
admit that in the course of generations there may have been 
even in that brilliant family, an individual or two who might 
ignorantly toy with the name. In " Traditions of Edinburgh," 
by Robert Chambers, it is mentioned that Sir Walter Pringle 
was raised to the bench in 171 8, and called " Lord Newhall." 

In Copp's Hill burying ground, Boston, is a grave-stone bear- 
ing this inscription : 

Here lies buried the Body of 

Nathaniel Newel 

Aged 73 years deed Nov ye 29 1731 

And upon another stone, in the same burial place is this : 

Here lyes Buried the Body of 

Nathanael Newell Junr 

aged 26 years 10 mo & 15 days deed April ye 

24th 171 7 

Now these persons were, without doubt, a grandson and great- 
grandson of Anthony Newhall, who so early settled in Lynn. 
Nathaniel the elder, who died in 1731 was born in Lynn, in 
1658, and his son was born here, June 11, 1690; these dates 
appear on the records, and clearly identify the persons, as the 
family is known to have removed to Boston, in or about 1691, 
and occupied a house in the vicinity of Copp's Hill. Yet it will 
be noticed that on the grave-stone of the elder, the name is 
spelled Newel, and on that of the younger Newell. And, more- 
over, the christian names are spelled differently ; all which may 
be attributable to the ignorance or carelessness of the stone-cutter, 
in conne6lion with the fa6l that even then not much importance 
was attached to uniformity in spelling. It will be observed that 
Nathaniel, jr. died young, but he left a widow. His father was a 
ship-carpenter, and evidently a man of means and good chara6ter. 
In our notice of Nathaniel Handford, page 142, for whom he 
received his baptismal name, there appears evidence that great 
confidence was reposed in him. 

Having alluded to the favor with which the baptismal name 
Thomas has been regarded in the family as far back as the line 
can readily be traced it may be mentioned that among those 
now bearing it is Thomas A. Newhall, of Philadelphia, a native 
of Salem, Mass., a son of Gilbert, and grandson of Col. Ezra, 



192 Biographical Sketches. Newhall. 

of the Revolution. He went to Philadelphia, in 1830, a lad 
of sixteen years, having previously served for a while in the office 
of Dana, Fenno and Bolles, money and note brokers, in State 
street, Boston. In due time, by assiduity and business capacity, 
he became prosperously established in the home of his adoption, 
and yet remains there, enjoying the fruit of his industry and the 
respe6l of an appreciative community. He is father of one 
daughter and the patriarchal number of ten sons, several of the 
latter being established in honorable business around him. Capt. 
Walter S. Newhall, a commander in the Third Regiment of Penn- 
sylvania Volunteer Cavalry, during the civil war, and who lost 
his life in the service, was one of his sons, and one of six brothers 
who were in the army at the same time, receiving high commen- 
dation for the spirit and discretion with which they discharged 
their perilous duties. Lieut. Col. Frederic C. Newhall, another 
son, was Assistant Adjutant General on the staff of Lieutenant 
General Sheridan, and served during the entire war, from the fall 
of 1 86 1, when he entered the army as a Lieutenant, till mustered 
out, at New Orleans, in 1865. This latter is the author of the 
volume entitled " With General Sheridan in Lee's Last Cam- 
paign " — a work forming one of the most valuable contributions 
to the literature of the war. His graphic description of the expi- 
ring throes of the Confederate army are almost pathetic. During 
Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, six of the brothers were at the 
front ; and the youngest, Charles, being at the Agricultural 
School, in Centre county, wrote to his father that as there was 
not time to wait for an answer to his request for permission to 
"join the other boys," he should go, " knowing it would be all 
right." Several of the brothers are well-known as among the 
best American players of the good old English game of cricket, 
which is still held in high esteem in and about Philadelphia and 
New York. 

In view of the fafts stated regarding the family of Mr. Thomas 
A. Newhall, and others of the surname spoken of in this volume, 
it will be seen that some of the transplanted Newhalls of the old 
Lynn stock, have so conduced as to refleft enduring honor on 
the name, however delinquent we of the indigenous branches 
have remained. 

For many years our Philadelphia friend has taken much inter- 



Biographical Sketches. N^whall. 193 

est in our family history, and for what he has done deserves the 
thanks of the entire brotherhood. He was, as just remarked, a 
grandson of Col. Ezra of the Revolution — the latter being a 
great-great-grandson of Thomas, the first of European parentage 
born here. He, Col. Ezra, was Captain of the Lynn Minute 
Men at the opening of the Revolution, but in consequence of 
the delay of Col. Pickering from Salem was not present at the 
battle of Lexington. Nor was he present at the battle of Bunker 
Hill, as he was attached to Col. Mansfield's regiment, as senior 
Captain. Col. Mansfield, it will be borne in mind, was cashiered 
for " remisness and backwardness in the execution of duty," on 
that memorable occasion. Col. Ezra, in earlier life, was an 
officer in the French war, under Col. Ruggles. Subsequent 
to the battle of Bunker Hill, he was Major, then Lieutenant 
Colonel in Colonel Putnam's Fifth Massachusetts Regiment, 
and so continued to the end of the war. He was twice married. 
His first wife was Sarah Fuller, of Lynn, and his second, Elsie 
Breed, also of Lynn. After the establishment of peace, in 1783, 
he removed to Salem, purchased an estate on Essex street, and 
there resided till his death, which took place on Fast day, April 
5, 1798, at the age of 66 years. He has always been spoken 
of as a brave and prudent officer, and a worthy and beloved 
citizen. There is abundant evidence that while in the army he 
was very popular with his companions in arms. While the 
regiment was encamped at Winter Hill, some dissatisfaflion was 
manifested concerning the rank of the captains and other officers, 
as they stood on the brigade major's books. The captains there- 
fore, on the 27th of August, 1775, held a meeting and voted to 
" settle the rank of officers by lot, and abide thereby ; " at the 
same time voting that Captain Ezra Newhall should rank as first 
Captain. 

It may be mentioned in this connexion, that Mr. Charles L. 
Newhall, of Southbridge, Mass., a few years ago undertook the 
preparation of a genealogy of the Newhall family and colledled 
a considerable amount of material, but from some cause was led 
to abandon his enterprise, and Mr. Thomas A. Newhall, of whom 
we have been speaking, took measures to have the materials 
thus colle6ted placed in the hands of Henry F. Waters, Esq. 
of Salem, who diligently followed up the researches, corredling 

13 



194 Biographical Sketches. Nye. Oliver. 

errors and adding new matter, till a very satisfadlory result has 
been reached , and the whole will undoubtedly soon appear in 
print, some portions having been already given to the public 
among the historical papers of the Essex Institute. 

The will of Anthony Newhall, who died in Lynn, January 31 
1656, mentions his son John and grandchildren Richard and 
Elizabeth Hood. His house was on the east side of Federal 
street. 

Nye, Dr. James M. — a reputable physician and scientist. 
He died April 21, 1872, aged 53 years. See Annals, 1872. 

Oliver, Stephen. Mr. Oliver died at his residence on Blos- 
som street, March 15, 1875, at the mature age of 89 years. He 
passed a busy and useful life, and under the old town government 
was much in public office. Being an a6live politician, and full 
of interest in passing events, and withal a ready and racy writer 
on current local affairs, he exercised considerable influence. 
During the earlier years of the anti-masonic excitement he was a 
stalwart advocate of the cause ; was one of the most pungent 
writers in the old Lynn Record ; and was a delegate to the 
national anti-masonic convention, at Baltimore, which in 1831 
nominated William Wirt for the presidency. His zeal in the 
cause seemed sometimes to outrun his discretion, till it rather 
suddenly waned, and he became a warm adherent of the whig 
party. He strongly advocated the re-chartering of the United 
States Bank. In 1836 and 1840 he was a member of the State 
Senate ; and for a short time, under President Harrison, post- 
master. Being diligent and on the whole — though he had 
" ups and downs" — successful in business, he provided well for 
a large family, engaging at different periods in various occupa- 
tions, but chiefly in the retail dry goods and shoe-manufafturing 
lines. 

In one of so much versatility it could hardly be expedled that 
literary aspirations would remain altogether dormant ; and hence, 
in addition to his political newspaper writings, which, by the 
way, were usually timely and telling, he sometimes appeared as 
an essayist or le6lurer ; and in all his produ6lions there was a 
vein of good sense and good nature that secured attention. In 



Biographical Sketches. Parker. Parsons. 195 

verse, too, he occasionally beamed forth, one or two of his pro- 
du6lions eliciting favorable comment ; but generally his efforts 
at versification did not extend beyond the newspaper advertise- 
ment, where, being stimulated by the exigencies of trade, he was 
quite felicitous, entirely out-doing a neighbor of his, who, being 
a sort of rival in business, thought it meet to attempt to rival 
him in the poetic arena. 

Under some circumstances, there can be hardly a doubt, Mr. 
Oliver would have become conspicuous in a field far more exten- 
sive than the county of his birth. He was ready with tongue as 
well as pen ; not lacking in assurance, shrewd and discriminating, 
though perhaps a little too uncompromising as a partisan. 

In person he possessed some noticeable features, was well-pro- 
portioned, and bore the marks of a firm and healthy constitution. 
His residence was for a long time on South Common street, the 
site being that afterwards occupied by the mansion of his son 
Stephen, and later still by St. Stephen's Memorial Church. 

He was of Quaker parentage, but on his marriage, which was 
" out of the meeting," was disowned, though he continued to 
worship with the society. Six sons and one daughter, of his nine 
children, survived him. 

Parker, Thomas — lineal ancestor of Rev. Theodore Parker. 
His autograph is among those appended to the Armitage Petition, 
page 106. He removed to Reading. See Annals, 1635. 

Parsons, Rev. Obadiah. Mr. Parsons was minister of the 
First Parish some eight years, having been installed February 4, 
1785. He preached in the house known as the Old Tunnel ; and 
it was during his pastorate that the parsonage was erefted, 
though there were " parsonage lands," so called, before that 
period. The parsonage occupied the site now forming the south- 
east corner of South Common and Commercial streets, the last 
named street having been opened in 1832, at which time the 
house was removed to its present location, at the south-west 
corner of Commercial and Neptune streets. 

Mr. Parsons was a man given to such irregularities and indul- 
gencies, as was charged, that the spiritual condition of the parish 
during his pastorate, was at a low ebb. Grave suspicions were 



196 Biographical Sketches. Patch. Perkins. Perley. 

afloat, touching his moral chara6ler, even before his settlement, 
and while here, some things occurred calculated rather to confirm 
than remove the suspicions. He was, at least, a man of such 
convivial habits as in our day would be likely to exclude one 
from the ministry ; but then it was a time when such habits 
were indulged in by preachers as well as people. And an apt 
illustration of the prevailing custom occurred at the time of the 
ereftion of the parsonage, just referred to, a work in which Mr. 
I^arsons took a lively interest. The story is, that a number 
of the parishioners of small means were surprisingly liberal in 
the amounts they subscribed in furtherance of the good object, 
though it was understood that their offerings would be received 
in the form of labor upon the premises, at a fixed price per day. 
The work went bravely on. The contributors were highly 
applauded for their generosity, and the building committee 
praised for their liberality in arranging with a neighboring retailer 
for a supply of " refreshments," as they might be called for. 
Cheerily and rapidly the work progressed to completion. And 
then — when the accounts were brought together, the contra6ling 
parties were astonished to find that the retailer's score for rum 
alone exceeded in amount all that class of subscriptions ; to say 
nothing of the other " refreshments " in the shape of crackers and 
salt-fish. See Annals, 1792. 

Patch, Charles F. Mr. Patch died on the 24th of January, 
1873, after a sickness of three days, aged 27 years, leaving a 
widow but no children. He was a son of Joshua Patch, who 
was long engaged in the lumber business here. The deceased 
was a young man of much promise, had been a member of the 
Common Council, and at the time of his death was on the second 
year of his service as City Treasurer. He was a freemason, and 
several lodges of the order attended his burial. 

Perkins, Dr. John, of Lynnfield — an eminent physician and 
learned writer. He died in 1780, aged 85. See Annals, 1780. 

Perley, Dr. Daniel — a skillful physician and much esteemed 
citizen. He died at his residence on Breed street, January 
31, 1881, aged yj. See Annals, 1881. 



Biographical Sketches. Phillips. Pierson. 197 

Phillips, George W., of Saugus, a brother of the "silver 
tongued " orator, Wendell Phillips, and a lawyer of high standing. 
He died July 30, 1880, aged 70. See Annals, 1880. 

Pierson, Rev. Abraham — a profound scholar, and father 
of the first president of Yale College. By reference to our An- 
nals under date 1640, it will be seen that some doubt was enter- 
tained as to the place of residence of this individual. But it 
appears by both Savage and Sprague that he must have lived 
here ; or at least that his son Abraham, the college president, 
was born here in 1641, The chair in which president Pierson 
was accustomed to sit is still preserved among the college treas- 
ures, and a picture of it may be seen in Harper's Magazine, 
volume 17, page 2. There is no doubt that the church composed 
of Long Island emigrants, was formed at Lynn, in November, 
1640, and that Mr. Pierson, the elder, was at the same time 
installed as its minister, the celebrated Hugh Peters taking part 
in the exercises. He appears to have come from Yorkshire, to 
have graduated at the University of Cambridge, and to have 
preached for a time in England under Episcopal ordination. He 
graduated in 1632 and arrived in New England in 1639, ^"^1 
hence could have been here but a short time before leaving for 
Long Island. That he was rigidly set, like many others of the 
early New England clergy, in his views touching ecclesiastical 
authority, maintaining that none but church members should be 
allowed to vote or hold civil office, is quite apparent. And it is 
likewise apparent that he was regarded by his cotemporaries as 
a man of high charafter and great usefulness. Mather says, 
" wherever he came, he shone ; " adding that " he left behind 
the chara6ler of a pious and prudent man and a true child of 
Abraham now lodged in Abraham's bosom." No doubt his 
influence was large in establishing some of the stalwart principles 
that long prevailed in the eastern section of Long Island and the 
neighboring Conne6licut colonies, and which were figured forth 
in that imaginary but hardly exaggerated code known as the 
Blue Laws. The orders against drunkenness, lying, and kindred 
vices went quite beyond the conceptions of the most zealous 
reformers of our day. And the higher offences — of which even 
a suspicion was not to escape — were so signally dealt with that 



198 Biographical Sketches. Pitcher. Franker. Pratt. 

the severity of the punishment attached, sometimes operated as 
a virtual repeal ; for the magistrates could not always find it in 
their hearts to rejeft defences of a very doubtful nature, rather 
than impose the penalty that must follow convi6lion. For in- 
stance, one John Kelley, a carpenter, was complained of for 
endeavoring to enter into a supplementary matrimonial connec- 
tion, declaring his wife was dead. It appeared on the trial that she 
was not dead ; but he defended against the original charge in some 
befoging way, and against the additional one of lying, by main- 
taining that his meaning was that his wife was dead in trespasses 
and sin. It is not intended to conne6l Mr. Pierson with any 
absurd or farcical proceeding, but to present a sort of by-way 
illustration. See Annals, 1640. 

Pitcher, Mary — better known as Moll Pitcher, the fortune- 
teller. Her residence was on Essex street, opposite Pearl, and 
she died April 9, 181 3, aged 75 years. See Annals, 18 13. A 
fac-simile of her signature is here given. 



Ma r^f^ktyf 



Pompey — an African prince, stolen, brought hither and sold 
as a slave. See Annals, 1780. 

Poquanum — Indian sachem of Nahant. See 1865 edition 
of History of Lynn, page 40. 

Pranker, Edward, a woolen manufa6turer, and proprietor 
of the mill bearing his name near the site of the ancient iron 
works, in Saugus. He died August 14, 1865, aged 73 years. 
See Annals, 1865. 

Pratt, Micajah C. Mr. Pratt was for many years a prom- 
inent citizen, was a native of Lynn, and died on the 28th of Jan- 
uary, 1866, aged 74 years. For the whole of his business life, 
which commenced as early as 1812, he was a shoe-manufa6turer, 
struggling along during the protra61ed period when trade was 
depressed, by industry and carefulness sustaining his position, 
and gathering the experience which when better times dawned 



Biographical Sketches. Pratt. 199 

led on to fortune. He continued in business forty years, manu- 
fa6luring the various kinds of shoes in demand for the southern 
and western markets, and at one period employing between four 
hundred and five hundred operatives, turning out some two 
hundred and forty thousand pairs a year, which was a very large 
business for a time before machinery had to much extent been 
introduced in the business. 

Being a member of the society of Friends, he was but little 
in public life, though he held some positions of responsibility, 
where his integrity and business capacity appeared conspicuous. 
He was a6tive in promoting the usefulness of the Institution for 
Savings, established in 1826 ; was president of the First National 
Bank of Lynn, and of the Lynn Fire and Marine Insurance 
Company. His manners were genial and his tendencies benev- 
olent and social. 

On the 26th of November, 18 12, he married Theodate B. 
Brown, and by her had six children. His second wife, whom he 
married late in life, was Abby Newhall, by whom he had no 
children. His residence was on the north side of Broad street, 
a little east of Silsbee. 

Pratt, Sidney Bowne. Among the liberal and unassuming 
sons of Lynn may surely be reckoned this one. He was a son 
of James Pratt, who died in 1832, and who was a prominent 
shoe-manufa6lurer. The subjeft of this notice was born on the 
14th of May, 1 8 14, and died on the 29th of January, 1869. About 
the time of the opening of the Eastern Rail-road, in 1839, he 
engaged in the express business, and by faithfulness and assiduity 
soon found himself on the high road of success, and continued 
on, till the time of his death, always possessing the confidence 
of the public. He was at the head of the well-known firm 
of Pratt and Babb. His manners were affable, and his disposition 
to accommodate unvarying. Indeed he seemed to possess just 
those elements of chara6ler which are best calculated to ensure 
success in any business ; and he was certainly successful in that 
which he chose. He was successful, too, in gaining an enduring 
name, by his liberal bequest to the Free Public Library, the 
first gift of the kind received by that institution, the amount 
being ;^ 10.000. His funeral took place from the Friends' meet- 



200 Biographical Sketches. Purchis. 

ing-house, on Silsbee street, and was attended by the Mayor and 
other members of the city government, and a large concourse 
of relatives and fellow-townsmen. He was never married. In 
the Public Library a very good likeness of him is preserved. 

Purchis, Oliver. The fame of Mr, Purchis extended far 
beyond our municipal limits. He was a man possessed of strong 
points of chara6ter, undoubted patriotism, and a pertinacity that 
sometimes might well be called obstinacy. During the Andros 
administration his energetic course in baffling the unwarrantable 
demands of the Governor and his unscrupulous Secretary, no 
doubt saved the town from loss and mortification, and received 
well-merited applause. His position as Town Clerk, at that 
trying period, afforded opportunities for the display of patriotic 
zeal and hatred of oppression well fitted to his temper. He came 
as early as 1635, and in his official capacity is named as a 
grantee in the Indian Deed of Lynn. For some ten years he was 
a Representative in the General Court ; was agent of the iron 
company, and somewhat of a military chara6ler, though he was 
not a particularly bright star in the latter sphere. But his long 
and useful life appears to have ended in poverty and distress. 
On the Council records, June 19, 1701, is found this entry: "A 
resolve was sent up from the Representatives in the words 
following, viz' : ' Whereas, M"" Oliver Purchase, an ancient public 
servant in the government is fallen to decay and become very 
indigent and necessitous, not having whereof to subsist now in 
his age, and being rendered incapable of labour : Resolved, That 
in consideration of the good service done by s'^ Oliver Purchase, 
he be allowed the sum of Ten pounds out of the public Treasury 
of this province for his necessary support.' — Which resolve being 
read at the Board was concurred with and his Honour the Lieut. 
Gov. gave his consent unto and signed the same." But the poor 
man, "deceasing before he had received s'' gratuity," it was 
resolved by the Council and House of Representatives, " That 
the aforesaid sum of ten pounds be paid out of the public treasury 
ol this Province to M"" William Wilson of Concord, to be by him 
delivered to M^^s Sarah Purchis, widow, reli6l of said Oliver 
Purchis." It was in 1691 that Mr. Purchis removed from Lynn 
to Concord, where he died in 1701, aged 88 years. See Annals 



Biographical Sketches. Ravisddl. Rhodes. 201 

of early dates for many fa6ls concerning him. A fac-simile of his 
signature is here given. 



uJzK.z4^ ^mi^^ 



PuRCHis, Thomas — a Maine fur trader. See Annals, 1678. 

QuANOPKONAT — a prominent Indian resident of the territory 
of Lynn. See History of Lynn, 1865 edition, page 42. 

Ramsdell, Abednego. Mr. Ramsdell was one of the im- 
mortal four from Lynn, who fell at the battle of Lexington. It 
was said by an aged lady, that on the fatal day a woman in his 
neighborhood seeing him hastening along towards Lexington 
and being seized by an unaccountable presentiment of danger, 
called to him and warned him of her premonition. He bravely 
replied that he might be going to his death ; but it was a good 
cause, and he hoped by the aid of his musket to take a red-coat 
with him, if he fell. On he sped, and was killed immediately 
after reaching the battle ground. See Annals, I775- 

Ramsdell, John — one of the early settlers of Lynn. He 
was a witness in the famous case between the Town and Thomas 
Dexter, concerning the ownership of Nahant. Descendants of 
his are yet among us. His autograph is upon the Armitage 
Petition, page 106. See Annals, 1630. 

Rhodes, Amos. Mr. Rhodes was born in Lynn, on the 24th 
of April, 1795, and died on the 15th of January, 1870. His 
father was Amos Rhodes, long a prominent business man, in the 
western seftion of the town, at that time the chief business part, 
his dwelling being the one still standing on the east side of Fed- 
eral street, next south of the mill brook, which house was built 
by him near the beginning of the present century ; and he was 
the same Amos Rhodes named in the correspondence of Ebenezer 
Breed, given in the 1865 edition of the History of Lynn, page 
523 et seq. The mother of the subje6l of this notice was Eliza- 
beth, the eldest daughter of Rev. Obadiah Parsons. 

Mr. Rhodes graduated at Harvard College with the 18 16 class, 



202 Biographical Sketches. Rhodes. 

and for a few years engaged in teaching, spending a part of the 
time at the south. His absence, however, was of short duration. 
In 1 817 he was preceptor of Lynn Academy. He never pre- 
pared himself for entering either of what are called the learned 
professions, choosing rather to pursue a more sequestered path 
of usefulness. On the organization of the Lynn Listitution for 
Savings, he was elefted treasurer, and filled the office for more 
than forty years. And to his careful management, scrupulous 
fidelity, and unwearied vigilance, that institution is indebted for 
much of its early success. He was also for many years secretary 
of the Lynn Mechanics Fire and Marine Insurance Company 
In the reading of choice books, and in the conversation and 
society of the intelle6lual and cultivated, he took unflagging 
delight ; and ever seemed more desirous of doing what he could 
to promote the mental and moral elevation of those about him, 
than to aid in their struggles for the acquisition of mere wealth. 
For twenty years — 1830 to 1850 — he afted as librarian of the 
old Social Library, and no doubt succeeded, during that long 
period, in forming in many a youthful mind an enduring taste for 
the better class of reading, as his judgment in the sele6lion 
of books came to be much relied on. He was a fast friend 
of Mr. Lewis the poet and historian, and of Mr. Lummus the 
first Lynn newspaper publisher. He however exercised his pen 
but little save upon the books pertaining to his daily business ; 
though his good taste, judgment, and acquirements made him 
a useful member of the little coterie who wrought in the literary 
interests of the Mirror during its most successful days. 

Mr. Rhodes was among the early members of the Unitarian 
society, and before the introdu61;ion of church organs in Lynn 
aided the choir by his flute and bass-viol. In the Sunday school, 
also, he took an a6live interest ; and having labored for the 
society through all its days of weakness, had the happiness to 
see it strong and prosperous. But he lamented as much as any 
the tendency towards extreme rationalistic views, which some 
years ago began to manifest itself in various seftions of the 
denomination. We remember how grieved he was at some 
of the sentiments enunciated by Rev. Theodore Parker in his 
famous sermon preached at South Boston, in or about 1841, and 
how pleased he appeared when his own minister, the Rev. Mr. 



Biographical Sketches. Rhodes. Richards. 203 

Swett, after reading a few passages, from the pulpit, in his clear 
voice and with striking emphasis, added, " If that is Unitarian- 
ism I am not a Unitarian." 

On the second of December, 1834, Mr. Rhodes married Lydia, 
a daughter of Winthrop Newhall, but had no children. She 
survived him. Funeral services over his remains were held in 
the church where he had so long loved to worship. 

Rhodes, Henry, whose well-written autograph appears upon 
the Armitage Petition, page 106, was among the early comers, 
and descendants of his are still among us. Not much is known 
of him, though he seems to have been a man of good habits, 
industrious, and respe6led. See Annals, 1640. 

Richards, Richard. Mr. Richards was a descendant from 
one of the early settlers, and was born in Lynn, in 1796. He 
was, perhaps, the most inventive genius, in a mechanical way, 
ever born here ; and though he never produced anything to 
establish a world-wide reputation, he yet originated some things 
that have proved of great usefulness, especially in the staple 
business of Lynn, and which furnished suggestions for still 
greater discoveries by other minds. He was a last-maker, by 
trade, and in pursuance of that occupation, contrived such im- 
provements and adaptations of machinery as greatly facilitated 
the work and added to the finish and beauty of the produfts 
of his shop. He constru6led a sole-cutting machine, for which, 
n 1844, he obtained a patent, and which was superior to any 
thing in use before that time. He also designed a peg-cutting 
machine, which was extensively used. A rail-road turntable 
which he invented has continued to be used, in some of its 
essential features, to the present time. And a number of minor 
inventions and improvements in machinery originated with hmi. 
But the sole-cutting machine was the only one for which he 
received a patent. 

As a citizen Mr. Richards was much esteemed ; and he held 
various offices under the old Town government. He was also a 
Representative in the General Court, but never seemed to covet 
official position, preferring rather to pursue the even tenor of his 
mechanical employments. The enormous shoe, capable of con- 



204 Biographical Sketches. Richardson. 

taining some twenty full-grown persons, which figured in proces- 
sions, and created so much observation during the memorable 
hard cider presidential campaign, in 1840, was a produ6l of his 
genius and handiwork. He also constru6led a miniature log 
cabin, which, mounted on wheels and dragged along the streets, 
excited much curiosity as a political adjun6l in the same spirited 
campaign. He died on the 19th of December, 185 i, aged 55. 

Richardson, Jonathan. Mr. Richardson was a native of 
Lynn, and died here on the 28th of June, 1872, at the advanced 
age of 87 years. There was no particularly striking event in his 
life, for he was content to plod along, unambitious to rise from 
the operative's work-bench. He was a shoemaker of the old 
stamp, and quietly pursued his humble calling for full three 
quarters of a century. And his memory compassed a perfe6l 
history of the wonderful progress in our staple business. He 
was one of the early members of Mount Carmel lodge of freema- 
sons, and tyler for more than forty years. Through the disturb- 
ing reign of anti-masonry, when so many of his neighbors with- 
drew from the institution, he remained faithful ; and his burial, 
which took place from the First Methodist meeting-house, was 
attended by a large number of the brethren. 

Richardson, Thomas P., was the fourth Mayor of Lynn. A 
biographical notice with a portrait may be found in the Centen- 
nial Memorial. He died very suddenly on the evening of Thanks- 
giving day, November 24, 1881, aged 65 years. The writer met 
him at the door of Mr. Harrison Newhall's residence, on Park 
square, at about seven o'clock. After a cordial greeting, he 
immediately said, " I 'm sick," sat down on a sofa, and within an 
hour, breathed his last. The funeral services took place at the 
First Methodist meeting-house on the afternoon of Monday, 
November 28, the large audience room being completely filled 
with sympathising friends. The remains were thence conveyed 
to their last resting place in Pine Grove Cemetery. Few have 
passed out from the business ranks, from among the laborers for 
the moral elevation of the community, or from social life, more 
deservedly regretted than Mr. Richardson. He had but a few 
weeks before his decease taken up his residence in the fine 



Biographical Sketches. Robbins. Robinson. Roby. 205 

mansion which he had just ere6led on North Common street, 
opposite St. Stephen's Memorial Church. A fac-simile of his 
signature is here given. 




Robbins, Dr. Peter G., whose name appears in our Annals, 
under dates 1808 and 18 10, was a conspicuous resident here, for 
many years. He came in 1805, and lived on Essex street, be- 
tween High and Pearl, in the same house previously occupied 
by Dr. Henry Burchstead, and subsequently by Dr. Hazeltine. 
Dr. Robbins was much interested in the political events of the 
pregnant period in which he came here. Party spirit then ran 
high, and on the fourth of July, 1806, he was sele6led as orator 
of the Democratic party, there being likewise a celebration by 
the Federalists, whose orator was Hosea Hildreth, then preceptor 
of the Academy. In 1810, however, the parties united in cele- 
brating the day, and Dr. Robbins was the orator. Rev. Chandler 
Robbins, D. D., for many years minister of the Second Church 
of Boston, (Unitarian,) and author of several erudite works, was a 
son of his, born in the house just designated, on the 14th of Feb- 
ruary, 1 8 10, and graduated at Harvard in 1829. Rev. Samuel 
D. Robbins, settled over the Unitarian society of Lynn, in 1833, 
was also a son of his. 

Robinson, Col. James — a revolutionary soldier, and the first 
postmaster of Lynn. He died January 21, 1832, aged 75. His 
residence was on Boston street, corner of North Federal. See 
Annals, 1832. 

Roby, Rev. Joseph — minister of the third Parish (Saugus) 
for the long period of fifty-one years. He was a man of learning 
and held in high esteem as a preacher. Yet we find a flippant 
bit of doggerel, stated by Mr. Eaton, in his History of Reading, 
to have been written by a parishioner of the Rev. Mr. Hobby, 
therein named, which has been claimed to give the popular 
estimate of four neighboring divines. The allusion to Mr. Roby 
is certainly not over-complimentary : 



2o6 Biographical Sketches. Sadler. 

Good Mr. Emerson (of Maiden), 
ProiidMr. Hobby (of Reading) 
Silly old Carnes (of Stoneham), 
And Coxcomb Roby (of Saugus). 

"Proud Mr. Hobby" was the reverend gentleman referred to 
in our Annals, under date 1745, as having had the controversy 
with Mr. Henchman of Lynn, respedting the celebrated preacher 
Whitefield. Mr. Hobby went with the multitude to hear Mr. 
Whitefield when he preached on Reading Common, and was 
candid enough to afterwards say that he went to prick a hole in 
Whitefield's coat, but Whitefield had pricked a hole in his heart. 
He became a warm defender of the great preacher against the 
assaults of the alarmed clergy who with vigor and pertinacity 
opposed everything that did not accord with the old faith and 
their established usages. Mr. Roby died January 31, 1803, aged 
79 years. See Annals, 1803, 

Sadler, Richard. The lofty porphyry cliff near the junftion 
of Walnut and Holyoke streets, from which some of our most 
extensive and charming views can be obtained, took its name 
of Sadler's Rock from this individual, who, at the land allotment 
in 1638, had two hundred acres assigned to him, and "the rock 
by his house." This enables us with certainty to determine in 
what neighborhood he settled. He was a prominent personage 
and well-known throughout the Colony ; and that his services at 
home were appreciated is indicated by the liberality of the grants 
to him. He was our first Clerk of the Writs, and a member 
of the Salem Court ; also one of the commissioners to run the 
bounds between Lynn and Boston, in 1639, Robert Keayne, the 
first captain of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery being a 
fellow-commissioner. He was a man of education, and it is 
presumed had remained a churchman, inasmuch as after his 
return to England, in 1647, he became a minister in the estab- 
lished church, though ecclesiastical matters were, about that 
period, so mixed up in England, that it was sometimes a problem 
with an individual where he should rank. He was here but 
about ten years ; and his return may have been hastened by 
want of sympathy with the rigid views and usages of this then 
puritanical community. A rude Memorial Stone was erefted 
some years ago, by the writer, at the roadside near the foot 



Biographical Sketches. Sanderson. SJicpard. Silsbce. 207 

of the rock that bears the good old settler's name. See Annals, 
1635, and other early dates. 

Sanderson, George P., the sixteenth Mayor of Lynn, was 
inaugurated on the 6th of January, 1879. He was also elected 
for a second term, and inaugurated on the 5th of January, 1880. 
He was born in Gardiner, Me., on the 22d of November, 1836. 
For most of his business life he has been engaged as operative, 
agent, or manufa6lurer, in some department of the shoe trade, 
chiefly in Lynn. He has all along been identified with the 
workingmen's interests, and as a leader, received the confidence 
and support of his party. He was a soldier in the civil war, 
performed his duties faithfully, and was honorably discharged. 
On the third of July, 1859, ^^ married Julia A., a daughter 
of William H. Mills, and has four sons. A fac-simile of his 
signature is appended. 




i^<.'^^^<^oy^c^i^^'^-tr>z^ . 



Shepard, Rev. Jeremiah, minister of the First Parish for 
forty years. Shepard street takes its name from him ; also 
Shepard school. He died on the third of June, 1720, aged 72. 
See Annals, 1720. His signature is shown by this fac-simile: 



6^ 



&V^^ CL 




SiLSBEE, Henry. This individual appeared in Lynn at an 
early period and was the founder of a family which, though not 
remarkable for numbers, has always been in creditable standing. 
Silsbee street commemorates the name. Dr. Emmerton in his 
Gleanings from English Records says : " The name Silsbee is 
one of the rarest in the records accessible at London." ..." The 
parish records of Olney, Bucks, dating from about 1666, gives 
baptisms of a Samuel Slisby's daughters after 1670. Mr. James 
Stowe, the affable parish clerk, told me, while I was studying 



2o8 Biographical Sketches. Silsbce. 

the inscriptions on the gravestones in the churchyard, that the 
name had disappeared from Ohiey but still remained in neigh- 
boring villages. Mr. Stowe's interest in such matters was evinced 
by the care with which he had cleaned the inscriptions obscured 
by lichen and mold rather than age, for few, if any, antedated 
the eighteenth century. The records contain many entries of 
familiar Lynn names : Laughton, Collins, Townsend, Cooper, 
etc. ; and though Farrington and Kyrtland had disappeared, I 
was more than ever inclined to the theory that Henry Silsby 
[the first of the name here] had removed from Salem and Ipswich 
to Lynn, in order to be near old country neighbors." 

It may be added here, that Dr. Emmerton is a native of Salem 
but lineally conne6led with the Silsbees and Newhalls of Lynn. 
His great-grandfather, on the maternal side, was 'Squire James 
Newhall, who lived in the two-story frame house still standing 
on the north side of Boston street a little west of Tower Hill, 
and opposite the end of Summer street. He, the Do6tor, in 
company with Henry F. Waters, Esq., recently visited England ; 
and both being deeply interested in genealogical researches, 
discovered among the old records there, many interesting fa6ls, 
some of which have already appeared in print. Mr. Waters was 
a son of the late Judge Waters. It is to educated, intelligent, 
and appreciative gentlemen like Dr. Emmerton and Mr. Waters 
that the student of the past and of family history is greatly 
indebted. 

Several of the Salem branch of the Silsbee family became 
widely known ; among them, Hon. Nathaniel Silsbee, United 
States Senator. In the spelling of the name similar variations 
and vagaries were indulged in as in the names of other early 
settlers ; and hence we find Sellesby, Seylesbie, Sillsby, Silesbey, 
Silsby, Silsbee, Silsbye, Sylsbe, Scilsbey, Silsbe, Sillsbe, Sillsbee. 

Henry Silsbee, the first of the name in Lynn, probably came 
in 165 1, purchasing the house once occupied by Joseph Floyd, 
or Flud, or fflood, as the name was variously spelled, which stood 
on Fayette street, a few rods south of Essex. He seems to have 
possessed some means, and was called a " shooemaker," but 
very likely followed farming most of the time, as he owned a 
considerable quantity of land. A grandson of his named Na- 
thaniel, whose father was a carpenter, residing in Salem, is tra- 



Biographical Sketches. Sparhawk. Stickney. Swett. 209 

ditionally reported to have taken the coffins in which some of the 
witches were buried, in 1692, to Gallows Hill, he being then a 
lad of about fifteen years. Dr. Emmerton has lately published 
" A Genealogical Account of Henry Silsbee and some of his 
descendants," which is or ought to be in the hands of the whole 
family connedlion. 

Sparhawk, Rev. Nathaniel, first minister of Lynnfield Par- 
ish, settled in 1720. He died May 7, 1732, aged 38 years. See 
Annals, 1731. 

Stickney, Jeremiah C., a prominent lawyer in Lynn for forty 
years, and first City Solicitor. He died August 3, 1869, aged 
64. See Annals, 1869. A fac-simile of his signature follows. 




Swett, Rev. William G., fourth minister of the Unitarian 
society. He died January 15, 1843, aged 34. See Annals, 1843. 

Mr. Swett was possessed of such rare and diversified qualities 
that to a superficial observer it might appear that in him were 
assembled downright contradi6tory charafleristics. Out of the 
pulpit, he was lively, overflowing with wit, and not unfrequently 
with jocularity. But in the pulpit, nothing approaching levity 
was perceptible. His discourses were scholarly, pointed, and 
delivered in a distin6l and finely modulated voice, without sensa- 
tional gush or misplaced fervor. His style, indeed, was just such 
as is appreciated by thoughtful minds ; and it is not wonderful 
that so many of the more intelligent class of our people were 
attra6ted that his church became so filled as to render it difficult 
for new-comers to procure eligible sittings. He was notably 
free from what were known as transcendental and rationalistic 
tendencies, and so little inclined to make prominent any pe- 
culiar do6lrine, that even one of broad evangelical views, as 
they are called, could seldom see anything to offend. 

His sermons hardly ever exceeded twenty minutes in the 

14 



210 Biographical Sketches. Swett. 

delivery ; and the writer has heard him remark that if a preacher 
could not enforce at least one good lesson in that space he ought 
to be ashamed ; and one good lesson at a time, he added, was 
full enough for the digestion of most persons. His purpose 
manifestly was to benefit his hearers rather than to enjoy any 
oratorical triumphs of his own ; thus in a measure reversing the 
example of some of our pyrotechnic friends in the sacred desk. 
He was not a mere book student, but relied chiefly on his own 
innate ability to interest and instru6l ; and hence there was an 
originality, a freshness and vigor pervading what he wrote, that 
was remarkably telling. He had no colleftion that could be 
called a library — hardly a book of reference. We remember 
once hearing Rev. Dr. Peabody ask to be shown to his library 
for the purpose of determining some point. " Well, Dodlor," 
said he, " I have but a poor library, and it is all here," — pointing 
to his head. 

His health was not good, and he often expressed the belief that 
he should not live to be old ; but he was aftive and much out 
of doors. For a good horse he had an almost sentimental fond- 
ness ; and the beautiful drives in our vicinity, held out, in pleas- 
ant weather, irresistible attraftions ; but he frequently made his 
own enjoyment subservient to duty, by taking out for an airing 
some poor, aged, or infirm parishioner. 

He had some pecuniary resources beyond his salary, and hence 
was able to indulge in adls of benevolence in the quiet and secret 
way which was his delight. He was accustomed to say that he 
purposed to dispense in charity an amount equal to his salary. 
Many a poor widow has had dumped at her door a load of fuel, 
without ever knowing who the donor was. And many a poor, 
sick child has received soothing delicacies without knowing 
whence they came, and when able to return to his play-things 
has wondered who brought the beautiful kaleidoscope, the Noah's 
ark and picture-blocks. 

Mr. Swett was a son of Col. Samuel Swett late of Boston, 
whose wife was Lucia, the only daughter of William Gray, the 
eminent merchant and Lieutenant Governor, and who was a 
native of Lynn. He, the Colonel, built for his son the house 
on the rise of the hill, near Essex street, which afterwards became 
the residence of Mayor George Hood. But the good minister 



Biographical Sketches. Taylor. Tomlins. Townsend. 211 

did not live long to enjoy the place he so much admired. A 
year or two before his death he married Charlotte, a daughter 
of Col. Phinney, of Lexington, and by her had one child — a 
daughter. 

Taylor, David, for many years an extensive shoe-manufac 
turer ; intelligent and enterprising. His residence was on South 
Common street corner of Commercial ; and there he died, Oc- 
tober II, 1871, aged 6"^. See Annals, 1871. 

Thacher, Rev. Thomas, seventh minister of the First Parish. 
He preached the afife6ling sermon, in the Old Tunnel meeting- 
house, December 11, 1795, over the bodies of the eight drowned 
mariners, the only seaman who had escaped, standing in. the 
aisle near the remains of his companions. Mr. Thacher died 
September 24, 1849, aged yZ. See Annals, 18 13. 

Tomlins, Edward — an early and prominent settler. His 
autograph appears on the Armitage Petition, page 106. See 
Annals, 1630, and other early dates. 

Tomlins, Timothy, was a brother of Edward, just named. 
The extensive tra6t of forest and swamp land, in Lynn woods, 
known as Tomlins's Swamp, took its name from him. He 
seems to have been full of business, readily turning to some new 
enterprise when the old became unprofitable. In 1636 he added 
a " howse of intertainement " to his other industries. In the 
land distribution of 1638 the town granted him eighty acres ; 
but that could not have been excessively liberal if he took it in 
land like that of the swamp now bearing his name. He was a 
Representative for several terms, and his autograph is among 
those appended to the Armitage Petition. See Annals, 1630. 

Townsend, Thomas. This early settler at one time lived in 
the vicinity of the iron works, though it is probable that he 
owned lands in different quarters. He is supposed to have come 
from London, was a cousin of Governor Winthrop, and could 
trace his lineage to a Norman nobleman who flourished near 
the time of the Conquest. One of his ancestors, of the same 



212 Biographical Sketches. Trevett. Tudor. Tufts. 

baptismal name, had the honor of entertaining Queen Elizabeth 
in her progress through Norfolk, in August, 1578, and for loyalty 
and attention his wife afterwards received from Her Majesty a 
beautiful gilt bowl. 

Mr. Townsend's five children were all born in Lynn, between 
1636 and 1645 ; and his widow, Mary, died of camp fever, Feb. 
28, 1692. The family has always maintained a good position in 
New England, some individuals becoming quite noted ; but 
within our own borders it has not been specially marked. An- 
drew Towsend of Lynn was wounded in the great swamp fight 
with the Narragan setts, December 19, 1675. And in the battle 
of Lexington, Daniel Townsend fell. See Annals, 1775. Charles 
Hervey Townsend of New Haven, Ct., a few years since pub- 
lished a limited Genealogy of the family, which cannot fail to 
interest those of the lineage. The autograph of Thomas Towns- 
end is conspicuous among those on the Armitage Petition, page 
106. And it is to the kindness of Charles Hervey Townsend, 
just named, that we are indebted for the use of the engraving 
of the autographs. 

Treadwell, Rev. John — minister of the First Parish during 
the Revolution, and an ardent patriot. See Annals, 1782. 

Trevett, Robert W. — a lawyer of considerable acquire- 
ments, for many years in pra6lice here. He died January 13, 
1842, aged 53 years. He was a son of the noted Captain Trevett 
of the U. S. navy, a native of Marblehead. See Annals, 1842. 

Tudor, Frederic — projeftor of many improvements on Na- 
hant, and father of the New England ice trade. He died Feb. 
6, 1 864, aged 80 years. See Annals, 1 864. 

Tufts, Deacon Richard. Deacon Tufts was born in Lynn, 
and was a son of David Tufts, a corporal in the army of the 
Revolution, who, after the war was ended, took up the peaceful 
and multifarious employments of farmer, trader, and common 
carrier, all in a limited way. He owned and occupied a house 
that stood on the south-east corner of Federal street and Western 
avenue. The Deacon while still a young man became conspic- 



Biographical Sketches. Turner. Usher. Vinton. 213 

uous for his zeal in the cause of temperance, and through life 
was chara6terized by rigidity of principle and persistency in 
labors for the moral reformation of the community. In religion 
he tenaciously adhered to the Calvrnistic faith, and for many 
years held the office of deacon in the First Church, without 
reproach. And it was by the watchfulness and labors of such 
as he that that ancient shrine was preserved from the " liberal- 
ism " that has so changed the chara6ler of almost all the earlier 
churches planted by the Puritans. His son, Gardiner Tufts, was 
prominent in the civil war, for his efficient services in Washington 
and elsewhere in behalf of the Massachusetts soldiery. And 
since the close of the war he has acceptably filled several impor- 
tant public positions where skill and integrity were especially 
demanded. The Deacon died on the 29th of February, 1880, in 
the 83d year of his age. 

Turner, Capt. Nathaniel — a brave and trustworthy colo- 
nial officer, and a public chara6ler of great merit. See Annals, 
1630, and other early dates. The sword which he wielded 
against the Indians is still preserved by the Historical Society 
at Hartford, Ct. It has done efficient service, too, in other 
hands since the Captain's time ; in the old French war and in 
the Revolution. A pi6lure of this formidable weapon may be 
seen in Harper's Magazine, volume 17, page 3. He sailed for 
England in January, 1647, in hopes of promoting the interests 
of the New Haven Colony ; but nothing was ever afterwards 
heard of the vessel or any one on board — unless the celebrated 
" Phantom Ship " which appeared off the harbor, some months 
after, and in a few minutes faded away, may be taken as a ghostly 
representative. 

Usher, Roland G. — the eleventh Mayor of Lynn. P^or 
notice with portrait see Centennial Memorial. The following is 
a fac-simile of his autograph. 




- ^^^^^3 



Vinton, John — ancestor of the large and distinguished Ame- 
rican family of Vintons. See Annals, 1650. 



214 Biographical Sketches. Walden. Walker. Washburn. 

Walden, Edwin — the thirteenth Mayor of Lynn. For no- 
tice with portrait see Centennial Memorial. A fac-simile of his 
signature is here given. /\ 

H) cLulka'v- vv) cOuL\jeyr\^ 

Walker, Richard — a farmer, and military commander. See 
Annals, 1630 and other early dates. His autograph is on the 
Armitage Petition. He lived to the great age of 95 years. 

Washburn, Peter T. — Governor of Vermont. Peter Thachei 
Washburn was born in Lynn on the seventh of September, 18 14, 
and was a son of Reuben P. Washburn who settled here as a 
lawyer, in 18 12, and married a daughter of Rev. Mr. Thacher, 
minister of the First Parish, her grandfather being the widely- 
known Dr. Peter Thacher, for many years minister of Brattle 
street Church, in Boston. 

At an early age the subje6l of this sketch left Lynn, with his 
father, who removed to Chester, Vt., afterwards to Cavendish, 
and thence to Ludlow, where, in i860, he died. Peter graduated 
at Dartmouth college, in 1835, and immediately engaged in the 
study of law, in his father's office. Afterwards, for a few months, 
he studied under United States Senator Upham, of Montpelier, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1838. The next year he began 
pradlice at Ludlow, where he gained a high reputation and a good 
business. In 1844 he removed to Woodstock, having formed a 
law partnership with Charles P. Marsh, which continued till his 
death. In the last named year he was ele6led by the Legislature 
Reporter of the Decisions of the Supreme Court of Vermont 
and continued in the office eight years. One excellent trait in 
any lawyer, or indeed in a man of any calling, it is said was 
possessed by Mr. Washburn in a marked degree ; and that is, 
a readiness to aid the oppressed. He is reputed to have been 
always zealous to do his utmost, without the expectation of re- 
ward, to prote6l the weak or poor when exposed to the machina- 
tions of the selfish and unscrupulous, who so often resort to the 
wearying intricacies of the law for the furtherance of their base 
purposes ; and who, unfortunately, can generally find enough in 
the profession to second their nefarious designs. 



Biographical Sketches. Washburn. 215 

At the time of the breaking out of the civil war, he was in 
command of the Woodstock Light Infantry. And at the first 
call of the President for troops he volunteered, and soon raised a 
company of the full regulation standard. Early on the morning 
of May I, 1 861, with his little loyal band, he departed for the 
scene of war, marching from the armory to the stirring tune 
of Yankee Doodle. Arrived in Virginia, he soon became a6ling 
Colonel of the regiment of which his company formed a part. 
But in the fall of the same year he was called back for other 
important duties conne6ted with the war. He was elefted Adju- 
tant and Inspedlor General of the State. And that position he 
continued to fill till the war ended. His labors in that office 
were so constant and exhaustive that many thought such inroads 
were made upon his health that it never again became fully 
established. 

In September, 1869 he was eledled Governor of the State, by 
a large majority. And though he was removed by death before 
he had held the office many months, he had made a remarkably 
favorable impression. His executive ability was freely acknow- 
ledged by all parties ; and there was every prospe6l of a more 
than ordinarily successful administration. At the time of his 
death, in addition to the Governorship he was a Trustee of the 
University of Vermont, a Trustee of the State Agricultural 
College, and President of the Woodstock Rail-road. 

Governor Washburn died on the 7th of February, 1870, at the 
age of 55 years, leaving a widow and three children — a son and 
two daughters. His death was considered by the physicians to 
have proceeded from a general breaking down of the nervous 
system, from excessive labor, no evidence of disease, organic or 
funftional, being discovered. He had been working almost 
unremittingly, when not engaged in public duties, on his Digest 
of the Supreme Court Decisions ; and literally went from that 
work to the bed from which he never arose. The funeral services 
took place at the Congregational church in Woodstock, the body 
being laid out in a full suit of black, with a military cloak, and 
amid profuse floral decorations. Highly eulogistic notices ap- 
peared in the newspapers, and there was every evidence of sincere 
mourning as for a great public loss. " He was," said the Ver- 
gennes Vermnnter, "one of the few living illustrations of Phil- 



2i6 Biographical Sketches. Washburn. Wheeler. 

lips's positive men. They are rarely met with in public or private 
life. Vermont appreciated him, and he will be mourned as one 
of the few in public life whose sense of justice was stronger than 
personal preference or even the didation of party." The Repub- 
lican, of Springfield, Mass., remarked " It was in the office of 
Adjutant General that Governor Washburn's fitness for public 
service was first made known to the people. His accuracy of 
dealing was as certain and as rigid as mathematics. The dis- 
charge of a public duty was with him reckoned among the ' exa6t 
sciences.' If he had been less honest than he was, he would 
still have followed honesty from sheer devotion to its straight- 
forwardness, its absolute correftness. We speak of this charac- 
teristic, not to elevate it above his unimpeachable integrity, but 
because it is what marks him among governors. Vermont has 
had honest executives before but it has been some time since 
she had a governor who governed, who picked up the loose ends 
in her administrative departments and set every thing in order. 
He was not only above jobbing and lobbying, rail-road or other- 
wise, but he forbade his private secretary to use so much as a 
two-cent stamp of the State's property, except for public purposes. 
With the same regard for the fitness of things, he introduced 
almost military formality in his intercourse with subordinates ; 
not that he was at all 'setup' by his position, but he would 
have order and system in every thing, insisting on every man's 
knowing his proper place and his responsibilities." 

Washburn, Reuben P., a learned lawyer, who settled in 
Lynn, in 1812. He removed to Vermont, and became a judge 
in a State court ; was father of Governor Washburn, just spoken 
of, and died in i860, aged 79. See Annals, 18 12. 

Wenepoykin, an Indian Sagamore. See History of Lynn, 
1865 edition, page 38. 

Wheeler, Thomas. Mr. Wheeler came to Lynn in 1635, 
and was made a freeman in 1642. He appears to have been a 
useful man, in an unostentatious way, while here ; was a mill 
owner, and a man of some property. His name figures in our 
Annals under dates 1633, 1653, and 1657. It was against him 



Biographical Sketches. Whiting. 217 

that Captain Bridges issued the warrant for slander of Rev. 
Mr. Cobbet. (See notice of Robert Bridges.) He remained till 
1664, and then removed to Stonington, Ct., taking with him his 
wife Mary, his son Isaac, and his daughters Elizabeth and Sarah. 
He became the largest land-holder in Stonington, partly by 
grants from the town and partly by purchase ; was an honored 
member of the church ; held important public offices ; and died 
there, in 1686, at the age of 84. His grandson Isaac, son of the 
Isaac who went from Lynn, married a daughter of Rev, Jeremiah 
Shepard, first minister of the Old Tunnel, December 9, 1697. 
She was quite a business charadler, and amassed a handsome 
property ; was accustomed to ride from Stonington to Boston to 
purchase dry goods, and bought up all the spare beef and pork 
in her neighborhood, for shipment to the latter place. She had 
two children, Margaret and Thomas, and lived to a good old age. 
Thomas was born in 1700, and died in 1750, the richest man in 
the vicinity. See Annals, early dates. 

Whiting, Rev. Samuel, a learned divine, for more than forty 
years minister of the First Parish. See Annals, 1679 and earlier 
dates. Of none of the New England fathers can a roll of nobler 
descendants be presented. Some of them are named in our 
pages of Annals, some in the Centennial Memorial, and some in 
the book giving an account of the proceedings on the celebration 
of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement. It 
is not, however, recolle6led that we have heretofore named 
Nathaniel Whiting, who was a Lieutenant in Pepperell's expedi- 
tion, in 1745. He was born in 1724, and graduated at Yale, in 
1743 ; was a Lieutenant Colonel in the Crown Point expedition, 
and at the battle near lake George, succeeded to the command, 
when Colonel Williams — from whom Williams College took its 
name — fell. He was with Abercrombie at Ticonderoga, and 
with Amherst in the redu6lion of Canada ; always acquitting 
himself as a brave, prudent, and humane officer. All along, 
through our whole history, we find examples of the heroic devo- 
tion of members of this noble family. We find them in all 
departments, military, civil, and ecclesiastical, pursuing with 
patriotic zeal and intelligent forecast, the highest interests of the 
loved country of their birth. Who of this generation can forget 



2i8 Biographical Sketches. Widger. IViikms. 

the devoted condu6t of Hon. William Whiting, of Boston, during- 
the civil war ? Whiting school was named in memory of our early 
minister ; also Whiting street ; indeed the name of the town was 
adopted in courtesy to him. A fac-simile of a signature of his 
written at the age of eighty-two, follows. r» ^ 



^hi'PlrY^ ^/ 



Widger, Thomas, a mariner and prisoner of war. He died 
January 21, 1871, aged 80 years. See Annals, 1871. 

WiLKiNS, Bray. This early settler was a husbandman by 
occupation, though like many others, at that period, he found it 
expedient to follow other callings at different times. See Annals, 
1630. It is probable that he had something to do with the iron 
works, for when he and John Gingle purchased the Bellingham 
farro, they paid down ;^24 in bar iron, and ;^i in money, mort- 
gaging back for ;^225 ; this purchase being made after his return 
from Dorchester, whither he went from Lynn, and where he had 
been keeper of Neponset ferry. Gingle was a tailor by trade 
and lived in Lynn, but left no mark by which he can with any 
certainty be traced. In 1676 the mortgage was discharged, and 
Wilkins, having bought out Gingle's interest, became sole pos- 
sessor of the farm, which originally comprised some hundreds 
of acres, and had been enlarged by other purchases. He had 
six sons, lusty and strong, some or all of whom settled around 
him, he remaining like a patriarch among them. He was stern 
and uncompromising in his religious views, and became conspic- 
uous for his zeal in the witchcraft prosecutions, evidently having 
a sincere belief in the personality of the evil one and his vile 
attempts to harass and destroy the good people hereabout. 
John Willard, a grandson of his, was among the unfortunates 
who suffered death for the supposed crime, and the conclusion 
cannot be avoided that the course the grandfather took had no 
tendency to prevent the unhappy result. Hon. C. W. Upham, 
in his valuable work on the witchcraft outbreak, gives some 
touching details regarding Mr. Wilkins and his kindred as 
connedled with the strange episode ; but to many minds his 



Biographical Sketches. Willis. 219 

narrations are more interesting than his conclusions satisfa6tory ; 
for it can hardly be possible that human nature, depraved as it 
is, could develop such examples of precocious cunning, lying, and 
dissembling, in mere children, as he supposes. No, no, the 
" delusion " must have arisen from some psychological condition 
different from that suggested by him. 

Mr. Wilkins in a deposition says : " When John Willard [his 
grandson] was first complained of by the afflidted persons for 
affli6ling them, he came to my house, greatly troubled, desiring 
me, with some other neighbors, to pray for him. I told him I 
was then going from home, and could not stay ; but if I could 
come home before night, I should not be unwilling. But it was 
near night before I came home, and so I did not answer his 
desire ; but I heard no more of him upon that account. Whether 
my not answering his desire did not offend him, I cannot tell ; 
but I was jealous, afterwards, that it did." And his jealousy 
appears to have gathered strength ; for, being seized by certain 
terrible pains, so that he " was like a man on a rack," he "says, " I 
told my wife immediately that I was afraid that Willard had done 
me wrong ; my pain continuing, and finding no relief, my jealousy 
continued. Mr. Lawson and others there were all amazed, and 
knew not what to do for me. There was a woman accounted 
skillful came hoping to help me, and after she had used means, 
she asked me whether none of those evil persons had done me 
damage. I said I could not say they had, but I was sore afraid 
they had. She answered she did fear so too." We can only 
account for this cold way of estimating the condu6l of a near 
relative who himself appears to have been intelligent and piously 
inclined, and who died upon the gallows like a Christian hero, 
through the prevailing hallucination. Whether Mr. Wilkins 
finally came to view the matter in its true light does not exactly 
appear ; but his minister, the Rev. Joseph Green, remarks : " He 
lived to a good old age, and saw his children's children and their 
children, and peace upon our little Israel." Many respeftable 
families in various parts of the country claim descent from him. 

Willis, Thomas, the first resident of Tower Hill. He was 
a Representative from Lynn in the first General Court. See 
Annals, 1630, and other early dates. 



220 Biographical Sketches. JJ^ooc/. U^o^vistead. 

Wood, John, was one of the first settlers, and from him 
Woodend took its name. See Annals, 1629. His autograph is 
among those on the Armitage Petition, page 106. 

Wood, William, Lynn's earliest delineator. See Annals, 
1629, and other early dates. 

WoRMSTEAD, JoHN B., A privatecrsman in the war of 18 12. 
He died September 2, 1874, aged 85. See Annals, 1874. 

Yawata — an Indian princess. The name was much admired 
by Mr. Lewis. See History of Lynn, 1865 edition, page 40. 



In closing our Chapter of Biographical Sketches, it is only 
necessary to remark that the aim has been to shadow forth the 
spirit of the people and the general condition of things here, at 
different periods of our history. For this end individuals living 
at different times and pursuing diverse walks of life have been 
introduced. Possibly some critical reader may think of other 
names that in his opinion should not have been omitted. But 
on refleftion he may perceive a reason for the omission. There 
is something more to be considered than mere present popular- 
ity, as that may rest on a foundation that will soon crumble 
away. We are far from claiming that our judgment in these 
matters is perfe6l, or that we have been successful in carrying 
out a plan in itself good. But it is safe to say that no individual 
who has not done something for the benefit of a community has 
any claim to be remembered in that community, however he 
may have thirsted for posthumous fame or however his friends 
may desire his canonization. Yet it will be borne in mind, that 
our business has not generally been so much with the individuals 
themselves as with their external relations. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



" Now will we gather up 
■ Stray fragments that elucidate our story, 
The breezy freedom of past years commingling 

With these our busy times." 



In the present Chapter will be presented a variety of what 
may, with propriety perhaps, be called detached matters relating 
to the History of beloved old Lynn ; but it will be the aim to 
select from the great number of topics that will naturally offer 
themselves, only such as best subserve the leading purpose 
of our volume. As to the arrangement of subjects, it can only 
be said that it will be somewhat arbitrary, as it would be difficult 
to adhere to any fixed rule ; but the endeavor will be to make it 
as convenient as possible for the reader, who, aided by the index, 
will not be at a loss to find any thing of importance that may 
come under notice. 



First Projected Rail-road. In 1828 a proposition was 
made to construct a Rail-road from Boston to Salem ; and a 
circular was sent out from the House of Representatives, to 
various towns in the vicinity, seeking information from which 
a judgment could be formed as to the expediency of undertaking 
the formidable enterprise, either by individuals or the State. 
The circular sent to Lynn was addressed to the editor of the 
Mirror, and was responded to after evidently careful investiga- 
tion and consideration. Without rehearsing the congratulations 
on the then existing prosperity, or the rosy predictions for the 
future of Lynn — which latter, by the way, have been fully real- 

(221) 



222 Miscellaneous Notes. 

ized — we will present some of the statements touching the actual 
condition of certain matters of business here at that period. 
Swampscott and Nahant, it will be remembered, were then con- 
stituent parts of the town. 

The principal manufacture of Lynn is shoes. Of these it appears that 1.038. 189 
]Dairs are annually made; which at four shillings a pair will amount to $692,126. 
These, as they are usually packed, will fill 11.535 boxes ; the transportation of which, 
at one shilling a box, will cost $1,922.50. It is considered that about three fourths 
of the above amount returns to Lynn in sole leather and other articles for the manu- 
facture of shoes, in English and West India goods, and other merchandize ; the 
transportation of which may be fairly estimated at $5,768. The article of flour 
alone — 2.500 barrels, at $6 a barrel — would amount to $15,000; the transportation 
of which would cost $750. The transportation of the same amount in shoes, would 
cost only $41.67. And many other heavy articles will bear an equal proportion. 
The transportation of a barrel of flour from Boston to Lynn, is 30 cents, about the 
same as the conveyance from Baltimore to Boston. 

There have been about i.ooo tons of fresh fish, and 50 tons of cured fish, conveyed 
on the Turnpike, as far as Charlestown, during the past year ; the transportation 
of which, at twenty shillings a ton, amounts to $3,500. Fifty barrels of oil have also 
been extracted, the transportation of which, at two shillings a barrel, cost $16.66. 

The other articles transported on the Boston route, are 60 tons of hay, 70 tons 
of chocolate, 26 tons of grain, 50 tons of cocoa, 20 tons of rice, 30 tons of ginger, 16 
tons of neat hides, 12 tons of leather, 27 tons of goat and kid skins, 85 tons of sumac, 
9 tons of iron, 36 tons of coal, 30 tons of barberry root, and 200 tons of marble — 
making in all 671 tons; the transportation of which, at twenty shillings a ton, 
amounts to $2,236.67. Besides these a large amount of goods is annually conveyed 
to the dye house and [silk] printing establishment. 

The average number of passengers is about eleven each day, for 300 days of the 
year; the amount of whose conveyance, at $1.25 each, is $4,125. The amount 
paid by Lynn people, for tolls, is probably about $2,100. 

By this statement it appears that the annual expense to the town of Lynn, on the 
Boston route, is $19,668.33. 

The amount of property invested in baggage wagons, is about $4,000. 

The small amount of coal brought hither at that time, which 
was when anthracite was just beginning to come into use in New 
England, shows how exclusively wood was still in use for fuel. 
And we are inclined to think that a large portion even of the 
thirty-six tons was bituminous, or such as blacksmiths use. 

What will most surprise the reader, however, is the small 
number of passengers from Lynn to Boston — an average of 
eleven daily, and that when our population was 6.000. But such 
of us as remember those days can readily understand why it was 
so. Excepting here and there a prominent business man, few 
went to Boston more than once or twice a year ; many not more 
than once in five years ; and had it continued thus to this day 



Miscellaneous Notes. 223 

there is little doubt that it would have been better for us, in 
many respects. Are we not too much on the wing .'' " Shopping," 
what little there was, was done in town. A visit to the city 
ordinarily consumed a whole day and the expenses of the journey 
were very much greater than at present, to say nothing of the 
discomforts of the public conveyances. The few leading business 
men who went up once or twice a week usually had their own 
" teams," and often took in a neighbor, who would pay the tolls 
and horse-baiting. The anecdote related in our Annals, under 
date 1847, of a couple of business worthies, who rode to Charles- 
town bridge, when they got into a dispute over the payment 
of a toll, continuing to wrangle all day, and at night turning about 
and jogging home without going over, has reference to this 
custom as well as showing the obstinacy of the actors in the com- 
ical scene. Then there were others — some even of the smaller 
manufacturers — who were accustomed to go on foot, getting a 
lift, perhaps, part of the way, on some friendly baggage wagon. 

In relation to steam transportation, it may be stated that up 
to 1828, no steam-propelled craft had ever stirred the waters 
of Lynn. The " Ousatonic," well remembered as a steamer 
of what would now be called diminutive size, was advertised to 
visit Lynn on Monday, the 8th of September, of that year, ta 
take a party out on an excursion among the islands of Boston 
harbor. The announcement caused a real sensation, for hardly 
any one had seen a vessel moved by that mysterious motive 
power ; and before the appointed hour an eager multitude hast- 
ened to every point of observation, some even posting themselves 
on house-tops. But no steamer came on that day, and great was 
the disappointment, which manifested itself in various unsavory 
ways. And if we rightly remember, a boat did not come till the 
next year. 

In connection with the above, and for the purpose of showing, 
what great expectations were raised from the enlarged use of 
steam, the following paragraph which exultingly went the newspa- 
porial round of that propitious year, 1828, may be given : 

" Great Despatch. The Benjamin Franklin, steamer, made her 
last trip from New York to Providence, in sixteen hours. She 
was seventeen minutes at Newport. The shortest passage ever 
made." The writer made a passage from Providence to New 



224 



Miscellaneous Notes. 



York, in the " palatial " steamer President, in the summer of 1829, 
in what was then considered the very quick time of eighteen 
hours, the sea being calm and the weather beautiful. 




RICHARD HAVEN, OR HART, HOUSE. 



The above is a faithful picture of a very ancient house, which 
was owned by Richard Haven, who settled here as early as 1640. 
In later years it was known as the Hart house, the last occupant 
of the name being Joseph Hart, a farmer, who died in 1806. 
It was taken down, transported to Reservoir Hill, and there 
consumed in a sort of sacrifical bonfire on the morning of the 
Centennial Day of the Republic — July 4, 1876. It stood on 
the south-west corner of Boston and North Federal streets ; and 
it may be mentioned, in passing, was the birth-place of the 
writer — if that is a circumstance of interest to any one. The 
large tree in front was a buttonwood, and in the great gale of 1 8 1 5, 
as the individual just alluded to well remembers, had its top 
blown off, while he was gazing from the lower window on the right. 
The singular out-branching of the new growth, as represented in 
the cut, followed the disaster of the gale. This venerable tree 
was cut down in 1881. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 225 

In the Lynn Reporter of July 8, 1876, appeared the following 
editorial account of the holocaust. There is a mistake as to the 
builder of the house, which is corrected in the foregoing para- 
graph, and it was older than the editor supposed, the western 
portion at least having been built before Mr. Hart's time. 

That " Beacon Light." Whatever points Lynn may have fallen behind in as 
to the celebration of the Fourth, she may fairly claim the honor of making the most 
remarkable bonfire in this section, in honor of its centennial opening. And thus it 
happened : 

Samuel Hart was one of our early settlers, and built a house on Boston street, 
about 1670. His descendants always held and occupied the place down to Hon. 
James R. Newhall, who stands in the direct line on the mother's side. Now the 
house, so very old, was greatly dilapidated and not worth repairs. As it was then 
determined to remove it, it was sold at auction last week for a nominal sum, — ten or 
fifteen dollars, — and with the consent of Judge Newhall, given to the young men 
of West Lynn for a burnt-offering at the nation's jubilee. At it they went, at dusk on 
Saturday evening, and before morning every scrap and stick was torn down and 
teamed, load after load, to the tip-top of Pine Hill, two hundred feet high, and in 
plain sight of the country for miles away, in all directions. Before Monday night 
the whole was solidly packed in a great pyramid, near forty feet high, firmly stayed 
and bound, including several barrels of tar and kerosene, and one cask at least 
of benzine cement. During the evening, the pile was freely drenched with waterpots 
of kerosene, and as "the hour of midnight tolled," it was lighted on two or three 
sides at once, amid the wildest cheers of a great crowd, and the rapid reports of fire- 
arms, great and small. A more glorious blaze is rarely seen. Even under the clear 
moonlight the glare was most intense. The old timbers burned and burned, and at 
eight next morning were yet blazing. And such was the end of the homestead of two 
hundred years ; it flamed up to heaven at last to honor the celebration of American 
liberty and independence. Where else did they do any thing more significant 
than this ? 

The hill on which the bonfire took place, is the highest point 
back of the house, as shown in the picture, and the highest point 
in Lynn. It is two hundred and twenty-four feet in height, and 
distant about three fourths of a mile. Second Pine Hill was 
the name by which the range of which it forms a part was 
formerly known ; but after the construction of the City Reser- 
voir, on the northern slope, this summit began to be called 
Reservoir Hill. 

The " Old Indian," an enormous red cedar, stood within a few 
rods of the spot whereon the bonfire was kindled. This tree 
was a marked object for generations, as it towered above all its 
forest neighbors, its blanched limbs stretching out above their 
heads, in patriarchal dignity. Its age must have been very 
great ; and judging from its appearance, one might well accept 

IS 



226 Miscellaneous Notes. 

as true the assertion that long before the white settlers came 
it was a guide for the Indian skiffs that skimmed about in the 
offing. When it yielded to the ruthless woodsman's ax, which 
was quite within the writer's recollection, it seemed as if one 
of the few remaining links that bound our dispensation to that 
of the red man, had been severed. 



Slaves. There were in Lynn, at the commencement of the 
Revolution, twenty-six slaves. There had been a few from very 
early times ; but they were most numerous throughout the 
Province, in 1745. In 1754, there were four hundred and thirty- 
nine in Essex County, and in all Massachusetts, four thousand, 
four hundred and eighty-nine. In 1774 the General Court passed 
a bill prohibiting the importation of Slaves, but Governor Gage 
withheld his assent. The State Constitution was established 
in 1780. The first article of the Declaration of Rights asserts 
that all men are born free and equal ; and this was generally 
supposed to have reference to slavery ; but it was a point on 
which there was by no means unanimity of opinion. In 1781, 
however, at a court in Worcester, an indictment was found against 
a white man for assaulting, beating, and imprisoning a black. 
The case finally, in 1783, went to the Supreme Court, and the 
defense was that the black was a slave, and the beating, &c., the 
necessary and lawful correction of the master. But the defense 
was declared invalid. And this decision was the death-blow to 
slavery in Massachusetts. In later years, when the resolute 
movement for the extinction of slavery throughout the land, 
commenced, Lynn manifested becoming zeal in the cause ; and 
among the most efficient workers was Mr. Lewis ; whose zeal, 
however, seemed somewhat to abate as age advanced. But yet, 
for his efforts in the incipient stages of the noble cause, he was 
worthy of greater praise than many of those who at the eleventh 
hour and from less disinterested motives pushed noisily to the front. 



John Dunton, the London bookseller, who visited Lynn in 
1686, as mentioned in our Annals, under date 1635, was married, 
at an early age, to Elizabeth Annesley ; and a sister of hers who 
married Samuel Wesley, became mother of the celebrated John 
Wesley. They were daughters of Dr. Samuel Annesley, a dis- 



Miscellaneous Notes. 227 

senting minister. Dunton seems not to have entertained the 
most friendly feelings toward his brother-in-law, as he says, " Sam 
Wesley has fouled his nest in hopes of a bishoprick." It might 
be interesting to know what connection, if any, the blasted hopes 
of the father, touching the bishopric, had with shaping the reli- 
gious course of the son. 



Speaker Onslow. On page 490 of the 1865 edition of the 
History of Lynn, mention is made of Governor Hutchinson's 
comparing Speaker John Burrill, of Lynn, with Speaker Onslow, 
of the British House of Commons. There were two Speakers 
of the House of Commons, named Onslow — Sir Richard, elected 
in the seventh year of Queen Anne. 1708, and Sir Arthur, 
in the first year of King George HI., 1727. They were both 
eminent presiding officers, and extremely watchful of the dignity 
of the House. It is related that Col, Fitzroy, afterwards Lord 
Southampton, when on one occasion reprimanded for making a 
late appearance, excused himself by saying that he had been 
detained by attendance on the King. Speaker Onslow, in a loud 
voice and authoritative manner, replied, " Sir, do n't tell me of 
waiting ; this is your place to attend in ; here is your first duty.'^ 



Lynn, in 1750 and in 18 17. A New York merchant who 
travelled east, in 1750, says he put up at Mr. Ward's, in " Lyn, 
which is a small Country Town of ab' 200 Houses, very pleas- 
antly situated, & affords a Beautifull Rural Prospect." He 
arrived at about one o'clock, " and dynd on fryd Codd." After 
dinner, being refreshed by a glass of wine, he pursued his journey 
to Salem, " through a barren, rocky country," and the next day, 
after visiting Marblehead, returned to Boston, stopping again at 
Mr. Ward's, in Lynn, where he "dyned upon a fine mongrel 
goose." 

In 181 7, John Palmer, of King's Lynn, England, while on his 
travels in the United States and Canada, an account of which he 
afterwards published, in London, found occasion thus to speak 
of our vicinity : " After crossing [September 1 1] a bridge which 
joins Charlestown to Chelsea, another small suburb, we found 
the road very excellent, carried on for some miles through salt 
marshes where the hay stacks are all placed on frames to prevent 



228 Miscellaneous Notes. 

their being damaged by high tides, which sometimes overflow 
the level. We passed through the town of Lynn, noted for its 
extensive manufacture of elegant silk and cloth shoes. Morse 
gives the number made in 1795 at 300.000 pairs, and in 1802 
computes them to amount to 400.000 pairs. At present, I am 
told, the trade is on the decline, the spirit of emigration having 
seized many of the apprentices and journeymen. Lynn contains 
four or five thousand inhabitants, but presents little appearance 
of compactness. As is common in the United States, the houses 
are spread over a wide tract of ground. Leaving Lynn [and 
proceeding towards Salem] the remainder of the journey is 
through a rocky country." 

The barren aspect of the country between Lynn and Salem, 
noticed by these travellers, though somewhat improved in our 
day, yet furnishes evidence that they were observing chroniclers. 
The pestiferous wood-wax is now an added annoyance. 



First Corn from the West. It will be remembered that 
the summer of 18 16 is stated to have been remarkably cold, in 
New England, that very little corn ripened, that there was a 
frost in every month of the year, and that snow fell in June. In 
connection with this it may be interesting to state that Captain 
James Mudge, of Lynn, during the year, brought to Boston, from 
Cincinnati, Ohio, in the brig Cincinnatus, a cargo of corn in the 
ear. This was the first sea-going vessel ever built in Cincinnati, 
and so lively was the interest felt, that many in different parts 
of New England went to considerable pains to procure an ear 
of the corn to preserve as a memento of the enterprise. The 
vessel was built in 18 14, by John Brooks, an emigrant from Maine. 



Singular Record, The following remarkable entry appears 
on the public records of Lynn : " Married, Daniel Cowing to 
Mary Bovvers, Dec. 25, 1764, by Rev. Mr. Adams. Said Cowing 
took the s^ Mary naked, except a sheet & shift that she borrowed." 
Rev. Mr. Adams was minister of the Lynnfield parish. Proba- 
bly the bride appeared in that condition under the apprehension 
that if she brought nothing to her husband he could not be 
held responsible for any existing debt of hers. But why might 
she not have borrowed a gown as well as the other articles ? 



Miscellaneous Notes. 229 

Records of Lynn. In the preservation of her earliest 
records Lynn has been unfortunate. Yet it is probable that 
for many years they were kept in a manner so loose and imper- 
fect as to have been hardly worth preserving, as a whole, though 
they undoubtedly contained some things that should have en- 
sured their safe custody. The county records, however, supply, 
in the form of deeds, wills, inventories, depositions, and so forth, a 
great portion of the information the loss of which would be most 
seriously felt. For instance : among the county files may be 
found the copy made by Andrew Mansfield, of the land allot- 
ments of 1638. 

The earliest regular town records now in existence commence 
in 1 69 1. But there was an order passed in 171 5 requiring that 
some of the previous records, then in a dilapidated condition, 
should be transcribed ; and the order was complied with to the 
extent of a few pages, it having been left to the selectmen to 
carry it out in such manner as they thought best. The copies 
relate to matters as far back as 1661. 

The little volumes of records of " Marriages, Births and 
Deaths in the Town of Lynn," with the exception of the first, 
are yet in the custody of the city clerk ; and in the title-page 
of the second, is this note: "The first volume is lost. In 1820 
I found this volume in ruins, bound it and furnished it with an 
index. Preserve it carefully. Alonzo Lewis." These volumes 
contain quite a number of what are called " genealogies " of 
the old families, and are very useful, in many cases, in tracing 
pedigrees ; but they are not free from errors ; and the details 
are frequently so imperfect and involved as to occasion doubt 
and perplexity. Much difficulty arises from the identity of names, 
as middle ones were then seldom used. At one time, for instance 
there were eight persons here of the name James Newhall, 
not one having a middle name, but each relying for his identity 
upon some nickname benevolently bestowed by his neighbors ; 
marks of distinction, however, which could not appear on the 
public records. These " genealogical " records have been copied 
into a proper book, with an alphabetically arranged index, which 
adds greatly to the facility for examination ; but the copying 
afforded an opportunity, not altogether unimproved, to add to 
the errors of the originals. 



230 Miscellaneous Notes. 

It need not be added that ever since Lynn became a city, her 
records have been kept in the most careful manner ; and indeed 
for many years before the adoption of the Charter, there was 
little reason to complain of the competency or faithfulness of our 
recording clerks. 

The First Parish records extend back only to 172 1-2 ; and 
they are the earliest church records that have been preserved. rt 

li 

Matrimonial Finesse. In our biographical sketch of Mr. 
Lewis, in the 1865 edition of the History of Lynn, an "interme- 
diate" matrimonial companion is spoken of. The romantic 
affair of the supposed valid second marriage was the occasion 
of much comment among his friends. He unquestionably died 
without a doubt that she had, at the time of the separation, a 
former husband living, whatever his suspicions may have been 
as to some of her other and more equivocal declarations. About 
fourteen years after the death of Mr. Lewis, however, the 
writer was informed by a worthy priest of the Catholic church, 
that he had received a letter from the lady herself, who was then 
in London, informing him of her conversion to the Romish faith, 
and confessing that the story of her previous marriage was a 
fiction, framed by herself for the purpose of severing her connec- 
tion with Mr. Lewis, under whose " gentle control " she had 
become restive. If this was true, she must have had a confed- 
erate in the person of a young man, for a marital claimant 
certainly did appear here in Lynn. Mr. Lewis himself, in con- 
siderable perturbation one morning informed the writer that he 
had just had an interview with such a one and requested some 
friendly interposition for the settlement of the unpleasant affair. 
A young literary flirt does not usually prove the most suitable 
conjugal companion for a staid citizen of advanced years. His 
age was fifty-six, and hers seventeen, at the time of the marriage, 
as the hymeneal notice in the newspapers stated. 



Siamese Twins. It was in 1831 that the famous Siamese 
twins, Chang and Eng, so mysteriously united in person, were 
first exhibited in this vicinity. During the warm season of that 
year they were for a short time rusticating in Lynnfield, and 
while out on a gunning excursion, one day, became so irritated 



Miscellaneous Notes. 231 

by being followed and stared at, by men and boys, that they 
committed a breach of the peace, were taken before a magis- 
trate's court, and put under bonds. It came near becoming a 
serious question how one could be punished by imprisonment, 
should it come to that, if the other were innocent. The difficulty 
vanished, however, when it appeared that both were guilty. 
They died in North Carolina, in the winter of 1873, within two 
hours of each other, aged 63 years. 



Funeral Expenses. Much has been said, of late, and with 
justice, concerning the extravagance so commonly indulged in, 
on the burial of the dead. The expenditures for casket, floral 
decorations, carriages, and so forth, have become really burden- 
some to persons of limited income. Many seem to think it mean 
not to follow the fashion in these matters, and mean also to dis- 
pute any charge of those who furnish the appliances, however 
exorbitant such charge may be. But does not a sentiment 
very different from love for the departed or grief for one's own 
loss, rule here? Certainly it is not in ostentatious display that 
the grieved heart most naturally seeks relief Of course we all 
realize that no good can come to the departed by glitter and 
parade, however costly they may be. Nor can they heal affec- 
tion's deeper wounds. It would be truly lamentable if the 
time should ever come when heart-relieving ceremonials were 
dispensed with at the burial of the dead ; but garish pomp is but 
fast fading drapery about a grave. 

In early New England times the dead were committed to their 
last resting places with very little ceremony beyond the proces- 
sion of mourning friends ; the coffin was rude ; and seldom was 
a prayer offered, an omission, however, that probably arose from 
anxiety to avoid any thing that approached the popish custom 
of praying for the dead. But before the beginning of the last 
century, new and strange customs began to appear, and expendi- 
tures were made for purposes more reprehensible than any 
extravagance of this day. Indeed funerals were sometimes made 
seasons of jollification. Especially when the deceased was a 
minister or other prominent personage, spirituous liquors were 
provided, and gloves and rings presented. And these customs 
prevailed to some extent even down to times within the memory 



232 Miscellaneous Notes. 

of persons now living-. Here is a copy of the charges incurred at 
the burial of Rev. Mr. Brown, of Reading, in 1733 : 

£ s. d. 

To Thomas Eaton, for provisions, 2 10 

Nathaniel Eaton, for fetching up the wine, . . . .0150 
Lt. Nathaniel Parker, for 5 qts. Rhom [rum], . . . 080 
Samuel Poole, for digging Mr. Brown's grave, . . .080 

Landlord Wesson, for Rhom [rum], o 10 6 

Wm. Cow^dry, for making the coffin, 0150 

Andrew Tyler, of Boston, 6 gold rings for funeral, . . 10 18 o 
Benj. Fitch, of Boston, Gloves, etc., . . . . 17 o o 

Mrs. Martha Brown, for wine furnished, . . . * 500 
Eben Storer, of Boston, sundries, 800 

Total, 45 15 6 

Until a comparatively recent period the burial places in 
the rural districts of New England were generally neglected 
spots, overgrown with rank weeds and all manner of unseemly 
vegetation. And we cannot fail to rejoice that these unsightly 
enclosures are fast giving place to beautiful cemeteries, whose 
graceful adornments are a perpetual delight to the meditative 
mourner. The simple monument that records the name and 
virtues of a dear departed one, however inexpensive or rude it 
may be, will long out-last the memory of any pomp or ceremonial 
that may have attended the committal of the body to the earth. 



Specie Transportation. John Adams, afterwards President 
of the United States, but then a young lawyer, travelling his 
circuit, accompanied by his wife, mentions, under date Nov. 3, 
1766, having " oated " at Martin's — the celebrated old Anchor 
Tavern, in what is now East Saugus — on his way to attend the 
court at Salem. And returning, a few days after, he again " oated " 
at Martin's, " where we saw," he adds, " five boxes of dollars, 
containing, as we were told, about eighteen thousand of them, 
going in a horse-cart from Salem Custom House to Boston, in 
order to be shipped for England. A guard of armed men, with 
swords, hangers, pistols and muskets attended." 



Value of a Shirt, in 1729. There was a complaint made 
by Benjamin Newhall, of Lynn, before Theophilus Burrill, a 
Justice of the Peace, in behalf of His Majesty, the King, "That 
whereas some evil minded person, contrary to the peace of our 



Miscellaneous Notes. 233 

Sovereign Lord the King and the laws of his Majesty's Province 
of Massachusetts, did on or upon the 28th day of this Instant 
month of December, 1729, (being the Lord's day) steale, purloine, 
or Take and karry a way a new Shirtt of your Complainant's ffit 
for a Small Bodyed man. Either out of the new Dwelling hous 
where s^ complainantt Lives, or verry neare there to, which 
Shirt was made of cotton and Linning cloath, a middling sort 
of cloath, valued at about Twelve Shillings, and Doth Wehemently 
Suspect," &c, A search warrant was issued, but it does not 
appear whether the property was recovered. The " new Dwelling 
hous," it is presumed, was the two-story wooden house, known as 
the Hallowell house, still standing on North Common street, two 
or three rods east of the old Episcopal church. 



First Directory of Lynn. Early in 1832 the writer pur- 
chased of Charles F. Lummus, the first Lynn printer, the little 
office which he had been running for about six years, and running 
to such disadvantage that he had run out the small means with 
which he commenced. It was the first printing office in Lynn, 
and very poorly supplied with material. By the sale, Mr. Lum- 
mus found himself out of employment ; and though not inclined 
to excessive industry, his circumstances required that he should 
not remain in idleness. He was about thirty years of age, a 
bachelor, and a boarder at Lynn Hotel, at that time perhaps the 
most genteel boarding place in the town. His habits were good, 
and his expenses small. 

In casting about, under these ciicumstances, for something to 
turn his hand to, he conceived the project of compiling a Direc- 
tory, the population then numbering about 6.200. A short season 
of pleasant work would by such means be afforded, as in collect- 
ing the information and procuring subscribers, he could travel 
about in pleasant weather, gossip with all sorts of people, and 
suspend labor when he felt inclined. He knew every body, every 
body knew him, and there were few who would not cordially greet 
him, and render such assistance as was in their power. So the 
work went on. When the information was gathered and the 
subscribers obtained the printing was to be done. There was 
no office in Lynn with sufficient type of a suitable kind, and he 
made an arrangement with an establishment in Boston. He did 



234 Miscellaneous Notes. 

the type-setting himself, and as might have been expected the 
work did not proceed with remarkable vigor. However, it was 
a new thing, and the subscribers, not knowing exactly what they 
had a right to expect, did not manifest much impatience. 

In the latter part of May the Directory made its appearance. 
It was in the shape of a duodecimo of seventy-two pages, was in 
paper covers, contained the variety of information usually found 
in works of the kind, was as accurate as it could well be made, 
and on the whole was quite creditable. But in a pecuniary way 
it was not much of a success, for Mr, Lummus afterwards told 
the writer that he realized only enough to make scanty day wages 

Such is a history of the first Directory of Lynn, copies of which 
may yet occasionally be found in some of the older homes. 
As the first printer of Lynn, and the compiler of her first Direc- 
tory, the name of Mr. Lummus will survive long after many who 
were more successful in " heaping up riches " are forgotten. 



Election Day. To some of our elder people the mention 
of this now unnoticed anniversary will call up recollections of a 
peculiar character. The ancient Colony Charter ordained " That 
yearely, once in the yeare forever hereafter, namely, the last 
Wednesday in Easter tearme yeareley, the Governo'', Deputy 
Governo'', and Assistants of the said Company, and all other 
officers of the said Company shalbe, in the Generall Court or 
Assembly to be held for that day or tyme, newly chosen for the 
yeare ensueing by such greater part of the said Company for the 
tyme being then and there present." 

Thus it was that the last Wednesday of May became the 
famous Election Day, During many of its latter years the 
period was more commonly called " 'lection time" for the last 
four days of the week were embraced in the popular observance. 
And it was not till 1831, that the day so long noted above almost 
any other, was compelled, through a constitutional amendment, 
to fall back into the ranks of unnoted days. The worthy old 
legislators evidently considered this annually recurring election 
of their chief officers, a matter of very grave importance, fearing, 
no doubt, that their liberties might be endangered by such 
abuses as they had seen arise from longer official terms, and 
from modes of appointment in which the great body of the people 



Miscellaneous Notes, 235 

■were not allowed to participate. Their anxious watchfulness 
may be seen all along. At a General Court held in 1639, ^^^^ 
matter was treated in this manner : " It is solemly & vnanimosly 
decreed & established, that henceforth vpon the day or dayes 
appointed by our patent to hold o"" yearely Court for the election 
of our Governo'', Deputy Governo'', Assistants & other generall 
officers, being the last Wednesday of every Easter tearme, that 
the ffreemen of this iurisdiction shall either in person or by 
proxie, w'^out any sumons, attend & consumate the elections. . . 
As for the place of publike assembling, it shalbee wher the 
pceeding Court of Elections was held, vnlesse then & there some 
other place shalbee assigned. TJiis acte of o^s wee conceive so 
nearely to concerne the good of this coicntry that we earnestly 
intreate it may never be 7'epealed by any future Courted 

This last sentence we put in italic for the purpose of empha- 
sizing the admonition evidently intended. And it is agreeable 
to be able to remark that essentially the principle so urged by 
our sagacious forefathers became so interwoven with the very 
texture of our political economy that it has never yet ceased to 
work for good. 

Why the popular observance of Election Day should have 
taken the turn it finally did, is a mystery. Our younger people 
can have little conception of the style of entertainment and 
diversion by which it was characterized. It was not like Fast, 
Decoration, Independence, or Thanksgiving day. Exactly how 
it was observed a hundred and fifty years ago, we cannot 
tell ; but how it was during the first quarter of the present 
century many now living can attest, and surely will agree that 
in view of its moral influence, it was not abolished any too 
soon. 

It was pleasant to see the young men and maidens arrayed 
in their new " election suits," promenading with smiling faces, 
and joining in woodland pic^nics, or in merry household gather- 
ings. And the decorations from the abundant floral provision 
of the season, were always to be admired. The " election cake," 
too, so spicy and so glossy, which was provided in every house, 
with the slightly stimulating but not inebriating diet-drink made 
glad the young hearts. But the egg-nog, the flip, the muddy 
ale, and other fight-inspiring drinks that freely flowed in the 



236 Miscellaneous Notes. 

public dance houses, were the occasion of such irregularities, as 
happily have no match in these days. There were dance houses 
in various neighborhoods, notably one known as " Old Willis's," 
at North Bend, where dissipated men and lewd women assembled 
to spend the day and night in disgraceful revelry. It is hard to 
tell how such disreputable proceedings originated, for there was 
certainly nothing inherent in the original purpose to produce them. 

For many of its latter years, the day was popularly known as 
" Nigger Election," which questionable appellation was given, as 
some have supposed, to distinguish it from Artillery Election, 
which occurred on the first Monday in June, and which still 
holds its place in the calendar. But the true reason for its having 
been so called no doubt was that so long as slavery existed 
in Massachusetts, our colored brethren — who were allowed by 
their masters an annual vacation of four days, beginning with 
the day on which the General Court made their elections — were 
accustomed then, in imitation of their masters, to assemble on 
Boston Common or in some other convenient place, and proceed 
to elect rulers from their own ranks ; or rather imitation rulers, 
rulers without authority and without subjects. They engaged 
in their sportive political ceremonies with a keen relish, the 
more so, perhaps from having no real interest to be anxious about, 
and wound up with scenes of unlimited jollity. And the whole 
of their vacation was marked by excesses such as might be 
expected from a class so ignorant and so excitable when freed 
from restraint ; for the masters did not interfere till the utmost 
verge of decency had been reached, good-naturedly submitting 
to the hard hits levelled against themselves, and possibly profit- 
ing a little by some shrewd allusion. Perhaps these excesses 
of the negroes gave rise to the vile manner in which the season 
was observed by the lower class of some of our own complexion ; 
and perhaps, also, " election time " extended to four days, in 
accordance with the limit of the vacation allowed the slaves. 
Pompey, a slave belonging to Daniel Mansfield, of Lynn, who is 
referred to on page 198 of this volume, and who is stated to have 
been a prince in his native land, appears to have had regal honors 
bestowed upon him, though destitute both of subjects and au- 
thority. 

As has before appeared, the Court of Elections was abolished 



Miscellaneous Notes. 237 

in 1831 ; and then, of course, "election time" ceased to be 
observed. We have seen what indulgences characterized its latter 
days. And it may not be impertinent to ask if there are not 
other seasons which are now observed in a manner quite as 
inconsistent with the original purpose, if not in a manner quite 
as reprehensible. How about our annual Fast .'' Do we regard 
it as a day of " fasting, humiliation and prayer," or as a day for 
out-door sports and in-door games ? Some good Christian peo- 
ple, notably among them the late Rev. Dr. Cooke, have thought, 
in view of the turn things have taken, that it would be wise to 
discontinue altogether the appointment of such a day. But 
would it not be better to reform than abolish .'' It is rather 
surprising that one of Dr. Cooke's spirit should counsel a course 
that looks so much like a surrender. Then there is Independence 
day, the day on which, in times past, in the public celebration, 
the best orator and the best poet were called to spread their 
wings in oration and ode, and patriotism and lofty sentiment 
freely gushed in toast and banquet speech, with interludes of 
trumpet notes and song. But now " Young America " rather 
has the ascendancy hereabout ; and the "antique and horrible" 
displays, the tub races and the bicycles take the leading part — 
all well enough, perhaps, in their way, but seemingly not quite 
up to the requirements of the dignity of so grand an occasion. 

One word more about Artillery Election. It need not be 
remarked that the name is derived from the fact that on that 
day — the first Monday of June — the officers of the Ancient 
and Honorable Artillery are elected. The company was organ- 
ized as early as 1638, and quite a list of Lynn men have been 
members. It continues in vigorous existence, but is, at this day, 
not so much needed as a regulator in tactics, as it was in former 
years ; in short it is now rather an organization of respectable 
military citizens who meet in a semi-social way, than one ad- 
hering to the strict rules and requirements of martial life. 

They have occasionally on parade days visited Lynn. Any 
one in passing along Tremont street, in Boston, may observe 
near the outer wall of the King's Chapel burying ground an 
ancient gravestone bearing the name Hezekiah Usher. This 
individual was one of the original members of the organization. 
A son of his, of the same name, was an officer in the company, and 



238 Miscellaneous Notes. 

died in Lynn, though he was not a resident, in July 1697 ; and 
they marched hither to escort his remains to their last resting 
place beside those of his father. Our eleventh Mayor, Col. 
Roland G. Usher, is of the same ancestral line ; and he became 
a member of the company in 185 1. 



Shays's Rebellion. The following items appear m an account 
presented by the town of Lynn for reimbursement by the state 
for supplies furnished on the occasion of this memorable disturb- 
ance, which took place in 1786: " One thousand weight of Beef, 
at 2d. I farthing & 1-2 a pound ; four hundred and thirty four 
pound of Bread, at 19^. pr Hundred ; twenty two gallons of Rum, 
at 2s. Zd. pur gal. ; a Barril to carry the Rum in, 4$'. ; one Bushel 
of salt, 2s. and a Bag 2s. ; four Camp kittle at 5 j. a peace, lost ; 
the selectmen eleven days at 4^. pur Day for necessary time 
spent to collect s"^ things," &c. 



Woodward's Awls. The elder members of the shoe-making 
craft hereabout will remember the famous Woodward awls. Before 
shoes were made by machinery, they had a great sale in Lynn,, 
as nothing could supply their place. They were manufactured 
in that part of Reading now known as Wakefield, by Thomas 
Woodward, who was a native of Lynn, or Lynnfield, as it now 
is, and was born in 1773. He was a very ingenious and dexter- 
ous mechanic, and has been credited with numbering among his 
other inventions that of the Emerson razor strap. Mr. Eaton, 
in his history of Reading, says of him : " He was an honest, 
industrious, and kind-hearted man, but possessed some peculiar- 
ities of character ; he had an inquiring and rather credulous 
mind ; any new idea, either in physic, physics or ethics, he was 
ever ready to adopt, and if he thought it valuable, he was dis- 
posed to pursue it with great sincerity and pertinacity of purpose ; 
hence we find him ever trying some new experiment in manufac- 
turing, using some newly invented pilis or cordial, making a 
"Tincture," that becomes and still continues a popular medicine, 
becoming an anti-mason and abolitionist of the most approved 
patterns, and an honest and sincere believer in Millensm. He 
was, however, a very useful citizen. He lived to be aged, and _ 
his body outlived his mind." He died in i860, aged Z"] years. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 239 

Religious Discussions. In our Annals, under date 1702, an 
account is given of a characteristic discussion on religious topics, 
held in Lynn by Rev. George Keith, a Church of England mis- 
sionary, and John Richardson a prominent Quaker preacher- 
There was at that period a wide-spread interest in such contro- 
versies, on both sides of the water, and the contestants often 
manifested most intemperate zeal. Soon after Mr. Keith's return 
to England the following appeared as an adv,ertisement in the 
London Postman : ** Whereas, the world has been told in public 
papers and otherwise, of numerous conversions of Quakers to 
the Church of England, by means of Mr. Keith and others, and 
whereas the Quakers give out in their late books and otherwise, 
that since Mr. Keith came out of America, there are not ten 
persons owned by them that have left their Society, Mr. Keith 
and others will very much oblige the world in publishing a true 
list of their proselytes." 



Prescott's Walk. William H. Prescott, the eminent histo- 
rian, was for some years a summer resident of Lynn, his estate 
being on Ocean street. There he composed a considerable 
portion of " Philip the Second," and did other writing. His 
physical infirmities were such that much air and exercise were 
absolutely necessary. The old cherry tree, alluded to in the 
following extract from the biography of the historian, by George 
Ticknor, stood in front of the mansion. 

" One thing at his Lynn home, was, and still is, [1862] very 
touching. There was hardly a tree on the place except some 
young plantations, which were partly his own, but which he did 
not live to see grow up. But shade was important to him there 
as it was everywhere ; and none was to be found on his grounds 
except under the broad branches of an old cherry tree, which 
had come down from the days of Quaker shoemakers, who were sO' 
long the monarchs of the land there, and in all the neighborhood. 
Round the narrow circle of shade which this tree afforded him,, 
he walked with his accustomed fidelity a certain length of time 
every day whenever the sun prevented him from going more 
freely abroad. There he soon wore a path in the green sward, 
and so deep did it at last become that now — four years since 
any foot has pressed it — the marks still remain as a sad memo- 



240 Miscellaneous Notes. 

rial of his infirmity. I have not unfrequently watched him as 
he paced his wearisome rounds there, carrying a light umbrella, 
which, when he reached the sunny side of his circle, he raised 
for an instant to protect his eyes, and then shut it again, that 
the suffering organ might have the full benefit, not only of the 
exercise, but of the fresh air ; so exact and minute was he as to 
whatever could in the slightest degree affect its condition." 

This same old cherry tree is referred to in the following im- 
pressive but slightly stilted sonnet, written after Mr. Prescott's 
death, by an esteemed poetess of New York : 

No more, alas ! the soft returning spring 

Shall greet thee, walking near thy favorite tree. 

Marking with patient step the magic ring 

Where pageants grand and monarchs move with thee. 

Thou new Columbus ! bringing from old Spain 

Her ancient wealth to this awaiting shore ; 

Returning stamped with impress of thy brain, 

Far richer treasures than her galleons bore. 

Two worlds shall weep for thee — the Old, the New — 

Now that the marble and the canvas wait 

In vain to cheer the homes and hearts so true, 

Thy immortality made desolate. 

While angels on imperishable scroll 

Record the wondrous beauty of thy sou!. 



The Sea-Serpent. In our Annals, under date 1819, is given 
a pretty full account of this wonderful marine monster who is 
yet regarded by many as a mere creature of the imagination. 
And under date 1875 may be found a few additional particulars. 
Till within a comparatively recent period leading scientists ap- 
peared to disdain even the discussion of the question of his 
existence. But new interest has, of late, from some cause, been 
awakened, and opinions more or less valuable are freely expressed 
by those who claim to be most learned in nature's mysteries. 
The speculations of scientists, however, are not always more 
satisfactory than the observation and experience of some who 
make no high claims ; for there are, even among the learned, 
wise and unwise, credulous and incredulous ones. In the pres- 
ent state of the question, it may be interesting to give a few 
items of testimony which are not to be found elsewhere in our 
history. 

Nathan D. Chase, an aged and respectable citizen residing in 



Miscellaneous JNotes. 241 

the eastern section of the city, in a newspaper article published 
in June, 1881, referring to the appearance in 18 19, says : 

I had the pleasure of seeing his snakeship off Long Beach and Red Rock. He 
passed along within one hundred feet from where I stood, giving me a very good 
sight of him. At that time he carried his head out of water about two feet, and his speed 
was like that of an ordinary ocean steamer. What I saw of his length was from fifty 
to sixty feet. It was very difficult to count the bunches, or bony fins upon his back, 
as by his undulating motion they did not all appear at once. This accounts, in part, 
for the varied descriptions given of him by different parties. His appearance at the 
surface of the water was occasional and but for a short time. This is the best 
description I can give of him from my own observation, and I saw the monster as 
truly, though not quite so clearly, as I ever saw any thing. 

There are honest neighbors of Mr. Chase, who, though they 
entertain not the slightest doubt of his veracity, yet believe that 
his eyes did not serve him with entire faithfulness ; or rather 
that imagination was unwittingly allowed to add a little of its 
illuminating power. The writer has conversed with several who 
were on the Beach at the time of the alleged appearance and 
found them to disagree considerably as to details, and in posi- 
tiveness. One worthy man said, " Why, yes, I saw what they 
called the sea-serpent, but could not make out what some others 
present declared they saw." Yet none seemed to doubt that 
something wonderful was moving about there. 

To this day, with here and there an exception, the Swampscott 
fishermen, the yachtsmen, and residents near the shore ridicule 
the idea of the existence of such a monster. Probably not three 
in ten of the old fishermen believe that any thing more like a 
serpent than a horse-mackerel ever sported in these waters. 
But all this is negative ; and the positive testimony of even three 
or four credible persons may reasonably be expected to outweigh 
it in most minds. Three persons might see a thing that forty 
others, did not see, though in a situation where they could hardly 
have avoided the sight ; but their not seeing it could not strike 
it out of existence. 

A year or two before the alleged first appearance of the won- 
derful creature in these waters he was said to have been seen 
in the harbor of Gloucester, or about the waters of Cape Ann ; 
and the following description of him by Hon. Lonson Nash, 
a prominent and highly esteemed resident of that section, ap- 
pears in a letter addressed to Hon. John Davis, and published in 
a pamphlet entitled " Report of a Committee of the Linnaean 

16 



242 Miscellaneous Notes. 

Society of New England, relative to a large Marine Animal, sup- 
posed to be a Serpent, seen near Cape Ann, Massachusetts, 
August, 1817." 

You request a detailed account of my observations relative to the serpent. I 
saw him on the fourteenth ultimo, [August 14, 1817] and when nearest I judged 
him to be about two hundred and fifty yards from me. At that distance I judged 
him in the larger part about the size of a half barrel, gradually tapering towards the 
two extremes. Twice I saw him with a glass, only for a short time, and at other 
times with the naked eye for nearly half an hour. His color appeared nearly 
black — his motion nearly vertical. When he moved on the surface of the water, the 
track in his rear was visible for at least half a mile. 

His velocity, when moving on the surface of the water, I judged was at the rate 
of a mile in about four minutes. When immersed in the water, his speed was greater, 
moving, I should say, at the rate of a mile in two, or at most in three minutes. When 
moving under water, you could often trace him by the motion of the water on the 
surface, and from this circumstance I conclude he did not swim deep. He apparently 
went as straight through the water as you could draw a line. When he changed his 
course, it diminished his velocity but little — the two extremes that were visible 
appeared rapidly moving in opposite directions, and when they came parallel they 
appeared not more than a yard apart. With a glass I could not take in at one view 
the two extremes of the animal that were visible. I have looked at a vessel at about 
the same distance, and could distinctly see forty-five feet. If he should be taken, I 
have no doubt that his length would be found seventy feet, at least, and I should not 
be surprised if he should be found one hundred feet long. When I saw him I was 
standing on an eminence on the sea-shore, elevated about thirty feet above the surface 
of the water, and the sea was smooth. If I saw his head I could not distinguish it 
from his body, though there were sea-faring men near me who said they could 
distinctly see his head. I believe they spoke truth, but not having been much 
accustomed to look through a glass, I was not so fortunate. 

I never saw more than seven or eight distinct portions of him above the water at 
any one time, and he appeared rough, though I suppose this appearance was pro- 
duced by his motion. When he disappeared he apparently sank directly down like 
a rock. Capt. Beach has been in Boston for a week past, and I am informed that he 
is stili there. An engraving from his drawing of the serpent has been or is now 
making in Boston, but I have not been able to ascertain how far his drawing is 
thought a correct representation. 

It will be observed that Mr. Nash speaks as if there were no 
doubt as to the existence of the mysterious stranger. And a 
contemporaneous account, like his, is generally by far the most 
satisfactory ; because when one undertakes to describe what he 
saw many years before, the distance of time and the unconscious 
mingling of circumstances may, unless great care is exercised 
and the mind remains perfectly clear, however honest, give a 
false coloring. Very aged people, in looking back upon events 
of their childhood, are proverbially prone to take up the magni- 
fying glass ; and being less liable than contemporaneous narrators 



Miscellaneous Notes. 243 

to be confronted by living witnesses, if they err, are free from 
some of the restraints that lie outside of conscience. 

It is not improbalDle that this supposed representative of a 
tribe that existed in ages long past, if he has the temerity to 
continue his visits to our coast, may yet be captured, and the 
agitating questions concerning him settled. 



Major General Whiting. Rev. Mr. Whiting, the second 
minister of the first church of Lynn, and his descendants have 
been under notice several times in our pages. And it is perhaps 
well to add that Major General Whiting, of the Confederate 
army, in the great civil war, who was considered, next to Beau- 
regard, the ablest officer in their engineer department, was a son 
of Col. John Whiting, and a lineal descendant from our venerated 
minister. In 1839 he graduated from the Public Latin School 
at Boston, and at West Point took the foremost rank in the 
engineer corps. He was in charge of the fortifications near 
Savannah, about the time the war broke out, was taken prisoner 
while in command of the Confederate forces at the mouth of Cape 
Fear river, and died while a prisoner in New York harbor. He 
is represented to have been a man of rare accomplishments. 

It is not to be doubted that many of those who espoused the 
Confederate cause, sincerely believed they were acting the part 
of true patriots, though it is difficult to understand how some 
of the intelligent and humane leaders could have brought their 
minds to approve of a part at least of the principles contended 
for — especially those relating to slavery. They must have been 
Jaboring under a sort of self-delusion, as it cannot be supposed 
they acted without any systematic view of duty or right. Such 
a man as General Whiting is represented to have been, so un- 
disturbed by ambition or selfish aspiration, appears entirely out 
of place among those companions in the finally "lost cause," 
who, destitute of the higher principles that should regulate human 
conduct, were governed by insatiable thirst for political advance- 
ment or self-aggrandizement. 

If it were desirable to present a character in set-off to the 
individual who is the subject of this notice, we should refer to his 
no less prominent kinsman, the Hon. William Whiting, late 
of Boston, by whom the Whiting shaft in our Old Burying Ground 



244 Miscellaneous Notes. 

was erected. He was as ardent a supporter of the Union cause 
as the other was of the Confederate ; wa^ Solicitor of the War 
Department, at Washington, from 1862 to 1865, performing the 
arduous duties with a zeal and fidelity that elicited the highest 
commendation, and by his writings — particularly those on the 
"War Powers under the Constitution of the United States," — 
materially strengthening the hands of the government. He was 
a descendant, of the seventh generation, from our beloved old 
minister, was born in 181 3, graduated at Harvard, in 1833, was 
admitted to the bar of Massachusetts and the United States 
Courts in 1838, was a Presidential Elector in 1868, and Repre- 
sentative of the Boston District in the Forty-third Congress. 
He took great interest in historical studies, was President of the 
New England Historic-Genealogical Society, and author of the 
highly-appreciated " Memoir of Rev. Samuel Whiting, D. D., and 
of his wife Elizabeth St. John," a beautiful volume of 334 pages, 
a copy of which the writer procured for our Public Library. He 
died a few years since. 



Point of Pines — or Pines Point, or simply The Pines, as 
the former and familiar names were — is the easterly section, 
without any definitely marked boundaries, of old Chelsea (now 
Revere) Beach. Though in the adjoining county of Suffolk, it 
seems rather to be a mere territorial outpost of ancient Lynn. 
This beach was always beautiful, but in former years not much 
visited excepting by those who went with rickety cart and stum- 
bling dobbin to gather of the abundant up-castings of the sea, to 
enrich their farm lands ; and excepting, also, that in the warm 
season a rough sort of pic-nic party sometimes went over in boats 
or down in wagons to have a jolly time over their fish chowder, 
fried clams, and boiled lobster, washed down by the exhilarating 
drinks of the day. 

The land hereabout was of little value, for it could be turned 
to few profitable uses. A friend of the writer once refused to 
purchase a tract of several acres when the whole was offered for 
a hundred and fifty dollars. There was, however, many years 
ago a sort of public house, where scant accommodations could be 
had ; a house not sustaining the most unblemished reputation, 
but perhaps quite as good as is usually found in retired places near 



Miscellaneous Notes. 245 

large cities ; but even that induced the visits of some who could 
appreciate the beauties of the place and perhaps see that in the 
future it would become of note. In later years one or two houses 
of greater pretension and better reputation appeared ; but the 
patronage was limited and the appointments not of the most 
genteel order. The road that led to the Point was round-about 
and in some places rough and exposed. There was little to 
attract the sportsman, or the shore fisherman ; neither was there 
much to be found among the sands and pebbles to interest 
the naturalist or curiosity seeker. Yet there seemed a tendency 
by degrees to recognise the Beach as a place for summer resort. 

But when the "Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Rail-road" was 
built, in 1875, the whole region was opened up at once, as it were, 
to the light of day — the day of speculation, most certainly — and to 
the notice of people of refinement, as well as to fashionable pleasure 
seekers. Very rapid was the increase in the price of lands ; 
for which there can be little wonder, as the whole vicinity — the 
Revere and Chelsea hills, and the lawn-like levels — furnish some 
of the most charming views and salubrious airs that are to be 
found on the New England coast. And it can hardly be doubted 
that this well-favored region, with its wholesome breezes, bathing 
facilities, ease of access and befitting accommodations for all 
classes of visitors, will soon take rank as a most popular water- 
ing place. 

The Point of Pines, with its groves and its spacious and 
tasty architectural erections, now presents a remarkably pictur- 
esque appearance as viewed from the heights of Lynn. And 
when at evening the grounds are aglow with the brilliant electric 
lights, sharply defining the swaying branches and lightly gilding 
the ocean swells, and the capacious houses are illuminated, story 
above story, the scene is very striking — almost fairy like when 
is added the softened music of the band floating over the inter- 
vening waters. 

And in this we see what wonderful changes may suddenly, 
and as it were incidentally, take place by the accomplishment 
of some shrewdly conceived " public improvement," like the 
building of a small piece of road. And there are other places in 
our favored neighborhood fully as capable as that in question, of 
being brought into similar notice and made equally remunerative. 



246 Miscellaneous Notes. 

Historic Tea. In our Annals, under date 1773, the destruc- 
tion of the tea, in Boston harbor, is spoken of. And in connec- 
tion it may be stated that at the National Sailors' Fair, held in 
Boston, in November, 1864, Mrs. E. N. Cheever contributed some 
of the tea from one of the fated chests. It was taken from the 
shoe of Ezekiel Cheever, of Saugus, one of the persons engaged 
in the destruction of the cargoes. He had stopped on his way 
home, at the house of Col. Abijah Cheever, in Saugus, where it 
was emptied from his shoe, and preserved. 



Resources and Supplies. The ocean has always proved a 
hospitable friend to the people of Lynn, and they may well 
praise the sagacity of the shrewd forefathers who cast their 
destinies here upon its pleasant borders. It has yielded a great 
variety of fish, and a store of rich dressing for the arable lands. 
To the indigent settler it was a never failing source of supply in 
the days of greatest need ; and to this day there has never been 
a time when the destitute could not resort to the lobster-rocks, 
the eel-beds, or the clam-banks, for a wholesome repast ; to say 
nothing of the cod, haddock, mackerel, and other finny varieties 
that abound upon our coast, nor of the shoals of alewives that 
occasionally appear in the streams that flow by some of our very 
doors. When we read of the destitution that season after season 
prevailed in some of the more inland settlements, of their some- 
times reaching the very verge of starvation, we are led most fully 
to realize the benefits of our position. 

At no period, during her whole history, has Lynn been com- 
pelled to call on her neighbors for assistance, though she has 
many times extended a helping hand to calls from others. It 
has often been a matter of wonder, that the early settlers in 
various parts of the old colony, should ever have found themselves 
in such straits for food as we read of their occasionally having been, 
for none of them were very far from the sea. It seems as if there 
must have been some sort of improvidence or lack of skillful 
management somewhere. But we are not to judge them, and 
probably do not fully understand the difficulties by which they 
were encompassed. 

The extraordinary fecundity of some of the smaller kinds 
offish is well attested. That the milt of a single cod "contains 



Miscellaneous Notes. 247 

more animals than there are men on the earth," we are not 
prepared to dispute — certainly not from any actual enumeration ; 
nor would we undertake to deny that were it not for the gor- 
mandising propensities of the larger corsairs of the deep the 
smaller would so increase that ships would be obstructed in 
their movements ; yet we are prepared to sa}' that some kinds, 
once abundant hereabout have almost entirely disappeared — 
salmon, shad, and bass, for instance. As to shell-fish : the clam 
is yet measurably abundant, though the population is so rapidly 
increasing that his admirers are already beginning to fear great 
scarcity ; sixty years ago ten or twelve cents was a fair price for 
half a bushel. And as to lobsters, though large numbers are 
yet every year taken, about the rocks of Nahant and Swampscott, 
and out in deeper water, their haunts are so unceasingly invaded 
that even their graceful forms and sunny tempers, without the 
intervention of the strong arm of the law could not save them 
from apprehended extinction. Our present laws, with their rather 
severe penalties may succeed in affording future generations a 
taste of the delicate meat. 

Eels do not seem to elicit the tender sympathies of people, as 
do some of their companions of the shoals ; perhaps because 
they have the misfortune to so resemble snakes. They yet bed, 
in large numbers, in Saugus river and other places where soft, 
muddy bottoms are found, and in winter especially furnish to their 
captors many a savory meal. Tons of them were formerly taken, 
every winter, in the river alone. And the grim old iron workers 
had there a well-improved harvest field. 

The sportive little " nippers," are much less abundant about 
the rocks of Nahant, than formerly, if the testimony of the pretty 
amateur fishers who so unskillfully cast their lines is to be taken 
as conclusive. 

But we thankfully reiterate that the yielding sea has always 
proved a liberal friend to Lynn. Lynn, however, has likewise 
proved a friend to herself Our people have never been given to 
moroseness, or complaining. In the outset there was no aspira- 
ration for things too high ; and we have ever remained an industri- 
ous, working people — a people not unduly prone to speculative 
and haphazard enterprises. These habits, early established, 
have stood us in good stead, through the mutations of all our 



248 Miscellaneous Notes. 

country's history, often saving from the disasters which ever 
attend fast living, whether in the individual or the community. 

Not having devoted her energies to employments such as 
sometimes result in the accumulation of great individual wealth, 
thereby creating withering social distinctions, Lynn has been 
remarkably free from the mischiefs, annoyances, and discomforts 
which always, in small communities, arise from class distinctions. 
What care we, if in former years some of our amiable neighbors 
affected to look down upon us as a community of humble plod- 
ders — what care we, now that we have, by our small gains, our 
industry and frugal habits, left them in the rear ? We would 
not, however, assume a boastful tone, though it somehow does 
seem as if good example should not always be veiled. 

Our esteemed neighbors, Salem and Marblehead, for instance, 
have hitherto directed their attention to pursuits widely differing 
from our own, and the results h^ve differed accordingly. The 
commerce of the one and the fisheries of the other, with the 
attendant West India trade, have decayed, and they have already 
resorted to other employments more likely to ensure the perma- 
nence of the thrift they so well deserve ; some of which employ- 
ments are akin to the once disdained business of Lynn — shoe 
manufacturing. But the good they have done the nation is not 
to be counterbalanced by any local hindrances. They long since 
opened sources of traffic which have added immensely to the 
prosperity of the country, and raised her name abroad. In this, 
it must be admitted, they are entitled to rank above ourselves. 

The New England fisheries, especially, were early looked upon 
by the British government with favor, though the later Naviga- 
tion Laws of the kingdom greatly interfered with their success. 
They were really important training schools for the supply of the 
commercial and naval marine of the father land. And finally, 
when the exigencies of the Revolution demanded the most hardy, 
skillful, and brave, forN the manning of her little navy, the eye 
of the nation was confidently turned, and turned with eminent 
success, to those robust wayfarers of the sea. 

Such differences in the early economy of neighboring settle- 
ments should be kept in mind, if one is curious to trace the 
causes of social distinctions, and the cause of the high or low 
name a given place may receive. And they furnish, too, abun- 



Miscellaneous Notes. 249 

dant reason for the repression of any feeling of sectional pride. 
Yet we must maintain that old Lynn has been a favored place, 
favored in the high scriptural sense of being oppressed neither 
by poverty nor riches. 



Ancient Documents. Two or three years ago, Mr. James 
W. Webber, of Lowell street, in repairing a piece of old furniture, 
found, pressed in back of a drawer from which they had evidently 
fallen, two or three old, time-stained papers. Instead of burning 
them, as many would have done, he kindly handed them to the 
writer, to whom one at least proved of much interest, as it was a 
receipt written by an ancestor, a specimen of whose handwriting 
he had long desired to possess. 

Another, was the quaint public document that follows in which 
many who are interested in our local history, will recognize some 
old, familiar names : 

Essex, ss. To Joseph Newhall, Constable, In Lynn, March 3d, 1755, 

Greeting : 
In his majesties name you are Required to warn the Several Persons here 
after named, to attend att the house of Benjamin Bowdens on friday next, at two 
of the Clock in the afternoon, in order to take the oath to there office thay wair 
Chose to Serve in, this Day, and make Return of this your Doings, fail not. 
By order of the Select men. 



Nathaniel Bancroft, 

Survar of high ways, Tithen man also. 
Amos & Joseph newhalls, 

fence viuer. 
David Gowan, Jur. & 
Abraham welman 



Joseph Fuller, town Clerk. 



J hog 



The document is labelled, " 1755. A warrant to warn Town 
officers." And on the back, besides the imperfect return, ap- 
pears this record : " At a meeting of the Select men, April 7, 
1755, apinted Locker newhall, hog Reeve and Joseph Skinner, 
hog Reeve." This " Locker newhall," was the father of the 
noted Landlord Jacob Newhall, who, during the Revolution, kept 
the famous old Anchor Tavern — at that time under another 
name — on the Boston road, in what is now East Saugus. The 
Joseph Fuller, who was Town Clerk, was chosen to the office 
that year, 1755, succeeding his kinsman John Fuller. The 
Fullers were farmers, and the family seat was at the westerly 
end of Waterhill, the present Cottage street running through 



250 MlSCELLAIsTEOUS NOTES. 

a part of what was their noble orchard. It was here, too, that 
an ancient Indian encampment is supposed to have existed, as 
arrow-heads and implements used by the red men have been found. 
Hon. Joseph Fuller, the first State Senator from Lynn, [18 12] 
and a Representative for six years, likewise [18 14] first President 
of the Mechanics — now the First National — Bank, was of the 
old Fuller line, and born on that salubrious spot. Maria Augusta 
Fuller, the poetess, was a daughter of his. 

Speaking of the old document here copied, which is not of 
value excepting as a mere curiosity, leads to the remark that 
such chance-findings sometimes prove of exceeding importance. 
And if those who come across them, and to whom they are of no 
interest, would take the trouble to hand them to some one who 
is in the way to understand their worth, a good end might often 
be subserved. 



First Sermon. It has been stated in various publications 
that Rev. Mr. Phillips, of Lynn, preached the first sermon ever 
delivered in Waldo county, Maine. The Phillips family was early 
known in Lynn ; but there was no settled minister of the name. 
They appear to have at first located in Swampscott, where 
descendants yet remain, though they were soon found in various 
parts of the town. They were generally a thrifty, enterprising 
people. The reverend gentleman referred to may have been a 
resident minister though not parochially settled. 

The sermon alluded to was a funeral discourse on the death of 
General Samuel Waldo, who died on the 23d of May, 1759, 
at the age of 63. He was a distinguished officer, and a native 
of Boston, though a resident of Maine ; was a Brigadier General 
at the capture of Louisburg, in 1745, owned extensive tracts on 
the Penobscot, and had made several voyages to the old country. 
In Drake's Biographical Dictionary, it is said: "There were 
remarkable coincidences between his life and that of his friend 
Sir William Pepperell. They lived in Maine, and were rich 
bachelors ; they were councillors together ; they commanded 
regiments, and were together at Louisburg ; they passed a year 
together in England ; were born the same year ; and died nearly 
at the same time." Mr. Phillips certainly had a good subject 
for an eloquent and pathetic discourse. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 251 

The Hills of Lynn. Whoever has had an opportunity to 
range about the woody, rock-bound hills that skirt along our 
northern border, cannot have failed to perceive that we are sur- 
rounded by some of nature's most charming scenery. And 
the hills themselves, when viewed from the town, present features 
of romantic interest. Some slight idea of their appearance may 
be obtained from the little picture on page 224, of the present 
volume. Yet they appear, when seen from the water or from 
the shore-ward levels, of greater height than actual measurement 
determines. In the picture, the highest point, Reservoir Hill, is 
shown. And the following table gives the height of that and 
several other points within the old town limits, in feet : 



Reservoir Hill, 224 

Dungeon Hills, .... 200 

High Rock, 170 

Sadler's Rock 166 



Lover's Leap, 133 

Egg Rock 86 

Sagamore Hill, .... 66 

Bailey's Hill, (Nahant) . . 63 



History of Lynn. The first edition of the History of Lynn 
appeared in four numbers, in 1829. The next edition was issued 
in 1844, ^^ ths form of an octavo of 278 pages. These were by 
Mr. Lewis, who died on the twenty-first of January, 1861. In 
1865 appeared the edition bearing the imprint of that year. 
This was a volume of 620 octavo pages, and is the one so many 
times referred to in the present work as the " 1865 edition of the 
History of Lynn," and which contains the " Annals," from the 
time the settlement commenced, in 1629 down to the close 
of 1864. It embraced the whole of Mr. Lewis's work, with addi- 
tions and a continuation down to the time of its publication, by 
James R. Newhall. The volume now in the reader's hands, and 
which is by the individual last named, takes up the " Annals " 
where the 1865 edition left them, and continues on to 1882, with 
the addition of many pages of historical matter relating to de- 
tached topics. 

It will be perceived that Mr. Lewis's contribution was not 
very great, if only the number of pages is taken into view. But 
when his arduous labors in collecting in so new a field, his care- 
fulness, and the rich suggestiveness of his pages are considered, 
all wonder at the high praise bestowed on him ceases. And it 
is a matter of keen regret that his labors were confined to so 
limited a sphere as a single town. He did, indeed, many years 



252 Miscellaneous Notes. 

ago, propose preparing a history of Boston, which would in some 
sense have been a history of the whole State, or indeed of all 
New England. And why he failed to execute his purpose is not 
known. Some very worthy people manifested a deep interest in 
his plan ; but perhaps the pecuniary aid was lacking, for it is as 
generally true that those whose energies are devoted to nourish- 
ing the purse have little regard for the nourishment of the mind, 
as that those who minister to the mind neglect the purse. Mr. 
Drake, in the preface to his History of Boston, published in 1856, 
very kindly says that if Mr. Lewis had written a history of that 
city, there would have been no need of his own work. 



Discomforts of Travel. It is well known that along in 
the latter part of the last century and the early part of the present, 
the few shoe-manufacturers whose trade extended beyond Boston, 
were subjected to hardships and discomforts of which the manu- 
facturers of this day know nothing ; not the least of which were 
their tedious journeys to New York and places farther south, to 
dispose of their shoes and collect, or try to collect, their dues. 
The writer has heard good old Col. Brimblecom, whose manufac- 
tory and dwelling were on the lonely Turnpike near the Franklin 
street crossing, and who died in 1850, describe some of his 
expeditions in a manner to which it was doubtful whether laugh- 
ter or tears were most appropriate. 

In the early part of this century President Quincy, who was 
wooing the fair lady of New York who afterwards became his 
wife, speaks thus feelingly of the difficulties that beset his way : 
" The carriages were old and the shackling and much of the 
harness made of ropes. One pair of horses carried us eighteen 
miles. We generally reached our resting place for the night, 
if no accident intervened, at ten o'clock, and after a frugal supper, 
went to bed with a notice that we should be called at three, next 
morning — which generally proved to be half past two. Then, 
whether it snowed or rained, the traveller must rise and make 
ready by the help of a horn lantern and a farthing candle, and 
proceed on his way, over bad roads, sometimes with a driver 
showing no doubtful symptoms of drunkenness, which good 
hearted passengers never failed to improve at every stopping 
place, by urging upon him the comfort of another glass of toddy. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 253 

Thus we travelled eighteen miles a stage, sometimes obliged to 
get out and help the coachman lift the coach out of a quagmire 
or rut, and arriving in New York after a week's hard travelling, 
[from Boston] wondering at the ease as well as the expedition 
with which our journey was effected." Of course all the difficul- 
ties and disasters of the way were compensated for by the happy 
termination of the wooing. But the poor shoe-manufacturer 
was too often compelled to travel the route with misgivings that 
were not to be thus satisfactorily relieved. 

Perplexities and Duties of Authorship. In the Preface 
to the 1865 editon of our History, a word is said about the labor 
and perplexity attending the preparation of a work for the press, 
especially one in which a multitude of dates and facts appear. 
Dr. Livingstone, in the preface to his South African Researches 
says : " Those who have never carried a book through the press 
can form no idea of the amount of toil it involves." The toil, 
however, is not so great as the anxiety a careful author must 
feel to have his statements correct. Dates and facts are not 
always so readily obtained as the inexperienced may imagine. 
We remember that once, after a fruitless search for a certain date 
the thought occurred that it might be found on a grave-stone in 
the Old Burying Ground. The printer's call for " copy " was 
imperative ; and so, on a dreary winter night, borrowing a 
lantern of the undertaker and receiving his comforting caution 
to beware lest a bullet, intended by some wary watchman for a 
body-snatcher, should suddenly put a period to the search, we 
entered the ground, found the stone, and after scraping away 
the snow, were rewarded by finding the object searched for. 
This is given only as an illustration of what is often necessary 
to ensure accuracy, and to bespeak indulgence for trifling errors. 

In the Preface first mentioned, too, a word is said about the 
redundant, inappropriate, and often ridiculous use of titles in 
which we Americans indulge. The writer has been somewhat 
sparing in the use of the titular pepper-box, believing that such 
free application of nominal distinctions seldom adds to the dignity 
of a name, though sometimes useful for identification. Horace 
Smith defines "Esquire" as "a title very much in use by vulgar 
people." But on this subject nothing further need be said here. 



254 Miscellaneous Notes. 

Free Public Forest. Glen Lewis. On page 90 of the 
present volume the reader may find a brief account of a " Camp 
Day " of the " Exploring Circle." And to the few remarks there 
made a little something should be added, as the movement has 
now assumed a rather more definite shape. 

The intelligent and public-spirited gentlemen who enlisted in 
the praise-worthy " Free Public Forest" enterprise, soon formed 
themselves into a voluntary association, having in view, briefly, 
the preservation, as far as possible, of the extensive range of forest 
that traverses our northern border, and its devotion to the free 
use of the public, forever — a noble purpose, most surely. 

The association is not a legally incorporated body, but an 
entirely voluntary one, and dependent for its success upon the 
good-will and contributions of the people. Of course, as respon- 
sibilities increase and perplexing questions arise, it may become 
necessary to introduce new features into the organization ; but 
for the present nothing further seems required, as the trustees, 
in whose hands the general management now rests, are of a 
character that cannot fail to command the confidence of their 
fellow-citizens. In time, others, of a different order, may be 
called to occupy their places, and further safeguards become 
necessary. Yet, should any rights be invaded, protection may 
always be found in the courts, for they cannot, if they would, put 
themselves beyond the jurisdiction of at least a court of equity ; 
and as to the present officers, we are sure they would not plant 
themselves outside of the law, if they could, however strong a 
temptation might arise. 

On the thirtieth of May — Memorial Day — 1882, another 
Camp Day was held, far back in the woods, at which the principal 
ceremony was the consecration of Glen Lewis — a wild and 
secluded spot in the extensive tract known as Blood Swamp. 
The ceremonies were of a character similar to those spoken of on 
page 90, before referred to, with the addition of certain features 
appropriate to the leading purpose. The day was pleasant, and 
there, . surrounded by the budding beauties of the season, the 
large company of ladies and gentlemen, youthful and mature, 
passed some very enjoyable hours in witnessing ceremonials 
induced by a warm desire to duly honor the memory of Lynn's- 
esteemed historian and bard. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 255 

Whether any present were actuated by awakened consciences, 
and desired to atone for former neglects, or had any to atone for, 
may not be inquired into here. But it is not to be denied that 
Mr. Lewis, during his life, did not receive from the great body 
of his fellow-citizens the consideration which his talents and 
services merited. His literary efforts, perhaps we should say 
aside from his history, were not duly appreciated ; and the pecu- 
niary returns were meagre. He was keenly alive to the opinions 
of others, and delighted with expressions of approval, especially 
when those expressions appeared in print. And his life would 
have been rendered vastly more happy, if he had received, while 
among us, but a small portion of the praise that has been awarded 
since his decease, and which was justly his due. Posthumous 
acknowledgments are pleasant to the friends of departed ones ; 
but it is doubtful if the departed themselves can be much moved 
by them. 

The writer is not unmindful of his own short-comings, and in 
the biographical sketch in the 1865 edition of the History of 
Lynn, has endeavored to present some of the points of character 
wherein our friend was clearly misunderstood and consequently 
misjudged. That Mr. Lewis, especially in the earlier stages of his 
literary career, was extremely sensitive in matters touching his 
growing fame, and a little jealous of the aspirations of others, 
may not be disputed ; nor can it be disputed that occasionally, 
by some singularly unfortunate assumption, he exposed himself 
as a conspicuous mark for the shafts of criticism. But his appeals 
usually had in them such a measure of good sense and such a 
worthy purpose, that they could be counted as good seed, a little 
unwisely scattered. 

Among other things, with now and then a needlessly tart ex- 
pression, he deprecated the disposition to undervalue the efforts 
of natives. In an "open letter" to the writer, dated October i, 
1833, and addressed through the columns of a Boston paper, he 
says : " I have long observed the disposition prevalent in this 
town, to put down every individual, that was a native of it, who 
possessed any unfortunate tendency to rising. It is a disposition 
that appears to prevail in this town more than in any other, with 
which I am acquainted. Other towns know that the honor of their 
sons is their own, and they conduct accordingly. If they can 



256 Miscellaneous Notes. 

promote the welfare or advancement of an individual, they con- 
sider that an equal amount is added to their own. But it would 
seem as if we acted on a principle exactly different ; for it too 
often happens that they who manifest the greatest degree of 
public spirit, and do the most for the town, fare the worst." 

The foregoing somewhat acidulous sentences it will be no- 
ticed, were written about fifty years ago. And it may not be 
improper to ask if there has been much improvement since. 
The letter was elicited by the only occasion where a disagree- 
ment between Mr. Lewis and the writer culminated in a news- 
paper controversy ; and it is believed the result was in no small 
degree beneficial ; it certainly was to one of us, and perhaps 
to both. The true theory, undoubtedly is, that every community 
should make use of the best talent it possesses, whatever the 
origin ; but a native should not be denied an equal chance, as 
Mr. Lewis seemed to think he often was. And it certainly does, 
in some instances, look as if one native thought there never 
could be a fellow-native equal to a transplanted resident. 

It is not easy to determine whether Mr. Lewis preferred fame 
as a poet or historian. His writings were about as voluminous 
in one department as the other, though it was apparent that 
certain critics did not consider him equally successful in both. 

Many a time have we looked back to the cheerless day on 
which the remains of our friend were conveyed to their last 
resting place, with feelings of deep sadness. The funeral service 
took place on the twenty-third of January, 1861, in the Central 
Congregational Meeting-house, on Silsbee street. It was a 
dreary day, without, though no storm was actually raging ; and 
within, there was little to relieve the dreariness. The house 
was cold, and the sombre exercises quite brief No remarks 
touching the ability, character, or merits of the departed, were 
made ; indeed there was nothing beyond the reading of some 
passages of Scripture, a prayer, and a few strains of sacred mu- 
sic — such an apparently empty service being very uncommon 
in a Congregational place of worship, hereabout, on the occasion 
of a burial, at that period. But the saddest part of the whole 
was the singularly small attendance. And as, in passing out, 
we paused in the porch, almost alone, to take a last look upon 
that manly face, upturned in the casket, we almost fancied that 



Miscellaneous Notes, 257 

the pallid lips would part, and the well-known voice in sorrow 
ask, " Where, now, are all my worthy friends ? " And what 
answer could there be, but the chilling echo, " Where ? " 

That Mr. Lewis's poetic conceptions led him to admire the 
picturesque and beautiful in every department of nature, is true ; 
but it is likewise true that he had his preferences. The drowsy 
silence of the woody glen had its attractions ; but as a retreat in 
which to meditate, he would rather have sought some rocky 
niche by the sea, where the lulling melody of the peaceful, or the 
stern harmony of the storm-tossed, waves, was ceaselessly heard. 
His loved home, against whose very walls the sea murmured its 
matins and vespers, sufficiently evinces this. And by the sea 
would he have had his last resting place, pleading therefor in 
these imploring strains : 

O bury me not in the dark old woods, 

Where the sunbeams never shine ; 
Where mingles the mist of the mountain floods 

With the dew of the dismal pine ! 
But bury me deep by the bright blue sea, 

I have loved in life so well ; 
Where the winds may come to my spirit free. 

And the sound of the ocean shell. 

It is hoped that none of the foregoing remarks will be regarded 
as made without a purpose, or in a captious spirit. The occasion 
of the consecration of the Glen was a highly interesting one, and 
forced upon the writer reflections, some of which, thus expressed, 
may awaken in other minds considerations leading to results 
beneficial to all of us. 



The Mayflower. In the Calendar of British State Papers, 
under date April 12, 1588, is found the following: " Thos. San- 
dyll, Mayor, and Aldermen of King's Lynn, to the Council : 
Pray them to direct letters to the town of Blakeney and other 
members of the port which refused to contribute their share 
towards the furnishing of the ships required. They are willing 
to furnish the Mayflower, of Lynn, of 1 50 tons, and a fine pinnace, 
to join her majesty's fleet." It would probably be esteemed an 
honor, by some of us, to discover a connection, however remote, 
between Lynn and the famed Mayflower ; and hence it may be 
gratifying to have it appear that the vessel here named, was 

17 



258 Miscellaneous Notes. 

the renowned little rover the seas that afterwards brought the 
pilgrims, with their thousands of tons of trumpery to " wild 
New England's shore." King's Lynn, from which our own city 
derived its name, was not, indeed, noted for its puritanical pro- 
clivities, but as "business is business," would no doubt have 
been ready, for a consideration, to enter into negotiations touch- 
ing the emigration had they still owned the favored craft. The 
stated tonnage, though it does not exactly tally, yet comes so 
near that it may well be taken as some evidence of identity. 



First Church Celebration. On the eighth of June, 1882, 
a very interesting celebration took place — the celebration of the 
two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the " First 
Church of Christ in Lynn" — one of the very few churches that 
have remained steadfast in the faith of the New England fathers. 
It was something more than a mere society or denominational 
observance, being one well calculated to enlist the sympathies 
and stir the feelings of all natives of the town, and to interest all 
who have a regard for her prosperity and good name. 

Yet it must be admitted that the attendance on the various 
exercises was not so large as might have been expected, the 
weather, in particular, being propitious. No doubt many forbore 
to suspend their ordinary avocations, in the belief that the good 
things to be said would immediately be published in a form that 
could be perused at any leisure hour. But the absentees lost 
much in failing to witness features that lay beyond the reporter's 
skill. They would have been especially pleased with the air 
of cordiality and Christian fervor that pervaded all the proceed- 
ings. There was, however, a very fair attendance, and that by 
no means confined to members of the society. Among the vis- 
itors from abroad was the Rev. Dr. Henry M. Dexter, one of the 
most prominent of our New England scholars and divines ; an 
accomplished antiquary and author of various works, among 
which is the highly-commended " History of Congregationalism." 
He is a lineal descendant from farmer Thomas Dexter, who 
conspicuously figured in our early history, and for a long time 
kept the town authorities in a disturbed state by persistently 
urging his claim to the whole territory of Nahant, under a 
purchase from the Indian sagamore Poquanum — otherwise called 



Miscellaneous Notes. 259 

Duke William, or Black Will — for a suit of clothes, in 1630. 
As editor of a- leading religious paper, Dr. Dexter has done 
much to defend the ancient " orthodox " faith, against the inroads 
of modern "liberalism." There were also present other conspic- 
uous individuals from abroad, some of whom took part in the 
proceedings. 

The exercises consisted of addresses appropriate to the occa- 
sion, interspersed with sacred music ; the principal address being 
an historical one by the pastor. Rev. Walter Barton. And at 
noon an excellent collation was provided, sufficient for the abun- 
dant supply of all present, who desired to partake. The deco- 
rations, floral and otherwise, were in good taste, and everything 
conspired to make the occasion one most enjoyable and pleasant 
to be remembered. 

The following is a list of the ministers of this venerable parish 
from the commencement of worship here to the present time. 
1632, Stephen Bachiler. 1636, Samuel Whiting. 1637, Thomas 
Cobbet, (colleague.) 1680, Jeremiah Shepard. 1680, Joseph 
Whiting, (colleague.) 1720, Nathaniel Henchman. 1763, John 
Treadwell. 1784, Obadiah Parsons. 1794, Thomas Gushing 
Thacher. 1813, Isaac Hurd. 1818, Otis Rockwood. 1832, Da- 
vid Peabody. 1836, Parsons Cooke. 1865, James M. Whiton. 
1872, Stephen R. Dennen. 1876, Walter Barton. Rev. Joseph 
Cook, who afterwards became noted here and in Europe as a 
lecturer on ethical subjects, was stated minister for some months 
preceding the settlement of Mr. Dennen. 



Protestant Episcopal Worship. There was no Protestant 
Episcopal Church edifice in Lynn, for more than two centuries 
after the settlement began. It was in 18 19 that the first attempt 
to form a Parish was made ; but nothing permanent was effected. 
In 1836, Christ Church Parish was organized, and during the 
following year the modest house of worship on North Common 
street, between Franklin avenue and Hanover street, was conse- 
crated. It is a wooden structure, faithfully represented by the 
engraving appended to this notice. But Christ Church Parish 
did not long sustain itself In 1844, the now flourishing St. 
Stephen's Parish was organized, and continued to worship in the 
old edifice till November, 1881, when the elegant Memorial 



26o 



Miscellaneous Notes. 



Church, on South Common street, was consecrated, and immedi- 
ately occupied. This church, the most costly public building yet 
erected in Lynn, with the exception of the City Hall, was the 
gift of Hon. Enoch Redington Mudge, of whom a notice may be 
found in our Annals, under date 1881 ; and under the same date 
an account of the consecration services appears. 




FIRST PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL, CHURCH IN LYNN. . 
CONSECRATED IN 1837. 

The following is a complete list of the ministers who served 
in this first Episcopal Church in Lynn. 1836, Milton Ward. 
1837, George Waters. 1839, Frederic J. W. Pollard. 1841, 
William A. White, (Lay Reader.) 1844, George D. Wildes. 
1846, Isaac W. Hallam. i860, Edward H. True. 1863, George 
S. Paine. 1865, Gordon M. Bradley. 1868, Benjamin W. Att- 
well. 1870, Edward L. Drown. 1876, Louis DeCormis. 



Ecclesiastical Proceedings. In connection with the two 
next preceding Notes, a few remarks may be made, though it 
can hardly be required to go much into detail, especially in the 
matter of statiskcs, for the carefully prepared works that have 
of late from time to time appeared, give all the necessary infor- 
mation. Yet this is perhaps as suitable a place as any for an 



Miscellaneous ISotes. 261 

observation or two of a historical nature, designed, so far as the)' 
go, to supplement those in our former edition. Lynn, as has 
already appeared, had her share in the ecclesiastical agitations of 
the olden time ; but she came forth from her trials as bright as any. 

Whoever takes pains to examine the court files, will be satisfied 
that there always existed an under-tide of free thought which 
could not be suppressed, however it might be driven to conceal- 
ment by stormy malediction or by the strong arm of the law. 
Enough has been said touching the persecutions of the Quakers 
and Baptists — to say nothing of the antinomian come-outers — 
for their alleged heresies of opinion ; heresies that were the 
natural result of the admitted right of individual interpretation 
of Scripture. " Read your Bible," said the good old father, " and 
whatsoever doctrine you there find, that follow." " I do, by 
God's help, honestly and prayerfully," replies the recusant. " O, 
but you understand and interpret amiss, and cannot be permitted 
to promulgate your poisonous errors," is the rejoinder. The 
jurisdictions of church and state were very closely interwoven in 
the legislative proceedings of our early times ; and hence it has 
been said, the persecutions for deviation in doctrine were simply 
punishments by the civil authorities for breaches of positive law. 
It was, indeed, a time when errors of faith were regarded, all 
over the Christian world, as offences against the state. The 
Inquisition itself turned over to the secular authorities subjects 
for the auto-da-fe. But many of our New England fathers had 
a more rational conception of human rights, and the true princi- 
ples of human government, and might reasonably have been ex- 
pected to avoid those grosser fallacies that elsewhere held sway. 

Most of the present shades of belief can easily be traced. 
And the following instance of the out-cropping of Universalism, 
that singularly enough seems to have passed on to atheism, 
which took place as early as 1684, is a case in point, and is found 
in detail in the county court proceedings : Joseph Gatchell, 
of Marblehead, " not hauing the feare of God before his eyes, 
being instigated by the devill, at the house of Jeremiah Gatchell, 
in discourse ab^ generall Salvation (w'^'^ he s'^ was his beleife) & 
that all men should be saved, being answered that our Saviour 
christ sent forth his disiples and gave them comission to preach 
the Gospell, and that whosoever Repents and believes shall be 



262 Miscellaneous Notes. 

saued ; to which Joseph Gatchell Answered if it be so he was 
an Imperfect saviour and a foole. And this was a yeare agoe 
and somewhat more, as p' the evidences of Elizabeth Gatchell 
and since in the moneth of March last past and at other times 
and places hath uttered seuirall horrid blasphemous speeches 
saying ther was no God devill or hell as in and by their evidences 
may appeare, contrary to the peace of our Souiraigne Lord the 
King his croune and dignity the law of God & of this Jurisdic- 
tion." 

For his utterances Mr. Gatchell was " sentenced to be returned 
from this place to the pillory, to have his head and hand put in, 
have his toung drawn forth out of his mouth and peirct through 
w*** a hott Iron then to be returned to the prison there to 
Remayne until he sattisfye and pay all y^ charges of his tryall 
and ffees of Court w* came to seuen pounds." 

The remark is now often heard that the differences between 
religious denominations are rapidly lessening ; that the old walls 
of partition are crumbling. There can be no doubt that this is, 
in general, quite true. We frequently see Baptists, Methodists, 
Trinitarian and Unitarian Congregationalists, and others, meeting 
on the same platform, shaking hands, and congratulating each 
other on their fraternal nearness. This, though it sometimes 
seems to arise rather from indifference to any religion at all, 
than from true spirituality, is, at least in a social view, an im- 
provement on the old, inflexible ways. 

There are at present in Lynn twenty-five religious societies, 
standing denominationally as follows : 

Methodist, (i African) .... 7 , Protestant Episcopal, I 



Baptist, 5 

Congregational, (Trinitarian) . . 4 

Roman Catholic, 2 

Universalist, 2 



Congregational, (Unitarian) . . i 

Friends' . . . , i 

Second Advent, I 

Christian I 



Rev. Samuel Kertland, who, by request of the Provincial 
Congress, labored with the Indians of the Six Nations, at the 
opening of the Revolution, to induce them to espouse the Ame- 
rican cause, and was to a considerable extent successful, espe- 
cially with the Oneidas, was a direct descendant from Philip 
Kertland, the first Lynn shoemaker. Kertland street, has the 
honor of perpetuating the name. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 263 

Immigration of Rodents. In our Annals, under date 1861, 
appears some account of the famous Nahant Hotel, a huge 
structure, which, after an unsuccessful career of some years, as a 
watering-place hotel, was destroyed by fire on the night of Sep- 
tember 12, of that year. Romantic stories were long current 
about the annual emigration of rats from Lynn, to its hospitable 
precincts. An old resident solemnly affirmed that he had seen 
troops of the gluttonous animals wending their way over the 
beaches towards those luxurious quarters on the opening of the 
season ; asserting, with a positiveness that he seemed to think 
ought to insure belief, that on one occasion he had seen an old 
blind rat with a long straw in his mouth, by which some of the 
younger ones piloted him along. Rats are known to be remark- 
ably sagacious animals, and of extraordinary acuteness of scent. 
Some may have been toled up from their hiding places among 
the rocks ; but travelling over the beaches is quite another thing. 
I'he story, however, is not more wonderful than some other 
stories told of transactions about that celebrated house. 

The oldest portion of this Hotel was built in 1819 ; and by a 
marvelous coincidence — perhaps we should say gracious prov- 
idence — it was hardly finished when the astounding news of the 
first appearance of the sea-serpent in the offing, took the country 
by surprise. 

In the first edition [1829] of the History of Lynn appeared a 
fine engraving of the house as it then stood — picturesque and 
beautiful — with its airy piazzas and sunny surroundings. And 
in the 1865 edition there was an engraving of it as it appeared 
at the time of its destruction, in 1861. The history of this 
noted establishment furnishes some weighty lessons for enter- 
prising landlords to ponder over. 



Defense of Boston. At the building of the fort in Boston 
harbor, in 18 13, some eighty-five of the patriotic men of Lynn 
volunteered to labor on the works, one day. Early in the morn- 
ing they left town, with drum and fife, rode to Winnesimmet 
ferry, and were thence taken by boats to the fortification, where 
they industriously worked during the day, and marched home 
about nine o'clock in the evening, in jolly trim, as might have 
been expected from such an expedition. 



264 Miscellaneous Notes. 

Lynn Post-office. The Post-office was established in 1793, 
the population being then about 2.500 — including Lynnfield. 
Saugus, Swampscott, and Nahant. Ebenezer Breed, a native 
of the section now known as West Lynn, and who was at that 
time a prominent business man in Philadelphia, but who became 
reduced, and died in our alms-house, on the 23d of December, 
1839, at the age of 74, was chiefly instrumental in securing its 
establishment. Previously to that time the Lynn people received 
their mail matter at Boston. It was ten years before the Turn- 
pike was opened, and forty-five before the Rail-road was built, 
Boston street still being the chief avenue of travel and business. 
A biographical notice of Mr. Breed may be found in the 1865 
edition of our History. 

Col. James Robinson was the first post-master. He lived in 
the ancient house, built in or about the year 1700, still standing 
on Boston street at the south-east corner of North Federal, and 
kept the office in a small building near the house. A large 
family of sons and daughters were there born to him, and the 
writer holds occasional correspondence with descendants of his 
now dwelling in widely separated and distant parts of the country, 
where they maintain honorable positions. Like many others 
who in active manhood did much to advance the interests 
of Lynn, he died in indigence and comparative obscurity. 

Col. Robinson was succeeded in the office, in 1802, by his 
brother-in-law, Major Ezra Hitchings, a biographical notice of 
whom the reader may find by turning to page 154 of the present 
volume. He continued the office in its first location, in connec- 
tion with his West India goods and grocery store, for the few 
months he held the position. 

In 1803, Samuel Mulliken became post-master. And the 
Turnpike being opened that year and diverting the travel and 
business from Boston street, he removed the office to the south 
end of Federal street, where, and in the vicinity, it remained till 
the Rail-road was built, at which time it began to move towards 
its present location on Market street, halting for a brief space 
on South Common street, corner of Pleasant. Mr. Mulliken was 
a man of worth, and at one time did a large business in tanning 
and the morocco line. He possessed some occasionally uncom- 
fortable gifts, among which was a notably uncompromising will. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 265 

which sometimes led to untoward consequences. A whimsical 
instance is given in our Annals, under date 1847, where a brief 
notice of him appears. 

The entire line of post-masters is as follows: 1793, James 
Robinson. 1802, Ezra Hitchings. 1803, Samuel Mulliken. 
1807, Elijah Downing. 1808, Jonathan Bacheller. 1829, Jere- 
miah C. Stickney. 1839, Thomas J. Marsh. 1841, Stephen 
Oliver. 1842, Thomas B. Newhall. 1843, Benjamin Mudge. 
1849, Abner Austin. 1853, Jeremiah C. Stickney. 1858, Leo- 
nard B. Usher. 1861, George H. Chase. 1869, John Batchelder. 
1877, John G. B. Adams. 



Lynn Fire Department. The means supplied for protection 
against fire have long been the boast of our people. We have 
hitherto been singularly favored in freedom from such great 
losses by fire as most places of so extended a history as ours have 
suffered ; and well may we fervently pray for a continuance 
of our good fortune. But security will be most certain to result 
from unrelaxed preparation. 

The Department is now well provided with discreet officers 
and alert men, trained horses and approved " machines." There 
are five engines, worked by steam, and a number of chemical 
extinguishers ; several thousand feet of hose, ladders, hooks, 
and all other things necessary for an efificient contest with the 
fiery element. Then we have about the streets 453 tiydrants, 
19 reservoirs, and numerous wells, to say nothing of our brooks 
and ponds, Saugus river, and the Atlantic ocean. 

The number of fire alarms during 1881, was 122. And the 
total loss was ^199.544.50; of which ;^i6i. 877.50 were returned 
by way of insurance. 

As the city year by year becomes more compact, and taller 
buildings and those less isolated are erected in the different neigh- 
borhoods, it is evident that tireless vigilance will be required to 
preserve our traditional immunity. As to the past, we can only 
speak favorably ; and there seems no reason to apprehend that 
in the future we may not have as good a record. There is, 
indeed, an old insurance maxim, declaring that all " wooden " 
towns, and all large towns, must sooner or later have a sweep- 
ing conflagration ; but let no one be disturbed by it, though all 



266 Miscellaneous Notes. 

of us have some tincture of fatalism ; let us rather endeavor to 
show that there may be at least one exception. 

Our authorities have all along been prompt in adopting such 
new measures and procuring such new appliances as promised 
most favorably ; and a policy of that order, in municipal affairs, 
is, notwithstanding all murmuring and discontent, the most 
approved and satisfactory, whatever the result. Why, supposing 
the authorities had refused to procure steamers, or to establish 
the electric alarm, or furnish hydrants — what would have been 
the effect, in many conceivable ways ; on insurance rates, for in 
stance ; to say nothing of comfort and safety .'' Even Boston 
worked the old hand " machines " till within a few years ; but 
it was because nothing better was known. Possibly somewhere 
in the future an invention will be made to supersede the best we 
now have ; and when it comes, undoubtedly it will be welcomed 
by all who are most faithful to our municipal interests. 



Lynn Schools. So many allusions have been all along made 
in our History, in relation to the Schools, their grades and con- 
dition, that nothing more than a remark or two and a brief 
summary can now be desirable. The boast that these primary 
seats of learning, in our day, are far superior to anything known 
in former years, is often heard. But is it exactly so ? They 
are unquestionably superior in costliness, elegance of appoint- 
ment and variety of studies. But are they superior in adaptation 
to existing wants } 

In former years, such studies were pursued as best prepared 
the pupil to meet the requirements of the position he was in 
homely honesty expected to occupy in after life ; not such a 
position as imaginative parental affection might picture. Theie 
is so much knowledge, the possession of which is sure to add to 
■our well-being, that it seems unwise to occupy ourselves in efforts 
to gain that which is of doubtful utility. It has been said that 
all knowledge is useful ; but that must be understood in a limited 
sense ; most certainly all knowledge is not equaHy useful. No 
one can learn everything, as life is not long enough for that ; 
and hence, is it not the part of wisdom to learn as thoroughly as 
may be, that which is indispensable, or sure to be most useful ? 
There is a gray-headed aphorism that speaks of the jack-at-all- 



Miscellaneous Notes. 267 

trades being good at none ; and why not apply the suggestion 
to the departments of learning ? 

Our venerated fathers, practical and shrewd, kept these things 
in view. We their children are more prone to theorise ; more 
charmed with the ideal ; perhaps a little more under fancy's lead. 
But it may be asked, Is not the mind more fully developed and 
strengthened, better disciplined and polished, through these 
modern requirements — are not more extensive, beautiful, and 
ennobling avenues of thought opened through such means ? This 
is a point for the wisest to discuss. And some philosophical 
"exploring circle" may yet discover a way out of the difficulties 
that beset the great educational interest. Every true philanthro- 
pist will pray for the adoption of any course that will make men 
better and happier ; for there yet linger in the world vice and 
misery enough to call for determined warfare with the best 
weapons we can find. 

The studies in our common schools, are however, apparently 
to an injudicious extent, prescribed by statute ; and hence to the 
local supervisors entire freedom of action is not allowed ; but 
there are so many details to be observed, so much care and 
oversight to be exercised, that their sphere of duty is large and 
their labors great. The School Committee is wisely made by 
law, to a considerable extent, an independent board, a board not 
to be controlled by the caprices of any other body, whose line 
of duty may not be expected to embrace special qualifications. 

The full and perspicuous reports made annually by the Com- 
mittee furnish all the information that can be needed by our 
fellow-citizens to understand the condition and requirements 
of the entire educational interest. And a few statistical items 
only need be added here. It is easier for lookers-on to make 
suggestions, perhaps very good in themselves, than to show how 
they can be properly dove-tailed into a system ; but it is yet 
true that useful suggestions may sometimes come from minds 
hardly expected to bear ripened fruit. There seems no reason 
to doubt, that with here and there an exception, those selected 
to supervise our schools are actuated by a sincere desire faithfully 
to perform their responsible duties, and endeavor to adopt the 
best means to accomplish the best ends. 

Number of Schools. The whole number of our Public Schools, 



268 Miscellaneous Notes. 

in 1 88 1, was 64: namely, i High School ; 7 Grammar Schools ; 
55 Primary Schools ; i Evening Drawing School. 

School Houses: These are in number as follows: for High 
School, I ; for Grammar Schools, 7; for Primary Schools, 21 ; 
and there are 7 Primary Schools in Grammar School-houses. 

Teachers. Whole number in day Schools, 118; in evening 
Drawing School, 3. 

Pupils. Number belonging to all the day Schools, between 
the ages of 5 and 1 5 years, 5.516; of the age of 1 5, and upwards, 
400 ; making the pupils in the day Schools, 5.916. 

HigJi School Graduates, June i, 1881, 30. 

Cost of Support. The following extract from the Report of 
the Committee for 1881, sufficiently exhibits the items of expen- 
diture : 

The charge upon the city for the maintenance of its system of public schools has 
been $93,677 17, divided into the following items of expenditure : 

Teachers' salaries, $65,823 79 

School-houses and repairs, 6.042 65 

Apparatus and furniture, 2.058 69 

Care of school-houses, 6.438 78 

Fuel, 5.030 86 

Books and stationery, ....... 5.452 45 

Printing, 1.285 63 

Incidentals, 1-544 32 

Total, $93-677 17 

To grain some knowledge of the increase in our school svstem, 
the reader can refer to the brief summary on page 586 of our 
1865 edition. The number of schools at that time was 48; 
teachers, 59 ; pupils. 4-332. 



Lynn Newspapers. The proximity of Lynn to Boston and 
Salem, may be sufficient to account for our not having had a 
local newspaper before the year 1825. And for forty years after 
that date it can hardly be claimed that we had a permanently 
successful publication, in a pecuniary way, though there were three 
or four that by their ability and usefulness well deserved success. 
But within the last few years a great advance has been made. 
The papers are now much better, as a general thing, and much 
cheaper ; and they have greatly improved in the quality of the 
paper, the printing, and in the mechanical aspect generally ; 
excepting that just now it is the fashion to make such displays 



Miscellaneous Notes. 269 

in the advertising columns that some have the appearance of 
tradesmen's handbills. 

The relative number of readers has increased quite as rapidly 
as anything connected with the business. At the time Mr. 
Lummus published the Mirror, four hundred subscribers were 
thought a goodly number for a country weekly ; and thus it was, 
with here and there an exception, for many years. Indeed 
the great bulk of working people thought they could not afford 
to take a paper ; and it was not difficult after a little experience, 
for a publisher to know on just what individuals to call, with any 
prospect of success, when he set out on his soliciting tours. 
The writer well remembers a conversation with Mr. Lummus, 
during which, in his hyperbolical way, he remarked after this sort : 
Why, I know just who will take a paper ; I can get four hundred 
subscribers for anything I will print ; but I can't get four hundred 
and one — without I will accept a Woodender ; and do you sup- 
pose I would do that .'' His antipathy to the people of Woodend 
would often crop out in that brusk way. Yet it is doubtful whe- 
ther the feeling was not rather feigned than real, for some of his 
best friends and correspondents lived in that section — Mr. 
Lewis and Enoch Curtin, for instance. But his tart declaration 
that if certain persons wanted his paper they would have to 
move out of Woodend to get it, was made while he was actually 
crossing their names from the carrier's list. 

The papers were then published strictly on the subscription 
plan, the purchase of single copies being almost unknown. 

We now [1882] have in Lynn two dailies and four weeklies, 
that circulate their thousands ; and by the ability and industry 
of their conductors deserve the success they enjoy. In addi- 
tion to this home supply, thousands of papers from Boston and 
other places are every day sold in our streets. The Lynn papers 
are at this time as follows : 

Daily Evening Item, established in 1877. 

The Lynn Bee, (daily) established in 1880. 

The Lynn Reporter, (weekly) established in 1854. 

The Lynn Transcj^pt, (weekly) established in 1867. 

The Lynn City Item, (weekly) established in 1876. 

The Lynn Union, (weekly) established as The Lynn Record, in 
1872 — adopting the name of the old Record, of 1830. 



270 Miscellaneous Notes. 

Lynn Hospital. This beneficent institution was incorporated 
in 1880, and after a thorough examination into the merits of 
several proposed locations, early in 1882 the Hathorne estate, so 
called, on Boston street, was purchased as a site for the necessary 
buildings. It is on the southerly side of the street, a few rods 
east of Franklin. The brook which runs from Flax Pond flows 
in front, and in the vicinity rise abrupt woody hills, with here 
and there a towering porphyry cliff; the whole surrounding 
being strikingly picturesque. It is in the quarter known from 
early times as Mansfield's End. Deacon Mansfield's house stood 
on the hospital grounds ; and there, also, one or two other con- 
spicuous individuals of the name resided. And being on the 
principal thoroughfare, some of the most prominent people of the 
town lived in the vicinity. The old mansion standing at the 
time the hospital corporation purchased, was long known as the 
Deacon Farrington house, that dignitary having lived there for 
some years. Long afterwards it was occupied by Capt. John 
White, of the United States navy, who, in addition to his fame 
as a naval commander, gained some reputation as an author. 
Subsequently it was occupied by Rev. Mr. Barlow, second min- 
ister of the Unitarian society, and later still by William Hathorne, 
from whom it took the name of Hathorne house. The estate 
formerly embraced many acres ; and Washington street was- 
extended over a portion. 

In our Annals, under date 1875, ^ " Lynn Hospital " is spoken 
of as having been formally opened on the 31st of March, in the 
Phillips mansion, on Water Hill. The site was airy and pleasant, 
and the institution seemed to be doing much good. But the 
contributions for its support were not sufficient, and its doors 
were soon closed, much to the regret of worthy but not wealthy 
friends. 

Several liberal donations in aid of the funds of the present 
hospital have already been made, the largest of which was by 
John B. Alley — ^10.000. John B. Tolman, an old Lynn printer, 
gave $2,500, in respect of his craftship. And numerous other 
generous contributions have been made, some of hundreds of 
dollars, and thence down even to a few cents. Little tin recep- 
tacles were deposited all about the city, in convenient places,. 
to receive the sanctified mite that even a poor widow might give.. 



Miscellaneous Notes. 271 

Population of Lynn. At this time [1882] the population 
no doubt is a very little above 40.000. The last numbering 
related to June i, 1880; and at that time we had 38.284; — 
males, 18.255 5 females, 20.029. From the first, there has been 
a steady, but not rapid accession. The first recorded census, 
[1765] gave the number of inhabitants as 2.198. In 1800, it was 
2.837. Ii^ 1820,4.515. And for each ten years thereafter, the 
enumeration has stood as follows — Swampscott having been set 
off in 1852, and Nahant in 1853 : 

Years : : : : 183O 184O 185O 1860 187O 1880 

Population : : 6. 1 38 9.367 14-257 I9.083 28.233 38.284 



Streets of Lynn. The number of streets, the present year, 
[1882] is 509, and the lighting is by 313 gas burners and 253 
kerosene lamps. The first paved street was Munroe ; and the 
paving was done during the summer of the year just named, 
the material being dimension granite blocks. It has hitherto 
been an expensive and laborious charge to keep our streets in 
a proper condition, for they are extensive and not in all cases laid 
upon the best bottoms. But yet they have been kept in remark- 
ably good repair, for we have had at hand a supply of serviceable 
material. Our many beautiful drives have long been a source 
of boasting for ourselves and of pleasure for visitors. When 
however, a place has attained a population of forty thousands, 
something more than crushed stone and gravel is needed on the 
constantly used avenues. 



Police Business — Police Court. The number of arrests for 
criminal offences, in 1881, was 1.289; among them, for drunken- 
ness, 771 ; assault and battery, 156; larceny, 89 ; truancy, 30 ; 
profanity, 27; vagrancy, 21 ; breaking and entering, 20; stubborn- 
ness, 16; malicious mischief, 13; violation of liquor law, 12; 
and one or more for almost every other offence known in the 
catalogue of crime. A large portion of the persons arrested 
were examined in the Police Court. 

Down to 1849, all justices of the peace here, had authority to 
try minor cases, civil or criminal. But population having then 
become considerable, it was thought best to have some more 



2/2 Miscellaneous Notes. 

centralized and regular jurisdiction. In pursuance of this view 
the writer headed a petition to the town asking their intercession 
with the legislature for the establishment of a Police Court. The 
matter was favorably acted on, and the Court went into operation 
during that year. It was made a court of record, in 1862. And 
before it are tried the " small cawses," as they were called in 
colonial times, civil and criminal. It has a Standing Justice, 
two Special Justices, and a Clerk. See Annals, 1879. 



Children's Home. In 1881 a two-story wooden building 
was erected on To\yer Hill, and called by the above name — the 
purpose being to provide suitable nurture and education for 
exposed young children, to save them from the stigma of work- 
house life and from the sometimes worse consequences of vicious 
and degraded homes. The house occupies one of the most 
healthy and beautiful sites in all Lynn — airy, and commanding 
charming views. This unpretending institution can hardly fail 
to do a meritorious work, and may be the means not only 
of saving many from lives of degradation and misery, but of 
developing characters that will in a ten-fold degree repay all the 
cost and care that the benevolent enterprise will involve. At 
the opening of the Home, in 1882, some twenty-five children 
were received from the alms-house. 



Statistical Items. As elsewhere remarked, it can hardly 
be necessary to occupy much space with statistical details, as 
the information that is given year by year in our Annals, supplies 
all that will in most cases be desirable. And then, as to the 
management of our municipal affairs : the annual reports from 
the various departments are so full and so accessible, that nothing 
beyond here and there a brief summary can now be needed. Yet, 
in a work of this kind, which in years hence may be looked to for 
information of almost every kind there is scarcely any topic that 
should be passed by in entire silence. The few items that follow 
relate to the year 1881, excepting where otherwise stated. 

Valuation and Taxation. The total valuation of the city was 
^24.992.084, viz: Real Estate, $19,036,008; Personal Estate, 
1^5.956.076. Rate of taxation, 1^17.40 on $1,000. [In 1882 the valu- 
ation was a little lower, and the rate of taxation $21.00 on $1,000.] 



Miscellaneous Notes. 273 

City Debt. Whole debt, ;^2. 208.000.00 ; but by certain assets, 
usual in municipal reckoning, the net amount of the debt was 
$1,646,633.94. 

Appropriations and Expenditures. Whole amount of appropri- 
ations, including certain receipts, $706,591.15. Expenditures, 
;^686. 5 7 1. 45. 

New Buildings. Two hundred and sixty-five buildings were 
erected during the year — 253 of wood, 11 of brick, and one 
of stone. 153 were dwellings. That the frequent removal 
of buildings, for which Lynn has been long noted, is a custom 
still in practice, is shown by the fact that during the year sixty- 
two were started on their travels. 

Number of Polls — 10.990. [In 1882, 11.465.] 

The number of Houses in Lynn, in 1882, was 6.309. The 
number oi Horses, 1.962. The number of Cows, 438. 

Free Public Library. There is, and always has been, a steady 
accession to the number of volumes in this institution, from 
month to month, and, it is believed, a corresponding increase in 
its usefulness. The number of volumes at the close of 1881 was 
30.500 — a very satisfactory growth from the 4000 of 1862. 
Number delivered during the year, 95.927. The largest number 
taken out in one day was on Saturday, March 5, when 972 were 
delivered. 

Pine Grove Cemetery. The number of interments in this 
beautiful burial place, during the year, was 418, which was a 
little more than half of the whole number who died, the other 
burial places receiving the remains of the others. The first inter- 
ment in this cemetery was on Sunday, October 13, 1850, when 
the remains of Harriet Newell, wife of George W. Stocker, were 
laid there. And the whole number of burials there has now 
reached 7.801. 

Vital Statistics. There were 799 deaths in Lynn, during 
1 88 1, of which 153 were by consumption, 59 by pneumonia, 50 
by diphtheria, 39 by cholera infantum, 24 by typhoid fever, and 
6 by scarlet fever. Two hundred and seventy-two of the deceased 
were under the age of five years. 

Marriages. The number of marriages during 1881, was 513. 

Banks — of discount and circulation, 4, with an aggregate 
capital of $1,000,000. Savings banks, 2. 

t8 



274 Miscellaneous Notes. 

City Clerks. In our 1865 edition may be found a list 
of Clerks of the Writs and Town Clerks, extending back to the 
earliest days. It is unnecessary to repeat the list here. But it 
may be convenient for the reader to have by him the names 
of the City Clerks, in the order in which they served. And hav- 
ing at hand engraved fac-similes of their autographs it may not 
be amiss to use them, as they will not require much space, 
although one or two appear in other connections in the present 
volume. 



William Bassett — Served in 1850, '51 and '52. 



Charles Merritt — Served in 1853, '54, '56, '57 and '58. 
John Batchelder — Served in 1855. 

Ephraim a. Ingalls — Served in 1859 and '60. 

Benjamin H. Jones — Served from 1861 to 1875, both inclusive. 





Charles E. Parsons — Elected in 1S76, and yet [1882] in otiice. 

It need not be remarked that the Clerks are elected annually 
by the City Council. And the neatness and accuracy of the 
multifarious records are the best evidence that thus far no 
mistake in the choice has occurred. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE. 



A GOOD Chronological Table is, of itself, a succinct history. 
And the following is inserted without hesitation, on account 
of its unquestionable usefulness, though it was prepared by the 
writer for the Centennial Memorial, in which and in the book 
giving an account of the proceedings on the celebration of our 
Two Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary, it substantially appeared. 
Additions, however, have been made, and occurrences down to 
1882, noted. 

1629. Five families, ciiief among them Edmund Ingalls and his brother Francis, 

arrive and commence the settlement. 

1630. Thomas Newhall born — the first person of European parentage born here. 
Wolves kill several swine belonging to the settlers, September 30. 

Fifty settlers, chiefly farmers, and many of them with families, arrive and 
locate in different parts of the territory. 

163 1. Governor Winthrop passed through the settlement, October 28, and noted 

that the crops were plentiful. 

1632. First Church — fifth in the colony — formed ; Stephen Bachelor, minister. 

1633. A corn mill, the first in the settlement, built on Strawberry brook. 

1634. John Humfrey arrives and settles near Nahant street. 

The settlement sends her first Representative — Capt. Nathaniel Turner — to 

the General Court. 
William Wood, one of the first comers, publishes " New Englands Prospedt.' 
r- 1635. Philip Kertland, the first shoemaker, arrives. 

1637. Name of the settlement changed from Saugus to Lynn. 

At this time there were thirty-seven plows in the colony, most of them in Lynn. 
Settlement of Sandwich commenced by emigrants from Lynn. 

1638. Firstdivision of lands among the inhabitants. 

1639. Ferry established across Saugus river. 

First bridge over Saugus river at Boston street crossing buUt. 

1643. Iron works established near Saugus river ; the first in America. 

1644. Hugh Bert and Samuel Bennett, of Lynn, presented to the grand jury as 

" common sleepers in time of exercise." Both were convicted and fined. 
1646. Lynn made a market town — Tuesday, the lecture day, being market day. 
1658. Dungeon rock alleged to have been rent by an earthquake, entombing alive 

Thomas Veal, the pirate, with treasure. 
(275) 



2/6 Chronological Table. 

1666. A year of disasters. Several die of small po.x. "Divers are slain by light- 
ning." Grasshoppers and caterpillars do much mischief. 

1669. Boniface Burton dies, aged 113 years. 

1671. A year remarkable for storms. A violent snow storm, Jan. 18, with much 
thunder and lightning. 

1680. Dr. Philip Read, the first physician here, complains to the Court of Mrs. 

Margaret Gifford, as a witch. 
The great Newtonian comet appears in November, exciting much alarm. 

1681. The Court allows Lynn to have two licensed public houses. 

1682. Old Tunnel Meeting-house built. 

1686. Indian deed of Lynn given, September 4. 

1687. Thomas Newhall, the first white person born here, dies, in March, aged 57. 

1688. Excitement about Edward Randolph's petition for a grant of all Nahant. 
1692. Great witchcraft excitement. 

1694. A church fast appointed by Rev. Mr. Shepard, July 19, for the arrest of the 
"spiritual plague" of Quakerism. 

1696. Severe winter ; coldest since the settlement commenced ; much suffering. 

1697. Great alarm on account of small pox. 

1706. Second division of lands among the inhabitants. 

1708. A public fast held on account of the ravages of caterpillars and canker worms. 

1716. Extraordinary darkness at noonday, Oct. 21 ; dinner tables lighted. 

1 71 7. Memorable snow storms, Feb. 20 and 24 ; one-story houses buried. 
1719. Northern lights observed for the first time, Dec. 17 ; an alarming display. 
1723. Terrific storm, Feb. 24. The sea came in raging and roaring fearfully. 

First mill on Saugus river, at Boston street crossing, built. 
1726. ;^I3I5 awarded to Nathaniel Potter, for linen manufactured in Lynn. 
1745. Rev. Mr. Whitefield preaches on Lynn Common, creating much excitement. 

1749. Great drought, hot summer, and immense multitudes of grasshoppers. 

1750. John Adam Dagyr, an accomplished shoemaker, arrives. 

1755. Greatest earthquake ever known in New England, occurs Nov. 18. 

A whale, seventy-five feet in length, landed on King's Beach, Dec. 9. 

1759. A bear, weighing 400 pounds, killed in Lynn woods. 

1768. A catamount killed in Lynn woods, by Joseph Williams. 

1770. Potato rot prevails, and canker worms commit great ravages. 

1775, Battle of Lexington, April 19 — five Lynn men killed. 

1776. Twenty-six negro slaves owned in Lynn. 

1780. Memorable dark day. May 19 ; houses lighted as at night. 

1782. Whole number of votes given in Lynn, for governor, 57 ; all but 5 for Hancock. 

1784. Gen. Lafayette passed through Lynn, Oct. 28. receiving enthusiastic plaudits. 

1788. Gen. Washington passed through town, in October, and was afi"ectionately 
greeted by old and young. 

1793. Lynn post-ofiice established, and first kept on Boston street, near Federal. 

1794. On Christmas day, at noon, in the open air, the thermometer stood at 80 deg. 

1795. Ei^'g P^ggy wrecked on Long Beach, Dec. 9, and eleven lives lost. 

1796. The first fire engine for public use purchased. 

1800. Memory of Washington honored ; procession and eulogy, January 13. 

An elephant first exhibited in Lynn. First dancing school opened. 

Manufacture of morocco introduced. 
1803. Boston and Salem Turnpike opened, and Lynn Hotel built. 

A snow storm occurred in May, the fruit trees being then in bloom. 

Miles Shorey and his wife killed by lightning, July 10. 



Chronological Table. 277 

1804. Independence day first celebrated in Lynn. Snow fell in July. 

1805. First Masonic Lodge — Mount Carmel — constituted June lo. 
1808. First law office in Lynn, opened by Benjamin Merrill. 

Great bull fight at Half Way House. Bulls and bull dogs engaged. 

Lynn Artillery chartered, November i8, and allowed two brass field pieces. 

Trapping Lobsters first practised at Swampscott. 

1812. Lynn Light Infantry chartered, June 30. 

1813. Moll Pitcher, the celebrated fortune-teller, dies, April 9, aged 75. 
1814- Lynnfield incorporated as a separate town. 

First Town House built. 
First Bank established. 

181 5. Saugus incorporated as a separate town. 

Terrific southeasterly gale, Sept. 23 ; ocean spray driven several miles inland ; 
fruit on the trees impregnated with salt. 

1816. Great horse trot on the Turnpike, in Lynn, Sept. i ; said to be the first in 

New England. Major Stackpole's " Old Blue " trotted three miles in 
eight minutes and forty-two seconds. 

1817. President Munroe passed through town. 

1819. The great sea-serpent appears off Long Beach. Nahant Hotel built. Alms- 
house at Tower Hill built. 

1824. Gen. Lafayette visits Lynn, Aug. 31, and is enthusiastically welcomed. 

1825. First Lynn newspaper — the Weekly Mirror — issued September 3. 

1826. First Savings Bank incorporated. 

1827. ■ Broad and brilliant night arch, Aug. 28. 

1828. A whale, sixty feet long, cast ashore on Whale Beach, May 2. 

1829. Splendid display of frosted trees, Jan. 10. 

1830. Donald McDonald, a Scotchman, dies in Lynn alms-house, Oct. 4, aged 108. 

He was at the battle of Quebec when Wolfe fell, and at Braddock's defeat. 

1832. First Lynn Directory published by Charles F. Lummus. 

1833. Extraordinary shower of meteors, Nov. 13. 

1837. Surplus United States revenue distributed. Lynn received $14,879, and 

applied it to the payment of the town debt. Saugus received $3,500, and 
appropriated it to the building of a Town Hall. Lynnfield received 
$1,328 29, and applied it to the town debt. 

1838. Eastern Rail-road opened for travel from Boston to Salem, Aug. 28. 

1841. The first picture by the new art known as Daguerreotype, or Photography, 
ever taken in Lynn, was a landscape, taken this year, by James R. Newhall, 
by apparatus imported from France. 
1843. A splended comet ; first appeared about noonday, Feb. i. 

Schooner Thomas wrecked on Long Beach, March 17, five men perishing. 
Breed's Pond formed. Theophilus N. Breed built a dam acrcDss the valley, on 
the northeast of Oak street, flowing some fifty acres, thus forming the 
pond and securing water power for his iron works. 

1846. Mexican war commenced. Lynn furnished twenty volunteers. 
Congress boots began to be manufactured. 

Destructive fire on Water Hill, Aug. 9. Large brick silk-printing establish- 
ment, spice and coffee mill, and two or three smaller buildings destroyed. 

1847. President Polk made a short visit to Lynn, July 5. 

1848. Carriage road over harbor side of Long Beach built. 
Lynn Common fenced. 

George Gray, the hermit, dies, Feb. 28, aged 78. 



2/8 Chronological Table. 

1849. Lynn Police Court established. 
Large emigration to California. 

1850. Lynn adopts the city form of government. 
Pine Grove Cemetery consecrated, July 24. 

Thirteen persons of a pic-nic party from Lynn, drowned in Ljnnfield Pond, 

August 15. 
Ten hour system — that is, ten hours to constitute a day's work — generall 

adopted. Previously the time was indefinite. Bells were rung at 6 p. m. 

1851. On March 18, and April 15, the tide, during violent storms, swept entirely 

over Long Beach. 

Hiram Marble commences the excavation of Dungeon Rock. 
.— 1852. Swampscott incorporated as a separate town. 

Louis Kossuth, the Hungarian exile, is enthusiastically received here. May 6, 

Henry Clay's death noticed ; flags raised at half-mast and bells tolled, July 3 

Funeral services in memory of Daniel Webster, in First Congregational 
meeting-house, Oct. 29, the day of the statesman's burial at Marshfield. 
,-• 1853. Nahant incorporated as a separate town, March 29. 

Prize fight on Lynnfield road, Jan 3 ; parties arrested. 

Illuminating gas first lighted in Lynn, Jan, 13. 

Cars commence running over Saugus Branch Rail-road, Feb. I. 

1855. City Charter so amended as to have the municipal year commence on the 

first Monday of January instead of the first Monday of April. 

1856. Two bald eagles appear on the ice in Lynn harbor, Jan. 17. 

Ezra R. Tebbetts, of Lynn, killed by a snow-slide from a house in Bromfield 

street, Boston, Feb. 12. 
Egg Rock light shown for the first time, Sept. 15. 

1857. Bark Tedesco wrecked at Swampscott, all on board, twelve in number, perish- 

ing, Jan. 18. 
Many small pearls found in muscles at Floating Bridge and Flax ponds. 
Trawl fishing began to be practised this year. 

1858. Telegraphic communication between Lynn and other places established. 
Impromptu Atlantic cable celebration, Aug. 17, on the arrival of Queen Vic- 
toria's message to President Buchanan. 

Blue fish appear in the offing, in large numbers, in early autumn, and are 
supposed to have carried on a successful war against the menhaden, as 
bushels of the latter were picked up dead on the shore. 

Magnificent comet, Donati's, visible in the north-west, in the autumn. 

Catholic Cemetery, St. Mary's, consecrated, Nov. 4. 

1859. British bark Vernon, from Messina, driven ashore on Long Beach, Feb. 2. 

crew saved by life-boat. 

Roman Catholic church, St. Mary's, Ash street, burned. May 28. 

Brilliant display of northern lights ; whole heavens covered, Aug. 28. 

Union street Methodist meeting-house destroyed by fire, Nov. 20. 

Church bells tolled at sunrise, noon and sunset, Dec. 2, in observance of the 
execution of John Brown, at Charlestown, Va. 
i860. Harbor so frozen in January, that persons walked across to Bass Point 

Shoemakers' great strike commenced in February. 

Prince of Wales passed through Lynn, Oct. 20. 

First horse rail-road cars commence running, Nov. 29. 

Market street first lighted by gas, Dec. 7. 
1861. Alonzo Lewis, historian and poet, dies, Jan. 21, aged 66. 



Chronological Table. 279 

1861. A splendid comet suddenly appears, July 2, the tail having actually swept the 

earth, three days before, producing no disturbance, and only a slight 

apparently auroral light in the atmosphere. 
The extensive edifice known as Nahant Hotel, destroyed by fire, Sept. 12. 
Lynn Light Infantry and Lynn City Guards, two full companies, start for the 

seat of the Southern Rebellion, April 16, only four days after the attack 

on Fort Sumter, and but five hours after the arrival of President Lincoln's 

call for troops. 

1862. Lynn Free Public Library opened. 

Enthusiastic war meeting on the Common, on Sunday, Aug. 31 ; church 

services omitted. 
Soldiers' Burial Lot, in Pine Grove Cemetery, laid out. 
Nathan Breed, jr., murdered in his store. Summer street, Dec. 23. 

1863. Extraordinary ravages of caterpillars and canker worms. 

1864. The thermometer rose to 104 degrees in shady places, in Lynn, June 25 ; 

indicating the warmest day, here, of which there had been any record. 
Free delivery of post-office matter begins. 

Great drought and extensive fires in the woods, during the summer. 
First steam fire engine owned by the city, arrives, Aug. 11. 
The Town House burned, Oct. 6, and Joseph Bond, confined in the lockup, 

burned to death. 
Schooner Lion, from Rockland, Me., wrecked on Long Beach, Dec. 10, and 

all on board, six in number, perish. Their cries were heard above the 

roaring of the wind and sea, but they could not be rescued. 

1865. News of the fall of Richmond received, April 3. Great rejoicing — church 

bells rung, buildings illuminated, bonfires kindled. 
News of the assassination of President Lincoln received, April 15. Mourning 

insignia displayed in public buildings and churches. 
Corner stone of City Hall laid, Nov. 28. 

1866. Gen. Sherman passes through Lynn, July 16, and is cordially greeted. 
A meteoric stone falls in Ocean street, in September, 

1867. Terrific snow storm, Jan. 17. 
City Hall dedicated, Nov. 30. 

1868. Memorial Day — called also Decoration Day — observed. May 30. Soldiers' 

graves strewed with flowers. [In 1881 the day was made a legal holiday.] 
Hiram Marble, excavator of Dungeon Rock, dies, Nov. 10, aged 65, having 
pursued his arduous and fruitless labors about 17 years. [His son Edwin 
succeeded him in the work and died at the Rock, Jan. 16. 1880, aged 48, 
without having reached the supposed deposit of gold and jewels.] 
Destructive fire on Market street, Dec. 25. Lyceum Building, P'razier's and 
Bubier's brick blocks destroyed. Whole loss about $300,000. 

1869. Mary J. Hood, a colored woman, dies Jan. 8, aged 104 years and 7 months. 
Another destructive fire on the night of Jan. 25, commencing in the brick 

shoe manufactory of Edwin H. Johnson, in Munroe street, and destroying 

property to the amount of some $170,000. 
On the evening of April 15, there was a magnificent display of beautifully 

tinted aurora borealis, during which a meteor of great brilliancy shot 

across the eastern sky. 
Severe gale on Wednesday afternoon, Sept. 8 ; next in violence to that of Sept, 

23, 181 5. Several small buildings destroyed, and a multitude of trees 

uprooted. More than 400 shade trees prostrated in Lynn. 



28o Chronological Table. 

1869. The old Turnpike from Salem to Boston becomes a public highway this year. 
Sidney B. Pratt dies, Jan. 29, aged 54, leaving by will $10,000 for the benefit 

of the Free Public Library. 

1870. Young Men's Christian Association incorporated, March 31. 
First regatta of Lynn Yacht Club, June 17. 

Land near Central rail-road station sold at $$ per square foot ; the highest 
rate known in Lynn up to this time. 

1871. Rev. Joseph Cook, at the time minister of the First Church, gives a series 

of Sunday evening lectures, in Music Hall, early this year, creating con- 
siderable excitement by his rather sensational denunciations. [He after- 
wards became famous in this country, in Europe, and in other parts of the 
world, by his ethical discourses.] 

Terrible rail-road disaster at Revere, Aug. 26 ; eleven Lynn persons killed. 
Whole number of lives lost, 33 ; number of wounded, about 60. 

Electric fire alarm established. 

President Grant passed through Lynn, Oct. 16. 

William Vennar, alias Brown, murders Mrs. Jones, is pursued, and in his 
further desperate attempts is shot dead, Dec. 16. 

1872. City Hall bell raised to its position in the tower, March 2. 

Meeting of the City Council commemorative of the recent death of Professor 
Morse, inventor of the electric telegraph, April 16. 

S. O. Breed's box factory, at the south end of Commercial street, struck by 
lightning and consumed, Aug. 13. [The summer of this year was remark- 
able for the frequency and severity of its thunder storms.] 

Brick house of worship of First Church, South Common street, dedicated 
Aug. 29. 

Ingalls and Cobbet school houses dedicated. 

Odd Fellows' Hall, Market street, dedicated, Oct. 7. 

Brick and iron station of Eastern Rail-road, Central square, built. 

Singular disease, called epizootic, prevailed among horses during the latter 
part of the autumn. Wheel carriages almost entirely ceased to run, 
excepting as drawn by oxen, dogs, or goats, and sometimes by men. 

Much speculation in real estate ; prices high, and business active. 

Pine Hill Reservoir built. 

1873. Pumping engine at Public Water Works, Walnut street, first put in operation 

Jan. 14. 

English sparrows make their appearance in Lynn — no doubt the progeny 
of those imported into Boston. [Soon declared a nuisance.] 

Soldiers' Monument, Park square, dedicated Sept. 17. 

Grand Masonic parade, Oct. 22. 

Friends' Biennial Conference held here, Nov. 19. 

Birch Pond formed, by running a dam across Birch Brook valley, on the east 
of Walnut street, near Saugus line. 
874. "Lynn Home for Aged Women" incorporated, Feb. 6. 

Grand celebration of St. Patrick's day, in Lynn, March 17, by the Irish organ- 
izations of Essex county. 
1875. Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Rail-road opened for travel, July 22. 

Sea-serpent alleged to have been seen off Egg Rock, in August. 

The General Convention of LTnivcrsalists meet in Lynn, Oct. 20. 

Great depression in business affairs succeed the days of unhealthy prosperity. 
Many tradesmen and merchants fail, and real estate falls greatJy in price. 



Chronological Table, 281 

1875. An unusual number of Tramps — that is, homeless wanderers from place to 

place — appear in Lynn, and receive temporary relief. 

1876. The great World's Exposition, at Philadelphia, marking the centennial year 

of the Republic. Lynn makes a good show of her manufactures, and a 
large number of her people attend the exhibition. 

A fire occurred in Market street, July 26 destroying some $10,000 worth 
of property. 

The destructive Colarado beetle, or potato bug, first appears in Lynn, this year. 

Appropriate observance of the centennial year, July 4. " Centennial Memo- 
rial " published. 

Brick engine house, Federal street, built. 

Benjamin F. Doak dies, Nov. 8, aged 50 years, bequeathing $10,000 for the 
poor of the city. [This legacy is now known as the " Doak Fund."] 

A splendid meteor passed over the city on the evening of Dec. 20. 

1877. Sweetser's four story brick building. Central avenue, with an adjacent building, 

burned, April 7 ; loss about $115,000. 
Extraordinary phosphorescent glow along the shores, in September. 

1878. Successful balloon ascension, July 4, Alderman Aza A. Breed, City Marshal 

Fry, and Mr. Fred Smith, journalist, accompanying the ^ronaut. 
Dennis Kearney, radical agitator and California "sand lot orator," addresses 

a large crowd on the Common, on the evening of Aug. 12. 
Brick fire engine house. Broad street, built. 
Higher temperature in Lynn and vicinity, at midnight, Dec. 2, than in any 

other part of the United States — six degrees higher than in New Orleans, 

La., seven higher than in Savannah, Geo., nine higher than in Charleston, 

S. C, and ten higher than in Jacksonville, Florida. 
Gold held at par, Dec. 17, for the first time in sixteen years ; that is $100 in 

gold were worth just $100 in greenback government notes. The extreme 

of variation was in July, 1864, when $100 in gold were worth $285 in notes. 

1879. The brick house of worship of the First Methodist Society, Park square, 

dedicated, Feb. 27. 
-*■ The newly-invented telephone, comes into use in Lynn, this year. 

Two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the settlement of Lynn, celebrated, 

June 17. [A volume embracing a full account of the proceedings was 

published by order of the City Council.] 
Business begins to become decidedly active after seven years of depression. 
John A. Jackson, designer of the Soldiers' Monument, Park square, died in 

Florence, Italy, in August, aged 54. 
St. Joseph's Cemetery (Catholic) consecrated, Oct. 16. 
Extraordinary occurrence of a perfectly clear sky, all over the United States, 

from the Atlantic to the Pacific, Nov. 4, as reported by the United States 

Signal Corps. 

1880. Hawkes family gathering, July 28 and 29. 

Tubular Wells, Boston street, sunk by the city authorities to gain additional 
water supply ; first pumping from them, Sept. 4. 

The notorious " Morey Letter " appears in the autumn, creating much sen- 
sation throughout the country. 

Beautiful mirage in the bay, Nov. 22. 

1881. Young Men's Christian Association Building, Market street, dedicated, Jan. 17. 
Government weather signals, on High Rock, first .shown, Feb. 23. 

■<— Lynn Hospital incorporated. 



282 Chronological Table. 

1881. The "yellow day," so called, occurred Sept. 6. 
Beautiful celestial phenomena, Sept. 12. 
President Garfield's death announced by the tolling of the church bells at 

midnight, Sept. 19. Memorial services held, Sept. 26. 
Free PubHc Forest Association, or Exploring Circle, formed. 
Hon. Enoch Redington Mudge, donor of St. Stephen's Memorial Church 

dies, Oct. I. 
St. Stephen's Memorial Church consecrated, Nov. 2. 



[As our chapter of Annals closes with 1881, and it seems desirable to take some 
notice of events down as near as possible to the time of publication, the following 
additions are inserted.] 

I 882. 

The winter of 1881 and '82 was rather remarkable for the quantity of snow, and 
the long time the earth remained covered. A storm began on the afternoon of Jan- 
uary 31, during which some eighteen inches fell. And on the next Sunday, Feb. 5, a 
snow storm occurred that was not for many years before exceeded in violence. The 
drifts in some places were for a time insurmountable ; and services at several of the 
principal churches were omitted. 

On the night of Feb. 15, a building on Munroe street, owned by Charles G. Clark, 
together with one or two others, was burned, causing a loss of some $20,000. 

The Grand Army Coliseum, on Summer street, was dedicated March 15, with 
appropriate ceremonies. Its seating capacity is much greater than any other place 
of assembly hitherto erected here. 

On the morning of the 15th of March, just before the time for workmen to assem- 
ble, a terrific steam boiler explosion took place in the rear of the Goodwin last factory, 
in Spring street. The engineer was killed, and several others badly wounded. One 
or two adjacent buildings were much damaged, and a piece of the boiler, weighing 
about 1.500 pounds, was thrown two hundred feet up into the air, and fell in Newhall 
street, seven hundred feet distant. 

A fire occurred on the morning of April 22, at Houghton, Godfrey and Dean's 
paper warehouse. Central avenue, destroying property to the amount of $3,000. 

Electric lights made their appearance here, in the spring. 

At midnight, May 12, according to the weather reports, the thermometer, in Lynn 
and vicinity, reached a lower degree than in any other part of the United States; yet 
it was not so low as to be particularly noticeable. 

Memorial Day, May 30, was observed as usual ; address by Comrade James M. 
Tanner, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Glen Lewis was consecrated, May 30. 

Barnum's " greatest show on earth," visited Lynn, July 22. Some half a score 
of elephants appeared in the street parade. The giant elephant Jumbo and the nursing 
baby elephant were both members of the caravan. Some 25.000 persons attended the 
exhibition, and the amount of money received for admission, reached nearly $11,000. 
The show consisted of a large collection of animals, equestrian, acrobatic, and other 
circus and semi-dramatic performances. It was, no doubt, the grandest and most 
costly show ever in Lynn. 

An explosion of a part of the underground equipment of the Citizens' Steam Heat- 
ing Company, at the corner of Washington and Munroe streets, took place, July 27, 
injuring the street somewhat, and throwing up stones and gravel to the danger 



Chronological Table. 



283 



and fright of persons in the vicinity. And subsequently other explosions took place 
inducing an appeal to the city authorities for protection. 

Nickerson's oil clothing factory, in Swampscott, was burned, August 4. Miss 
Emma Stone, employed in the establishment, lost her life, and the loss of property 
amounted to about $9,000. 

An extraordinary drought prevailed during the latter part of the summer. Most 
of the crops about Lynn were absolutely ruined, the unripe fruit dropped from the 
trees, and much of the shrubbery and many of the trees had the appearance of having 
been exposed to fire blasts. Yet the springs and wells did not indicate any very 
marked deficiency of moisture somewhat below the surface. We had an uncom- 
monly long succession of very warm days, with westerly winds and clear skies. And 
the peculiar effect on vegetation was, no doubt, attributable rather to the burning sun 
than the lack of moisture. The spring was backward by full two weeks, and the 
weather was on the whole anomalous, most of the year. 

The Ocean House, in Swampscott, a summer hotel of considerable note, was 
destroyed by fire, on the evening of September 6. It was a large wooden building, 
six stories in front and five in the rear. The loss was about $65,000. 

In October, the fare to or from Boston was reduced to five cents on all the trains 
of the Narrow-gauge Rail-road, and on a part of those of the PJastern. 

Mayor Lovering was, on the 7th of November, elected a member of the U. S. 
Congress — the second Lynn man ever chosen for that honorable position. 

The morning sky for several weeks in October and November was adorned by a 
splendid comet which rose two or three hours before the sun, in the south-east. A 
very good representation of it, as seen from High Rock is here given. The steeple 
of the Central church, in Silsbee street, is seen on the right of the picture, and 
Phillips's Point, Swampscott, on the left. Astronomers had wonderful stories to tell 
of this comet — its inconceivable speed and partial disruption as if by some collision. 




COMET OK 1882, 
As seen from High Rock, Lynn. 



284 



Tables. 



The foregoing Chronological Table, as elsewhere remarked, 
it is thought will be sufficient for a glimpse at our whole history ; 
and in the present volume nothing more than a mere glance 
at the times anterior to the point at which the 1865 edition 
record closes, could be expected or desired, at least by those 
possessed of a copy of that issue. 

Near the close of that volume are various tables, among which 
are: lists of the surnames of all residents of Lynn from 1629 to 
J 700 — of Assistants and Counsellors — of early Representa- 
tives — of members of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery — 
of soldiers of the Revolution — of members of important Conven- 
tions — of Senators — of Newspapers and Editors — of the suc- 
cessions of Ministers of the various religious societies, &c. 
These, for the most part, are of course omitted here, as the great 
accumulation of names would have required space that could 
perhaps be filled with more interesting matter, inasmuch as 
they can be readily found elsewhere. A few, however, of those 
most commonly useful for reference, will be found in their proper 
connections in these pages ; all of which the reader can easily 
find by referring to the Index. 



PRESIDENTS 

1850. Daniel C. Baker. 

1851. James R. Newhall. 

1852. Edward S. Davis. 

1853. Edward S. Davis. 

1854. Gustavus Attwill. 

1855. Gilbert Havvkes. 

1856. Edward S. Davis. 

1857. Edward S. Davis. 

1858. Edwin Q. Bacheller. 

1859. Nathan Clark. 
i860. Noah Robinson. 

1861. George H. Chase. 

1862. George H. Chase. 

1863. Jesse L. Attwill. 

1864. Jesse L. Attwill. 

1865. Jesse L. Attwill. 

1866. Jesse L. Attwill. 



OF THE COMMON COUNCIL. 



1867. Theodore Attwill. 

1868. Theodore Attwill. 

1869. Nathan M. Ilawkes. 

1870. Nathan M. Hawkes. 

1 87 1. Bowman B. Breed. 

1872. Nathan M. Hawkes. 

1873. Bowman B. Breed, [died.] 
1S73. Ezra Baker, [part of the year.] 

1874. William C. Holder. 

1875. George D. Whittle. 

1876. George T. Newhall. 
1S77. George T. Newhall. 
1S7S. George T. Newhall. 
1S79. Charles E. Kimball. 
iSSo. George C. Neal. 
iSSi. Edward C. Neal. 
1SS2. Charles D. Hollis. 



CONCLUSION. 



A GREAT many individuals who have figured in different periods 
of the history of Lynn have in the present volume been intro- 
duced to the reader ; some of them of characters altogether 
worthy of imitation ; others, perhaps, useful as examples to be 
avoided. It is not unfrequently difficult to determine the ground 
of action in a fellow being — whether it be principle, habit, or 
natural disposition. And many appear to act as if they consid- 
ered this or that virtue or vice theirs by prescription or inheritance. 
A prominent fellow-citizen some time ago, when checked for his 
profanity, replied, with perfect coolness, and an air that indi- 
cated his full belief in the sufficiency of the plea, " Why, my 
grandfather used to swear ; my father used to swear ; and I 
mean to swear." Parental example, certainly, had influence here. 
However, our chief means for judging of men in common life, 
are found in their daily walk ; and if we can discover the tenor 
of the holding there, a reasonably fair estimate can be made. It 
is ardently hoped that in the foregoing pages the attempts to 
elucidate traits, have not been altogether unsuccessful, nor the 
lessons attempted to be enforced, entire failures. The reply 
of Rev. Mr. Mottey, the old Lynnfield minister, to one of his 
complaining parishioners, who called him " odd " was shrewd as 
well as witty : " Yes," said he, " I set out to be a very good man, 
and soon found that I could not be without being very odd." 

" God gives to every man, 
The virtue, temper, understanding, taste. 
That lifts him into hfe, and lets him fall 
Just in the niche he was designed to fill." 

So says the poet ; but observation would pronounce this predes- 
tinarian sentiment more poetic than true ; at least, if it be taken 
in the broad sense that the adjoining lines represent : 

(285) 



286 Conclusion. 

"To the deliverer of an injured land, 

He gives a tongue to enlarge upon, a heart 

To feel, and courage to redress her wrongs. 
To monarchs dignity, to judges sense, 
To artists ingenuity and skill." 

The great body of mankind fall into niches but poorly fitted for 
them, and become entangled among cares and vexations that 
cramp and enervate their very souls 

It is believed that in the foregoing pages, abundant evidence 
will be found that Lynn has produced her full share of worthies 
in the different walks of life. True, perhaps, she is not able to 
number among her children any specially illustrious examples 
in statesmanship, philosophy, or literature ; but on a slightly 
lower level she can firmly stand. The writer has much enjoyed 
the companionship of the genial ones with whom he has trudged 
along the historic way ; and will feel disappointed if the reader 
has not likewise been pleased. It is always a pleasant road that 
is travelled with agreeable companions. 

Here and there suggestions have been made, not always in the 
direct line of narrative, which it is hoped will not appear obtru- 
sive ; at all events, devotion to supposed duty, and innocency 
of purpose, will be the excuse if one seems necessary. Any 
kind of a history ought to embrace something more than a mere 
narration of past events. And when treating of individuals, an 
author's preferences, sympathies, or prejudices, should never lead 
to invidious condemnation nor to such a tender veiling of imper- 
fections as to conceal true characteristics. 

Perhaps the reader may have occasionally noticed in the 
foregoing pages an item which appeared to him to relate in no 
special manner to the history of Lynn. But he will find such 
subservient to the general purpose. It may be asked. What has 
the appearance of a comet, a dark day, or any similar natural 
phenomenon to do with the history of a town .■' — a question 
rather cavilling than comprehensive ; for is it not true, for in- 
stance, that the last comet or eclipse visible here, or the "yellow 
day," belonged as much to Lynn as any other place ? It is often 
as impossible to clearly set forth a matter or elucidate a princi- 
ple, without a seeming divergence for illustration or comparison, 
as it is to gather the rarest flowers without an occasional detour. 



Conclusion. 287 

Nearly fifty years ago, as will be perceived by the date of the 
appended Prospectus, Mr. Lewis and the writer proposed issuing 
a volume of selections from Lynn writers ; and the reason why 
the project was not consummated is not now clearly recollected. 
Attention, however, is here called to the matter, in the hope that 
the "labor of love " will yet be accomplished. If some one 
of the gifted coterie now among us, whose literary electric lights 
are trimmed and burning, would pursue the plan, they would 
perform a work to which in after years they might recur with 
much satisfaction, and for which future generations would be 
thankful — even if they did not receive a commensurate pecuniary 
return. The design was to have nothing appear that was not 
the production of a native ; but that might, of course, be modified 
if deemed expedient. Our prospectus had not been long before 
the public, when the "Boston Book" was announced; and in 
that, very little discrimination as to natives was observed ; indeed 
it almost seemed as if merely passing through the city entitled a 
writer to a place. The Prospectus alluded to, tells its own story, 
and is as follows : 

Wild Flowers and Sea-Shells : Being a Selection from the Writings, Poetical 
and Prosaic, of Natives of Lynn: embracing the whole period of its History, Edited 
by Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall. 
During the period embracing the history of this town, there have from time to 
time appeared among us, our fellow-citizens are all aware, those of either sex, who 
were justly looked upon as endowed with mental qualities far above the ordinary 
standard — those who have shone as stars of the first magnitude in our little commu- 
nity, and who, haply, under more auspicious circumstances, would have been hailed 
as brighter lights to a more extended sphere; — but who have yet passed from 
among us, leaving a few gems only scattered in their path to the tomb, as memorials 
of the peculiar favor of their God; — leaving here a few Flowers gathered from the 
dark glen or the sunny height, and there a little glittering cabinet of Sea-Shells 
gleaned from the romantic shores of their own loved home. 

. It is the object of the editors to gather up these fragments and select from among 
them such as they esteem most worthy of preservation ; adding a series of articles, 
original and select, from the writers of the present day. It is not their aim to gain 
any thing in a pecuniary point of view ; they ask only remuneration for their actual 
expenses, deeming the pleasure of presenting the little volume to their fellow-citizens 
sufficient reward for all their toil. It is believed that the work will also be interesting 
beyond the immediate sphere of its publication, as the interests and sympathies' of this 
town and those around her have ever been most strongly united : — together have they 
toiled through the darkness of by-gone years, and together have they arrived upon the 
sunny lands of prosperity. 

The Prospectus was dated July 15, 1835 J ^^^ the work was 
to have been an i8mo of about 250 pages, at $1 per copy. 



288 Conclusion. 

The facilities for travel have now become so great that almost 
every one, high or low, must have an annual vacation tour. The 
vacation itself, which a few years ago was hardly thought of by 
any save a few of those in the so called upper walks of life, the 
more wealthy and unoccupied, is now deemed almost indispensa- 
ble by every one above the rank of day laborer, who of all others 
would seem most in need of an occasional temporary intermission. 
None will deny that one of the best purposes to which spare 
pecuniary means can be devoted, is travel for the improvement 
of mind or body ; and for reasonable self-gratification, too ; but 
when undertaken for the inferior object of genteel show or vain 
boasting, its usefulness is not apparent. What are balls, and 
banquets, and all such entertainments and revels in comparison 
with right-purposed travel ? And thanks be to those who in- 
vented these modern ways and means which enable us at so 
little expense of time and money to secure the benefit. 

There is the " bridal tour," which every young couple must 
take on being joined by the silken bonds ; and fortunate it may 
be if the first disagreement doesnotarise on the question of where 
and how long it shall be. There is the clergyman's vacation 
tour which the poor parish as well as the rich is expected without a 
murmur to accord and further ; for he must have rest and change 
of scene, although it may happen that the new scene be a niche 
wherein he is providentially detained to preach a few sermons 
at extra pay, or, haply, under the same mysterious ordering, 
become the unforewarned recipient of a call to an improved 
settlement. There, too, is the schoolmaster's vacation and tour. 
Well, the faithful teacher is worthy of consideration and esteem 
though it may be that more hearts swell with joy at his departure 
than at his return. But we need not further particularize. 

Towards Europe the faces of many excursionists are set ; 
the land where, amid the historic scenes, the depositories of art 
and learning, and under the stimulation of buoyant inquietude, 
and renovating airs, the vigor and elasticity of body and mind, 
diminished by the onerous duties of home, may be restored. In 
our Annals under date 1871, it will be found stated that four 
of the Lynn clergymen were then travelling in Europe. But 
the vacation excursion to the old countries is by no means con- 
fined to professional persons or to the wealthy. Lynn every 



Conclusion. 289 

season is largely, and we trust not unfavorably, represented 
abroad by numbers of her comely daughters and manly sons, 
who return refreshed, with sunburnt countenances, rosy descrip- 
tions, and declarations of unbounded satisfaction. 

We have here in Lynn a full share of mutual benefit, benevo- 
lent, sanitary, and temperance organizations, as well as masonic, 
odd fellow and military. Various companies for the supply 
of material wants, we also have, working for the good of the 
people and profit of themselves. Then there are various clubs 
and associations for discussion and social entertainment, of a 
character deserving well of an intelligent and hospitable commu- 
nity. In them assemble the city statists and savants who put 
to rights the great matters of public concern and the smaller 
interest of private life. But whether, if the ghost of Johnson 
should swagger in at a formal club meeting, he would imagine 
himself again in the company of his friends and compeers — 
of Burke, Reynolds, Garrick, Sheridan, " Goldy " the favorite, 
and those other glowing lights of the time, who shed such lustre 
upon statesmanship, legal erudition, literary and art criticism — he 
would be inspired anew, astonished, or diverted, no lesser mind 
than his is competent to determine. 

But after all our boasted privileges, inventions, progress, and 
attainment — after all the revelations in philosophy, science, and 
mechanics — after all our rail-roads, steam-driven machinery, tel- 
egraphs, and electric lights — are there better, wiser, or nobler 
men and women — better rulers, statesmen, or philanthropists — 
better fathers, mothers, or children — than there were in the 
days of yore .'' Why, no, probably not. Mankind preserves 
about the same old average and very likely always will. Yet, to 
come down to our own limited case, there appears reason for 
congratulation in that the great rank and file of the community 
are at this day in a physically better condition than at any for- 
mer period ; better fed, clothed, and sheltered ; better provided 
with the necessaries and conveniences of life. And would it were 
possible to say the same of . all civilized humanity ; yes, and 
likewise of all benighted, barbarous, and savage. 

The ancient history of the land we occupy is a sealed book, never 
probably to be opened ; no research has given any satisfactory 
account of what transpired here, in ages past. The sacred beams 

19 



290 



Conclusion. 



that lighted up the Holy Land — the sombre twilight that glim- 
mered through old Egypt's gloom — the dreamy scintillations 
of the pagan realms — the lustre of the old mythology that so 
adorned the classic lands — shed no radiance here ; no, not even the 
rugged surges of an Ossian's song tell of the achievements of the 
unknown people. The red men had some characteristics now 
found among no other people ; but the race was not one to make 
an impression on the world's destiny ; and so they have passed 
away, leaving scarcely a footprint behind. 

What civilized nation has so little of a past history as ours ? 
We have none of the stirring episodes that so enliven the old 
world chronicles ; no crusaders with their romantic and senti- 
mental bravery ; no knight-errants with their decorative justice 
and ideal honor ; no troubadours with their songs of valor and 
love's enchantments. No, none of these ; our knowledge thus 
far is of stern and hard realities. And are we not still a nation 
without a name — a family of near forty, each separately called, 
but collectively with no name indicating consolidated nationality ? 
In view of the great centralizing achievement of the civil war 
ought we so to remain .-* O, give the nation a name. 

The changes that have been steadily going on since the day 
when the Ingalls brothers and their sturdy companions struck 
the first blows for civilization within these borders, have attained 
to what we now behold — a fair city, with a population we would 
fain believe, as virtuous and as happy as is any where to be 
found. And could those old worthies return to re-traverse the 
hills and plains over which they once trod, haply with mis- 
giving hearts, what would be their feelings. And could the 
few Indians they found here return in their company, what 
mad antics would they display, and what frenzied ejaculations 
and resounding whoops would they utter, as they beheld their 
old trapping thickets and open hunting grounds occupied by 
stately buildings and the flaunting insignia of a life never con- 
ceited of in their wildest dreams. 

But there are some things that in the great cycle of ages do 
not change. The sun, the moon, and the bright retinue of stars 
which looked complacently down upon the land in the far-off days 
of forest silence and shadows, now look down with the same com- 
placency upon our own thronged streets rife with the glittering 



Conclusion. 



291 



appointments of trade, and flanked by shrines for ghostly worship, 
and the worship of mammon as well. And the restless ocean, 
too, rolls up its storm-driven billows against the rocky battle- 
ments with the same wild rhythm that it did when the lonely 
skin-clad red man stood upon the trembling cliff and beheld 
advancing with the coming blasts the misty giants of the spirit 
land. . . . Here we must pause. 

Whether the writer will ever again travel along the historic 
way in the goodly company he has so much enjoyed, cannot now 
be known. The generations have passed on in their silent march 
to the bourn whence none return ; and in the common course 
of events he must soon join them — soon bid an everlasting 
adieu to all here, and lie down with the great company now at rest : 

" That silent company 
Which far outnumbers all upon earth's face." 




FIRST BURYING-GROUND IN LYNN. 



292 



Mayors. 



MAYORS OF LYNN. 

In the Chapter of Biographical Sketches, appear the names 
of all the Mayors of Lynn, from the adoption of the City 
Charter, to 1882, with fac-similes of their signatures. But it is 
so convenient for reference to have them all arranged together, 
with a statement of their terms of office, that they will be here 
given in chronological order. The autographs, too, will be re- 
inserted, as it is believed that the little space required cannot be 
filled in any way more acceptable. 

By the original Charter the municipal year was made to 
commence on the first Monday of April ; but by an amendment 
which took effect in 1855, it was changed to the first Monday 
of January. 




1850 and 1851, George Hood. 




c^c 




1852, Benjamin F. Mudge. 





1853, Daniel C. Baker. 




» ^— ^ 



1854, Thomas P. Richardson, 



Mayors. 



293 






1855, Andrews Breed. 




1856 and 1857, Ezra W. Mudge. 




^-2-2.^/^^ 



1858, William F. Johnson. 




a^ty"^^-^ 



1859 and i860, Edward S. Davis. 



^: 



-/-c^. 



A. /^- 



1 86 1, Hiram N. Breed. 




^ 



1862, '63, '64, and '65, Peter M. Neal. 



294 Mayors. 




1866, 'Gj, and '6^, Roland G. Usher. 






1869 and 1872, James N. Buffum. 
1870 and 1 87 1, Edwin Walden. 
1873, '74, '75, and ''j6, Jacob M. Lewis. 



Oc^n^-T^ K-^CJL^ e^-'^i^ • LyW <L.^t^^CA.^'>--^ 

1877 and 1878, Samuel M. Bubier. 



1879 and 1880, George P. Sanderson. 
1 88 1 and 1882, Henky B. Loveking. 





INDEX. 



Accidents, i8, 20, 34, 36, 44, 47, 58, 64. 

77, 81, 87,88, 128, 162, 171, 175, 188, 278. 
Adams, Benjamin, Rev., 100, 22S ; John, 

232 ; Jotin G. B., 265. 
Aged persons, 24, 28, 30, 54, 126, 276, 277. 
Aged Women's Home, 62, 73. 
Agricultural fairs, Si, 86. 
Alley, Abner, 150; Hugh, 100, loi ; 

John, 100, loi ; John B., 25, 72, loi, 

270; Mark, 150; Solomon, loi ; the 

Alley family, loi. 
Ames, Daniel, 18. 

Ancient buildings, 146, 153, 170, 224. 
Ancient documents. See Depositions, etc. 
Andrews, Alfred, 145 ; Stephen H., 33. 
Anecdotes, 51, 99, 102, 122, 127, 129, 

131, 136, 140, 147, 155, 171, 174. 196. 

198, 201, 203, 206, 210, 217, 227, 231, 

253. 285. 
Ann, (Queen) 227. 
Annesley, Elizabeth, 226 ; Samuel, Dr., 

226. 
Anniversary celebrations. See Celebra- 
tions. 
Antiques and horribles, 32, 237. 
Appropriations and expenditures, city, 

for 188 1, 273. 
Armitage, Godfrey, 103, 105, (106, auto- 
graph) 107 ; Joseph, loi, 102, 103, 104, 

105, 107 ; Thomas, 103. 
Armitage petition, 105. 
Arnold, George, 130. 
Artillery, Lynn, 277. 
Attwill, Benjamin W., Rev., 260 ; Gus- 

tavus, 284 ; Jesse L., 284 ; Theodore, 

108, 284. 

(295) 



Aurora borealis. See Natural Phenom- 
ena. 
Austin, Abner, 265. 
Authorship, its duties and perplexities, 

253- 
Autographs : 

Armitage, Godfrey, 106. 

Axey, James, 106. 

Baker, Daniel C, in. 

Baker, Edward, 106. 

Bassett, William, 112. 

Batchelder, John, 274. 

Breed, Allen, xi6. 
" Andrews, 118. 
" Ebenezer, 119. 
" Hiram N., 120. 

Bridges, Robert, 106. 

Brown, Nicholas, 106. 

Bubier, Samuel M., 124. 

Buffum, James N., 125. 

Burrill, George, 125. 
" John, 126. 

Burton, Boniface, 106. 

Cicily alias Su George, 16. 

Gobbet, Thomas, 106. 

Cowdry, William, 106. 

Davis, Edward S., 132. 

Dexter, Thomas, 133. 

Doolittle, John, 106. 

Driver, Robert, 106. 

Eames, Henry, 106. 

Fitz, Zachary, 106. 

Fuller, Maria A., 135. 

Gillow, John. 106. 

Godson, Thomas, 106. 

Gray, George, 139. 

Handforth, Nathaniel, 106. 

Holyoke, Edward, 106. 

Hood, George, 157. 

Humfrey, John, 157. 

Ingails, Ephraim A., 274. 

Johnson, Richard, 106. 

William F., 162, 

Jones, Benjamin H., 274, 

Keyser, George, 106. 



296 



Index. 



AuTOGRA PUS: — (Continued.) 

King, William, 106. 

Kirtland, Philip, 106. 

Kunkshamooshaw, and wife, 16. 

Laughton, Thomas, 164. 

Lewis, Alonzo, 167. 
" Jacob M., 167. 

Lightfoot, F'lancis, 106. 

Longley, William, 106. 

Lovering, Henry B., 169. 

Lummus. Charles F., 170. 

Mansfield, Andrew, 170. 

Marshall, Thomas, 106. 

Massey, Robert, 106. 

Merritt, Charles, 173. 

Mudge, Benjamin F., 177. 
" Ezra W., 178. 

Neal, Peter M., 179. 

Parker, Thomas, 106. 

Parsons, Charles E., 274. 

Persons, Robert, 106. 

Pitcher, Mary, (Moll,) 198. 

Ponhani, Mary, (Quonopohit,) 16. 

Purchis, Oliver, 201. 

Ranisdell, John, 106. 

Rhodes, Henry, 106. 

Richardson, Thomas P., 205. 

Sanderson, George P., 207. 

Shepard, Jeremiah, 207. 

Stickney, Jeremiah C, 209. 

Tomlins, Edward, 106. 
" Timothy, 106. 

Townsend, Thomas, 106. 

Usher, Roland G., 213. 

Walden, Edwin, 214. 

Walker, Richard, 106. 

Whiting, Samuel, 218. 

Wood, John, 106. 
Autumn foliage, 46. 
Axey, James, (106, autograph) 107, loS, 



Baby show, 70. 

Bacheller, Breed, 80; Edwin Q., 284; 
Jonathan, 265; Stephen, Rev., no, 
189, 259, 275. See Batchelder. 

Baker, Christine, no; Daniel C, no, 
(in, with autograph) 292; Edward, 
(106, autograph) 107, ni ; Ezra, 284. 

Baldwin, Otis L., 80. 

Ballard, John, 164. 

Balloons, 19, 23, 27, 77. 

Bancroft, Nathaniel, 249 ; Thomas F., 
45 ; Timothy, 189. 

Bands of music, 57. 

Banks, corporate. 273, 277. 

Bard's Farewell, 165. 

Barker, Dr. Charles O., ni, 147, 148. 



Barlow, David H., Rev., 270. 

Barnes, J. W. F., Rev., 25. 

Barnum's great show, 68, 282. 

Barton, Walter, Rev., 259. 

Base ball, 63. 

Bassett, William, (m, with autograph) 

164, 274. 
Batchelder, Charles J., 73 ; George W., 

73; Jacob, 72, n2; John, 265, (274, 

with autograph.) See Bacheller. 
Bates, Elizabeth P. P., 183 ; Moses, 183 ; 

Wallace, 80. 
Beach road, 52, 277. 
Beacon light, 225. 
Bear killed in Lynn woods, 276. 
Beckford, Ebenezer, 80. 
Bells, 49, 76, 90, 175. 
Bennett, Samuel, 112, 113, 275. 
Bequests: of Benj. F. Doak, 133; of 

Sidney B. Pratt, 199. 
Bert, Hugh, 275. 
Bicycles and velocipedes, 29. 
Biddle, Charles W., Rev., 23, 59, 75. 

Biographical Sketches and Personal 
Notices : 

Adams, Rev. Benjamin, 100. 
Alley, Hugh and John, 100. 
Armitage, Joseph, loi. 
Attwill, Theodore, 108. 
Axey, James, 108. 
Bachelor, Rev. Stephen, no. 
Baker, Christine, no. 

" Daniel C, Mayor, 1 10. 

" Edward, in. 
Barker, Dr. Charles O., in. 
Bassett, William, in. 
Batchelder, Jacob, 112. 
Bennett, Samuel, 112. 
Blanchard, Amos, 114. 
Bowler, Thomas, 116. 
lioyce, William S., 5S. 
Breed, Allen, 116. 

" Andrews, Mayor, 117. 

" Dr. Bowman B., iiS. 

" Ebenezer, 119. 

" Hiram N., Mayor, 120. 

" Isaiah, 120. 
Bridges, Robert, 120. 
Brimblccom, Col. Samuel, 124. 
Brown, Goold, 124. 
Bubier, Samuel M., Mayor, 124- 
Buffum, James N., Mayor, 124. 

" Jonathan, 27. 
Burrill, Hon, Ebenezer, 125. 

" George, 125. 

" Hon.'john, 125. 



Index. 



297 



Biographical Sketches and Personal 
Notices : — (Continued.) 
Burton, Boniface, 126. 
Carnes, Rev. John, 126. 
Chaclwell, Tlionias, 126. 
Chase, Hezekiah, 128. 

" John, 128. 

" Rev. Stephen, 128. 
Cheever, Rev. Edward, 129. 
Childs, Amariali, 129. 
Clapp, Henry, 129. 
Cobbet, Rev. Thomas, 131. 
Coffin, Dr. Edward L., 131. 
Collins, Micajah, 131. 
Cook, Rev. Joseph, 42. 
Cooke, Rev. Parsons, 132. 
Coolidge, Oliver B., 63. 
Cowdry, William, 132. 
Curtin, Enoch, 132. 
Dagyr, John Adam, 132. 
Davis, Edward S., Mayor, 132. 
Dexter, Thomas, 133. 
Doak, Benjamin F., 133. 
Doolittle,, John, 133. 
Downing, Elijah, 133. 

" Rev. Joshua Wells, 133. 
Draper, Gen. Alonzo G., 20. 
Driver, Robert, 134. 
Fay, Richard S., 19. 
Fitch, Zachary, 135. 
Flagg, Dr. John, 135. 
Flora,, (negro) 135. 
Forman, Eugene F., 88. 
Fuller, Joseph, 135. 

" Maria A., 135. 
Gardner, Dr. James, 135. 

" James H., 135. 
Gates, Isaac, 136. 
Gillow, John, 136. 
Gould, Dr. Abraham, 21. 
Gray, George, (hermit) 137. 

" William, 139. 
Halsey, Thomas, 140. 
Handford, Nathaniel, 141. 
Hannibal (negro) 143. 
Hart, Samuel, 143. 
Haven, Richard, 146. 
Hawkes, Adam, 146. 
Hazeltine, Dr. Richard, 147. 
Henchman, Rev. Nathaniel, 154. 
Hentz, Caroline Lee, 154. 
Hitchings, Major P^zra, 154. 
Holyoke, Edward, 156. 
Hood, George, Mayor, 156. 
Humfrey, John, 157. 
Hurd, Rev. Isaac, 157. 
Hutchinson, Jesse, 157. 

Judson J., 157. 
Ingalls, Edmund and Francis, 157. 
Ireson, Samuel Edwin, 158. 
Jacobs, Benjamin H., 32. 
jenks, Joseph, 158. 
Johnson, Caleb, 159. 



Biographical Sketches and Personal 
Notices : — (Continued.) 
Johnson, Otis, 160. 

" Richard, 161. 

" William F., Mayor, 162, 

Keene, Avis, 24. 

" George W., 61. 
Kertland, Philip, 162. 
Keyser, George, 162. 
King, Daniel, 162. 
Kittredge, Dr. Edward A., 31. 
Laughton, Thomas, 164. 
Leonard, Henry and James, 164. 
Lewis, Alonzo, 164. 

" Jacob M., Mayor, 167. 
Lightfoot, Francis, 167. 
Longley, William, 167. 
Lovering, Henry B., Mayor, 169. 
Lummus, Aaron, 169. 

" Charles F., 170. 

Mansfield, Andrew, 170. 

" Dr. Joseph, 170. 

Marble, Edwin, 84, 172. 

" Hiram, 28. 
Marshall, Thomas, 172. 
Martin, Dea. George, 172. 

" Josiah, 173. 
Merritt, Charles, 73. 
Montowampate, (Indian) 173. 
Moody, Lady Deborah, 173. 

" True, (negro) 173. 
Moore, Henry, 79. 
Mottey, Rev. Joseph, 173. 
Moulton, Joseph. 174. 

" Solomon, 175. 

Mudge, Benjamin, 175. 

" Benjamin F., Mayor, 177. 

" Rev. Enoch, 177. 

" Enoch Redingt(Mi, 91. 

" Ezra, 177. 

" Ezra Warren, Mayor, 177. 
Mulliken, Samuel, 179. 
Munroe, Col. Timothy, 179. 
Nahanton, (Indian) 179. 
Nanapashemet, (Indian) 179. 
Neal, Peter M., Mayor, 179. 
Newhall, Anthony. iSo. 

" Asa T.. iSo. 

'• Benjamin F., 180. 

" Francis S., iSo. 

" Henry, iSo. 

" Dr. Horatio, 181. 

" Isaac, 185. 

" Isaac, 186. 

" Jacob, 187. 

" James R., 187. 

" Joseph, 187. 

" Josiah, 188. 

" Gen. Josiah, 188. 

" Thomas and Anthony, 1891 
Nye, Dr. James M., 50. 
Oliver, Stephen, 194. 
Parker, Thomas, 195. 



298 



Index. 



Biographical Sketches and Personal 
Notices : — (Continued.) 

Parsons, Rev. Obadiah, 195. 
Patch, Charles F., 196. 
Perkins, Dr. John, 196, 
Perley, Dr. Daniel, 88. 
Phillips, George W., 85. 
Pierson, Rev. Abraham, 197. 
Pitcher, Mary, (Moll) 198. 
Pompey, (negro) 198. 
Poquanum, (Indian) 198. 
Pranker, Edward, 20. 
Pratt, Micajah C, 19S. 

" Sidney B., 199. 
Purchis, Oliver, 200. 

" Thomas, 201. 
Quanopkonat, (Indian) 201. 
Ramsdell, Abednego, 201. 

" John, 201. 

Rhodes, Amos, 201. 
" Henry, 203. 
Richards, Richard, 203. 
Richardson, Jonathan, 204. 

" Thomas P., Mayor, 204. 

Robbins, Dr. Peter G., 205. 
Robinson, Col. James, 205. 
Roby, Rev. Joseph, 205. 
Sadler, Richard, 206. 
Sanderson, George P., Mayor, 207. 
Shepard, Rev. Jeremiah, 207. 
Silsbee, Henry, 207. 
Sparhawk, Rev. .Nathaniel, 209. 
Stickney, Jeremiah C, 32. 
Swett, Rev. William G., 209. 
Taylor, David, 45. 
Thacher, Rev. Thomas, 211. 
Tomlins, Edward, 211. 
" Timothy, 211. 
Townsend, Thomas, 211. 
Treadwell, Rev. John, 212. 
Trevett, Robert W., 212. 
Tudor, Frederic, 212. 
Tufts, Deacon Richard, 212. 

Turner, Capt. Nathaniel, 213. 

Usher, Roland G., Mayor, 213. 

Vinton, John, 213. 

Walden, Edwin, Mayor, 214. 

Walker, Richard, 214. 

Washburn, Peter T., 214. 
" Reuben P., 216. 

Wenepoykin, (Indian) 216. 

Wheeler, Thomas, 216. 

Whiting, Rev. Samuel, 217. 

Widger, Thomas, 42. 

Wilkins, Bray, 218. 

Willis, Thomas, 219. 

Wood, John, 220. 
" William, 220. 

Wormstead, 63. 

Yawata, (Indian) 220. 

Birch pond, 61. 

Black Will, (Indian) 19S, 259. 



Blackmar, Gen. W. W., 71. 

Blanchard, Amos, 114, 115, 154. 

Blue glass, its supposed virtue, 75. 

Bohemians, literary, 129. 

Bonfires, 17, 68, 71, 225. 

Book charges of an old physician, 149. 

Bowdens, Benj., 249. 

Bovvers, Mary, 228. 

Bowler, Thomas, 116. 

Bowles, Joshua, 143; Capt. Ralph H, 

143; Samuel, 144; Stephen J., 144. 
Boy choir, first in Lynn, 76. 
Boyce, William S., 58, 116. 
Brackett, William F., 80. 
Bradley, Rev. Gordon M., 260. 
Bray, Eliza R., 178. 

Breed, Allen, (116, with autograph) 120; 
Amos, 1 50 ; Amos F., 80 ; Andrews, 
117, (118, with autograph) 293; AzaA., 
76, 77 ; Dr. Bowman B., 31, 118, 284; 
Ebenezer, (119, with autograph) 264 
Elsie, 193; Henry. A., 149,151; Hi- 
ram N., 85, (120, with autograph) 293; 
Isaiah, 62, 118, 120; Madam, 117; 
Nancy S., 85; N. D. C, 80; S. O., 
53; William, 74. 
Breed's pond, 277. 

I Bridge, first over .Saugus river, 275. 
Bridges, Capt. Robert, (106, autograph) 

107, 120, 121, 122, 217. 
Brimblecom, Col. Samuel, 124, 252. 
Brooks, Rev. Elbridge G., 60; John, 

228. 
Brown, Goold, 124; John, 278; Mar 
tha, 232; Nicholas, (106, autograph) 
107; Rev. Mr., 232; T. L., 23 
Theodate B., 199; William, 47. 
Bubier, Samuel M., 80, (124, with auto- 
graph) 294. 
Buchanan, President, 278. 
Buffum, James N., 25, 31, 124, (125, with 
autograph); Jonathan, 27, 125, 149, 
151, 152. 
Buildings, ancient, 146, 153, 170, 224. 
Buildings, new in 1881, 273. 
Bull fight, 277. 
Burchstead, Dr. Henry, 153; Dr. John 

H., 153- 
Burial at Dungeon Rock, 84. 
Burial of Mr. Lewis, 256. 



Index. 



299 



Burrill, Hon. Ebenezer, 125; George, 
(125, with autograph) ; Hon. John, 

125, (126, with autograph) 227; Theo- 
philus, 232. 

Burton, Boniface, (106, autograph) 107, 

126, 276. 

Business, condition of, 54, 64, 69, 81, 222. 
Business troubles, 52, 76. 
Buzzel, George W., 29. 



Camp meeting, (Second Advent) 24. 
Canker worms, caterpillars, and grass- 
hoppers, 276, 279. 
Carnahan, Gen. James, 88. 
Carnes, John, 126, 154, 206. 
Carter, Mary, 149; William F., 149. 
Cat show, 70. 
Cattle shows, 81, 86. 
Celebrations : 

Atlantic cable, 278. 

Centennial of the Republic, 69, 71. 

First Church, 250th anniversary, 258. 

Richmond, the fall of, 17. 

Settlement, 250th anniversary of, 79. 

St. Patrick's day, 62. 

Surrender of Gen. Lee, 17. 

Cemeteries, 81, 232, 273, 278. 

Census, 271. 

Centennial celebration, 69, 71. 

Centennial Memorial, 72. 

Centennial tree, 71. 

Central avenue, 37. 

Chadwell, Harris, 126; Richard, 126: 
Thomas, 126; William, 126. 

Charter, city, amendment of, 278. 

Chase, Charles, 150; George H., 25, 72, 
79, 265, 284; Hezekiah, 128; John, 
128 ; John B., 150 ; Nathan D., 240 ; 
Samuel, 149; Stephen, Rev., 128. 

Cheap rail-road trains, 55, 283. 

Cheever, Col. Abijah, 246; Rev. Ed- 
ward, 129 ; Mrs. E. N., 246 ; Ezekiel, 
246; Joseph, 51. 

Chicago fire, 46. 

Children's Home, 272. 

Childs, Amariah, 129. 

Choir, first of boys, in Lynn, 76. 

Christian Association, Young Men's, 36, 
88. 

Chronological Table, 275. 



Church, the First, gathered, 275. 

Churches, 262. 

Circle, Explormg, 90, 254. 

City Clerks, list of, with autographs, 274. 

City debt, valuation, taxation, appropria- 
tions, and expenditures, 272, 273. 

City form of government, 278. 

City Hall : laying of corner stone, 21 ; 
dedication of, 24 ; raising of bell, 49. 

Clams, deaths from eating, 44. 

Clapp, Henry, 129, 130. 

Clare, Ada, a Bohemian, 130. 

Clark, Charles G., 2S2 ; Nathan, 284. 
William A., 80. 

Clarke, (the early Baptist, 121); Rev. 
James Freeman, 86 ; Jenny P., her re- 
mains found, 79 ; Thomas, 1 13. 

Clay, Henry, 278. 

Clerks, City, list of, with autographs, 274. 

Chfford, Harrison, 169. 

Chnton, Jane, 47 ; John G., 47. 

Clubs, benevolent, literary, social, etc., 289. 

Coal, early use of, in Lynn, 222. 

Cobb, Ardra, 175. 

Gobbet, Rev. Thomas, (106, autograph) 
107, 121, 131, 217,259. 

Cobbet school-house. See School Houses. 

Coffin, Dr. Edward L., 74, 131. 

Coins, the pine tree, 15S. 

Cold days, 26, 31,48, 49. 

Coliseum, Grand Army, 282. 

Collins, Daniel, 154; Micajah, 131 ; the 
name, in England, 208. 

Colorado beetle, or potato bug, 71. 

Comeouters, 130. 

Comets. See Natural Phenomena. 

Common, the, 37, 43, 71, 78, 88, 277. 

Common sleepers punished, 275. 

Concrete crossings, 60. 

Congress boots first manufactured, 277. 

Connor, Jonathan, 149, 182. 

Cook, Rev. Joseph, famous lecturer, 42, 
132, 259. 

Cooke, Rev. Parsons, 132, 237, 259. 

Coolidge, Oliver B., 63, 132. 

Cooper, 208. 

Constitution, (frigate) 144. 

Copp's Hill burying ground, 191. 

Corn, importation of, 228. 

Council, Common, presidents of, 284. 



300 



Index. 



Courtis, Abel G., 25. 

Cowdry, William, (106, autograph) 107, 

132,232. 
Crandall, (the early Baptist) 121. 
Crispin (shoemakers') strike, 52. 
Cromwell, Oliver, 190. 
Currier, Rev. A. H., 37. 
Curtin, Enoch, 132, 148, 150, 152. 
Cutler, Micajah, 153. 
Cuzner, John, 58. 

D. 

Dade, Major, 176. 

Daguerreotype, first taken in Lynn, 277. 

Dagyr, John Adam, 132, 276. 

Dancing school, first in Lynn, 276. 

Danforth, Jenny, literary Bohemian, 130. 

Dark Days, 276. 

Dauphin, the French, and Iiermit Gray, 

137- 
Davis, Edward S., (132, with autograph) 

293; John, 241. 
Deaths, accidental, singular, and violent, 

18, 20, 24, 34, 36, 44, 47, 64, 74, 81, 84, 

85, 88, 162, 172, 173, 188, 2S2, 2S3. 
Debt, City, in 1881, 273. 
Decoration day observances, 26, 2)7^ 43> 

50, 58, 62, 68, 71, 75, 79, 84, 88. 
DeCormis, Rev. Louis, 260. 
Dedications, etc. : 

Central church, 27. 

City Hall, 24. 

First Congregational church, 54. 

First Methodist church, 79. 

Glen Lewis, 254. 

Glenmere Methodist church, 49. 

Nahant church, 32. 

Nahant (R. C.) church, 51. 

Nahant Town Hall, 35. 

Saint Stephen's Memorial church, 93. 

Saugus Town House, 73. 

School-houses, 35, 50, 54, 93. 

Soldiers' Monument, 59. 

Tower Hill Methodist church, 67. 

Universalist church, Nahant street, 60. 

Washington street Baptist church, 63. 
Deed of Lynn, (Indian) 16, 276. 
Defence of Boston harbor, in 1813, 263. 
Dennen, Rev. Stephen R., 54, 259. 
Depositions, and old and quaint petitions, 

letters, accounts, etc., 104, 105, 109, 

113, 114, 122, 226, 131, 142, 162, 163, 

168, 219, 232, 233, 23S, 249. 



Depots, rail-road, 40, 56. 
Dexter, Rev. Henry M., 258, 259 ; Tho- 
mas, (133, with autograph) 258. 
Directory, first of Lynn, 233, 277. 
Discomforts of travel, 252. 
Diseases prevalent in Lynn, 273. 
Divisions of land, 275, 276. 
Doak, Benjamin F., 133. 
Doak Fund, 133. 

Doctors' charges, lifty years ago, 149. 
Doctors' home, 153. 

Documents, ancient. See Depositions. 
Dogs, mad, 74. 
Dom Pedro Emperor of Brazil, in Lynn, 

71- 
Doolittle, John, (106, autograph) 107, 133. 
Dory voyage to Europe, 74. 
Dougherty, John, 80. 
Douglass, Frank J., 80. 
Downing, Elijah, 133, 134, 265; Rev. 

Joshua Wells, 133. 
Drain, public, 32. 
Draper, Gen. Alonzo, G., 20, 134. 
Driver, Robert, (106, autograph) 107, 134. 
Droughts, 21, 44, 48, 283. 
Drown, Rev. Edward L., 260. 
Drowning of thirteen persons, of pic-nic 

party, in Lynnfield pond, 278. 
Dudley, Governor, loi. 
Dungeon Rock, 28, 84, 172, 275. 
Dunton, John, 226. 
Dwellings, scarcity of, 19. 

E. 

Fames, Henry, (106, autograph) 107. 

Earthquakes, 34, 37, 276. 

East Saugus — introduction of public wa- 
ter, 78. 

Eaton, Lilley, historian, 205; Nathaniel, 
232 ; Thomas, 232. 

Ecclesiastical proceedings, 260. 

Egg Rock Light, 278. 

Election — Artillery, 237 ; Colonial, 234; 
Negro, 236. 

Electric fire alarm, 45. 

Electric lights introduced, 282. 

Elephant, first in Lynn, 276. 

Elizabeth, (Queen) 212. 

Ellis, David, 150; Capt. John, 61. 

Emerson, Rev. Mr., 206. 



Index. 



301 



Emmerton, Dr. James A., 189, 207, 208, 

209. 
Engine, pumping, at water works, 57. 
Episcopal Church, 259. 
Exploring Circle, 90, 254. 
Explosions, steam, 282. 

F. 
Fairfield, Governor, 50. 
Fairs, 64, 66, 81, 86. 
Fall of Richmond, celebration of, 17. 
Family gathering, Hawkes, 147. 
Farrington, the name, in England, 208. 
Fay, Richard S., 19, 134. 
Felton, John B., 75; President, 62. 
Ferry over Saugus river established, 275. 
Field, A. C. (called Deacon) 147. 
Fire Department, 82, 87, 159, 265. 
Fire engines and appliances, 82, 159. 
Fires, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23, 29, 30, 35, 38, 43, 

44, 47, 49, 53, 55> 57, 58, 61, 64, 70, 72, 

74, 84, 86, 87, 88, 93, 277, 278, 279, 282» 

283. 
First Church, 250th anniversary, 258; 

succession of ministers, 259. 
Fish and fisheries, 18, 23, 24, 44, 48, 49, 

64, 69, 87, 222, 246, 278. 
Fisk, Joseph, no. 
Fitch, Benjamin, 232. 
Fitz, Zachary, (106, autograph) 107, 135. 
Flagg, Dr. John, 135. 
Flax Pond Company, 63. 
Flies and mosquitos, 53. 
Flint, Alfred P., 80. 
Flora, (negro) 135. 
Floyd, or Flud, Joseph, 208. 
Flying fish, oif Nahant, 24. 
Forest movement — for preservation of 

the woods, 90, 254. 
Forgetfulness, singular case of, 58. 
Forman, Eugene F., 88, 135. 
Fox, Col. C. B., 58; Mary, 130. 
Frazier, John, 33 ; Mary, 33. 
Frear stone company, 51. 
Freemasons, 54, 204, 277. 
Free public forest movement, 90, 254. 
French Dauphin and Hermit Gray, 137. 
Friends' Conference, 60. 
Frogs and toads, battle of, 43. 
Frost Levi, 1 50. 



Frosted trees, 277. 

Fruit and fruit trees, 20. 

Fry, Charles C, 77. 

Fuller, John, 249 ; Joseph, 135, 249, 250 . 

Maria A., (135, with autograph); Sal 

rah, 193. 
Funeral expenses and oeculiar customs 

at burials, 231. 

G. 

Gales. See Natural Phenomena. 

Gannett, Rev. Ezra S., 45. 

Gardner, Dr. James, 135 ; James II., 

135- 
Garfield, President, 90. 
Garrison, William L., 112. 
Gas, illuminating, 278. 
Gatchell, Elizabeth, 262 ; Jeremiah, 261 ; 

John, 122; Jo.seph, 261, 262. 
Gates, Isaac, 33, 136. 
Geese, wild. 57, 81. 
George III, King, 227. 
Gibson, Edward, 18. 

Gifford, Margaret, an alleged witch, 276. 
Gillow, John, (106, autograph) 107, 136, 

137- 
Gingle, John, 218. 
Glen Lewis, 254. 

Godson, Thomas, (106, autograph) 107 
Gold Fish Pond, 38. 
Gold, its war-time value, 78, 281 
Golden rail-road spike, 31. 
Golden wedding, 85. 
Goodrich, Caroline C, 79. 
Gould, Dr. Abram, 21, 137. 
Government weath,er signals, on High 

Rock, 88. 
Gowan, Daniel, 228 ; David, 249 ; John 

E., 37- 
Grand Army Coliseum, 282. 
Grant, President, 46, 184. 
Grasshoppers, canker worms, caterpillars, 

and potato bugs, 71, 276. 
Gray, George, the hermit, 137, 138, (139, 

with autograph) 277 ; Horace, (Judge) 

140; William, 139, 210. 
Greeley, Horace, 129. 
Green, Joseph, 219. 
Gregg, Richard, 24. 
Guy, William, 163. 



302 



Index. 



H. 

Hall, John H., his balloon ascension, 27. 

Hallam, Rev. Isaac W., 260. 

Halsey, Daniel, 140, 141; Jesse, 140; 
Thomas, 140. 

Hamlin, George, 149; Thomas, 150. 

Hancock, Governor, 276. 

Handford, Nathaniel, {106, autograph) 
107, 141, 142, 143, 191. 

Hannibal, (negro) 143. 

Harding, Joseph, 54. 

Hargrave, Captain, 113. 

Harmon, RolHn E., 80. 

Harris, Mrs. Abbie L., 72. 

Harrison, President, 194. 

Hart, Edmund, 144, 145 ; Isaac, 145 j 
John, 144; Joseph, 145, 224; Lois, 
145 ; Michael, 146 ; Capt. Ralph, 143, 
145 ; Samuel, 143, 225 ; Stephen, 145 ; 
Thomas, 146; WiUiam, 146. 

Harte, Francis Bret, 145. 

Hartwell, Olive, 160. 

Harwood, Charles E., 80. 

Hatch, Anthony, 81. 

Hathorne, William, 270. 

Haven, Bishop E. O., 146 ; Bishop Gil- 
bert, 146; Richard, 71,145,146,187, 
224; Samuel F., 146. 

Hawkes, Adam, 85, 146 ; Nathan M., 80, 
85, 284. Hawkes family gathering, 147. 

Hazeltine, Dr. Richard, iii, 147, 148, 
149, 152, 153, 154,205. 

Heights of Lynn, table of, 251. 

Henchman, Rev. Nathaniel, 154, 206, 250. 

Henshaw, Daniel, 150, 151, 152. 

Hentz, Caroline Lee, 154. 

Hermit Gray, 137, 138, 139. 

Hewes, David, 31. 

Higginson, Col. T. W., 84. 

Hills, Rev. C. D., 72, 77 ; Nathaniel, 72. 

Hills of Lynn, table of heights of, 251. 

History of Lynn, different editions of, 251. 

Hitchings, Major Ezra, 154, 264, 265. 

Hobby, Rev. Mr., 205, 206. 

Holder, William C, 284. 

Hollis, Charles D., 284. 

Holmes, (the early Baptist) 121; Oliver 
W., 86. 

Holyoke, Edward, (106, autograph) 107, 

133, 156- 



Home, Children's, 272. 

Home for Aged Women, 62, 73. 

Homoeopathic society, 50. 

Hood, Elizabeth, 194 ; George, Mayor, 

156, (157. with autograph) 210, 292; 

Mary J., 28, 30; Richard, 194. 
Hop tea, 148. 

Horse disease, singular, 56. 
Horse rail-roads, 93, 278. 
Horse trot, first in New England, 277. 
Horses in Lynn, and their value, 20. 
Hospital, Lynn, 270. 
Hotel, Lynn, 117, 276. 
Houghton, Abel, 149, 150. 
House, Ned, a Bohemian, 130. 
Houses, old and historic, 146, 153, 170, 

224. 
Hovey, Rufus P., 149, 150. 
Hudson, Mary, 143. 

Humfrey, John, (157, with autograph) 275. 
Hurd, Rev. Isaac, 157, 259. 
Huskings, old time, 117. 
Hutchins, Commodore, 84. 
Hutchinson, Jesse, 157; Judson J., 157. 
Hydrophobia, 74. 

I. 

Ice trade, 78, 84. 

Illustrations, pictorial. See pp. vii and viii. 

Immigration of rats, 263. 

Independence day, 19, 32, ^l, 85. 

Indian character, 14. 

Indian deed of Lynn, 16, 276. 

Indian land titles, 15. 

Indian relics, 62, 69. 

Indian signatures to deed of Lynn, 16. 

Indian summer, 24. 

Indian, the old, a famous tree, 225. 

Indian visitors, 44. 

Infantry veteran parade, 78. 

Ingalls, Edmund, 54, 157, 275 ; Ephraim 
A., (274, with autograph) ; Francis, 
54. 157. 27s; John J., 157; Nathan- 
iel, 150;' Rufus, 157. 

Ingalls school-house, 54. 

Inscription for tavern sign-board, 141. 

Inscription on Dighton Rock, 11. 

Ireson, Samuel E., 158; Samuel J., 

158. 
Iron works, 120, 275. 



Index. 



303 



J- 

Jackson, Dr. James, 181 ; John A., 59, 
81 ; President, 189. 

Jacobs, Benjamin H., 32, 158; Edwin 
S., 32. 

Jenks, Joseph, 15S, 159; Rev. Wm., 159. 

Jennie P. Clarke, her remains found, 79. 

Johnson, Caleb, 159; Cornet, 161 ; Capt, 
the Atlantic dory voyager, 74 ; Daniel, 
161; Edward, 121; Edwin H., 30; 
Enoch, 160; Capt. Joseph, 160 ; Otis, 
160, i6i ; Richard, (106, autograph) 
107, 161 J Rufus A., 30; Samuel, 161 ; 
William F., Mayor, (162, with auto- 
graph) 293. 

Joinville, Prince de, 138. 

Jordan, John R., 80. 

Jones, Benjamin H., (274, with auto- 
graph) ; Thomas, 47. 

Jubilees, peace, musical, 31, 50. 

Joyce children, their burial, 18. 

K. 

Kearney, Dennis, the sand-lot orator, 77. 

Keayne, Capt. Robert, 123, 206. 

Keene, Avis, 24, 162; George W., 61, 
162; Josiah, 24. 

Keith, Rev. George, 239. 

Kelley, John, 198. 

Kertland, Nathaniel, no; Philip, (106, 
autograph) 107, 162, 262, 275; Rev. 
Samuel, 262. 

Keyser, George, (106, autograph) 107, 162. 

Kimball, Charles E., 25, 80, 2S4 ; Dr. 
Daniel F., 79; Josiah F., So; Rufus, 25 

King, Blaney, 163; Daniel, 162, 163; 
Elizabeth, 163; Ralph, 163, 164; Wil- 
liam, (106, autograph) 107. 

King of the Bohemians, (H. Clapp) 129. 

Kirby, Mary, 18. 

Kirtland. See Kertland. 

Kittredge, Dr. Edward A., 31, 164. 

Kossuth, the Hungarian patriot, 278, 

Kyrtland, 208. 



Labor troubles, 52, 76. 
Ladies on school committee, 38. 
Lafayette, General, 1S9, 276, 277. 
Lakeman, Rachel, 179. 



Lamphier, J. Frank , 80. 

Land, price of, 36. 

Land, public, divisions of, 275, 276. 

Last dwelling house on Market street, 74. 

Laughton, the name, 208 ; Thomas, 106, 

107, (164, w4th autograph). 
Law office, first in Lynn, 277. 
Lawrie, Richard C, 80. 
Lawson, Christopher, 104; Mr., 219. 
Lawsuits, evils of, 102, 104, 122. 
Lectures : of Rev. Joseph Cook, 42 ; of 

Wan Chin Foo, (a Chinaman), 64. 
Lee, Confederate General, his surrender, 

17, 192; General, of the Revolution, 

140. 
Leonard, Henry and James, 164. 
Letter the famous Morey, 87. 
Lewis, Alonzo, 150, 152, 164, 165, 166, 

(167, with autograph) 168, 172, 202 

226, 229, 230, 251, 252, 254, 255, 256 

257, 278, 287 ; Jacob M., Mayor, 

(167, with autograph) 294; James, 149 
Library, Free Public, 82, 95, 199, 273, 279 
Life in the west, in early times, 182. 
Light Infantry, 78, 277, 279. 
Lightfoot, Francis, (106, autograph) 107, 

167. 
Lightning, singular efiects of, 50, 75, 276. 
Likenesses. See Portraits. 
Lincoln, President, his assassination, 18. 
List of City Clerks, with autographs, 274. 
List of Mayors, with autographs, 292. 
List of Presidents of the Council, 284. 
Lobsters, 18, 49, 277. 
Logan, General, 26. 
Long hair denounced, 122. 
Longley, Ann, 168; Mary, 168; Wra., 

(106, autograph) 107, 167, 168. 
Lord, Daniel J., 93. 
Lovering, Henry B., Mayor, (169, with 

autograph) 294. 
Lummus, Aaron, 169; Charles F., 169, 

(170, with autograph) 202, 233, 277; 

Dr. John, 125; William, 80. 
Lynde, Benjamin, 143. 
Lynn Directory, the first, 233, 277. 
Lynn : 

her people and their pursuits, 247. 
Hills, table of heights of, 251. 
History of, 251. 



304 



Index. 



Lynn : 

Hospital, 270. 

in 1750 and 1817, 227. 

made a market town, 278. 

Post-office, 264. 

receives her present name, 275. 

Public Records of, 229. 

statistical matters. See Statistics. 
Lynnfield incorporated, 277. 

M. 

Mackerel. See Fish. 

Mad dogs, 74. 

Mailey, Mary, 150. 

Manor, the Newhall, in England, 190. 

Mansfield, Andrew, 109, (170, with auto- 
graph) 174, 229; Epes, 24; Dr. Jo- 
seph, 170, 171, 172; Sylvester, 80. 

Marble lidwin, 84. 172; Hiram, 28, 172, 
278. 

Marlor, John, 80. 

Marriage portion, 113. 

Marriages, 2J3. 

Married in dishabille, 228. 

Marsh, Charles P., 214; Thomas J., 265. 

Marshall, Thomas, (106, autograph) 172, 

Martin, A. B., So; Deacon George, 172 ; 
Josiah, 173. 

Masonic lodge, 277. 

Masonic parade, 60. See Freemasons. 

Massey, Benjamin, 154; Robert, (106, 
autograph) 107. 

Mather, Cotton, 1S2; Richard, 104. 

Matrimonial finesse, 230. 

Maverick, Samuel, 113. 

May-day horns, 77. 

Mayflower, the ship, 257. 

May, L. A., 80. 

Mayors, list of, with autographs, 292. 

McDonald, Donald, 277. 

McKenney, John, 43. 

McMahon, James, 84. 

Mechanics' fair, 64. 

Medical services, charges for, 149. 

Memorial, Centennial, 72. 

Memorial Day, Soldiers'. See Decoration 
day observances. 

Memorial stone, Sadler, 206. 

Memory, strange lapses of, 58, 171. 

Merrill, Benj., 277; George S., 62. 



Merritt, Charles, 73, 150, 152, (173, with 
autograph) 274; Timothy, 73. 

Meteoric shower, 277. 

Meteors. See Natural Phenomena. 

Methodist Conference, 74. 

Midnight bells, 90. 

Miles, S. P., 86. 

Mill, first in Lynn, 275. 

Mills, William H., 207. 

Ministers: of First Parish, 259; of St. 
Stephen's, 260. 

Mirage. See Natural Phenomena. 

Missionary, City, 54. 

Mitchell, William F., 54. 

Montague, Admiral, 144. 

Montowampate, (Indian) 14, 173. 

Monument, Soldiers', 59. 

Moody, Lady Deborah, 173; True, 173. 

Moore, Henry, 79, 173. 

Morey letter, the, 87. 

Morocco manufacturers, 51, 276. 

Mormonism, lecture on, 67. 

Morse, Professor, proceedings in relation 
to his decease, 50. 

Mosquitoes and flies, 53. 

Mottey, Rev. Joseph, 173, 285. 

Moulton, Anne, 175; Charles H., 175; 
Daniel, 150; James T., 175; John 
T., 171, 172, 175, 1S6; Joseph, 174, 
175; Solomon, 172, 175 Walter S., 

175- 

Mudge, Benjamin, 175, 176, 265 ; Benja- 
min F., Mayor, (177, with autograph) 
292 ; Daniel L., 134 ; Rev. Enoch, 
92, 149, 152, 177; Enoch Redington, 
91, 92, 152, 177, 260; Ezra, 177; 
Ezra Warren, 177, (178, with auto- 
graph) 293 ; James, 228 ; Joseph, 
175; Robert R., 176. 

Mulliken, Samuel, 154, 179, 264, 265. 

Munroe, President, his visit to Lynn, 277 ; 
Col. Timothy, 179. 

Murders : 

of Nathan Breed, jr., 279. 
of Jennie P. Clarke, 79. 
of the Joyce children, 18. 
by William Vennar, 47. 

Music and musicians, 114. 

Music, bands of, 57. 

Music Hall, 38. 



Index. 



305 



N. 

Nahant, 26, 278. 

Nahanton, (Indian) 179. 

Nanapashemet, (Indian) 179. 

Nash, Lonson, 241, 242. 

Natural Phenomena, 13, 21, 22, 23, 26, 
31. 33. 35- 39, 43. 46, 48, 49, 5o, 53> 60, 
63, 70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 78, 81, 86, 87, 89, 
276, 277, 278, 279, 283. 

Neal, Edward C, 284; George C, 80, 
284; Peter M., Mayor, 25, (179 with 
autograph) 293. 

Negro election, 236. 

Nettleton, Col. E. P., 59. 

New buildings in 1881, 273. 

Newell and Newhall, the names, 190, 
191. 

Newell, Samuel, 181. 

Newhall and Newell, the names, 190, 
191. 

Newhall, Abby, 199; Amos, 249; An- 
thony, 143, 180, 189, 194; Asa T., 
180; Benjamin, 1 14, 1 56, 232 ; Benja- 
min F., of Saugus, 180; Charles L., 
193; Elizabeth, 160, 168; Emmota, 
190; Col. Ezra, 191, 193; Francis 
S., 180; Frederic, 149; Col. Frederic 
C, 192 ; Capt. George T., 72, 80, 
2S4 ; Gilbert, 191 ; Harrison, 30, 204 ; 
Henry, 180; Dr. Horatio, 181, 182, 183, 
184, 186; Isaac, 185, 186; Jacob, 
187, 249 ; James, 208 ; James R., 22, 
25, 72, 80, 187, 225, 251, 2S4, 287; 
John, 142, 149, 162, 168; John B., 
187 ; John M., 76; Joseph, 187, 249 ; 
Josiah, 188; Locker, 249; Nathaniel, 
142, 143, 191 ; Thomas, 19, 143, 146, 
167, 180, 189, 190, 275, 276; Thomas 
A., (of Philadelphia) 191, 192, 193; 
Thomas B., 22, 25, 72, 265; Capt. 
Walter S., 192 ; Winthrop, 203. 

Newhalls, the, in England, 1S9. 

Newspapers, 27, 45, 70, 96, 147, 151, 183, 
268, 269, 277. 

Nichols, Col. John, 67 ; Thomas P., 25. 

Night arch, 277. 

Northern lights. See Natural Phenomena. 

Northmen, the, 9. 

Notes, Miscellaneous, 221. 

Nye, Dr. James M., 50. 



O. 

O'Baldwin, prize fighter, 28. 
O'Brien, Fitz James, 130. 
Odd Fellows, 44, 45, 55. 
Old documents and papers. See Depo- 
sitions. 
Old grave-yards, 232. 
Old houses, 146, 153, 170, 224. 
Old Indian, (tree) 225. 
Old people, 24, 28, 30, 51, 54, 126, 276. 
Old time shoemaker, 128. 
Old Tunnel meeting-house, 276. 
Oliver, Stephen, 149, 152, 194, 195, 265. 
Onslow, the parliamentary speakers, 227. 

P. 

Paine, Rev. George S., 260. 

Palmer, John, 227. 

Papers, old and curious. See Deposi- 
tions. 

Park, the, 37. 

Parker, Nathaniel, 232; Thomas. (106, 
autograph) 107, 195 ; Rev. Theodore, 
195, 202. 

Parsons, Charles E., (274, with auto- 
graph) ; Rev. Obadiah, 195, 196, 259. 

Patch, Charles F., 196. 

Patten, Caroline A., 92. 

Payer, Mr., 75. 

Peabody, Rev. David, 259; Rev. Dr., 
210. 

Peace jubilees, musical, 31, 50. 

Peale, Rembrandt, iii. 

Pearls in Lynn ponds, 278. 

Pearson, John, 109, no. 

Peirce, John, 163. 

Penn, William, 144. 

Penny, Alonzo, 80. 

Pepperell, Sir William, 250. 

Perley, Dr. Daniel, 196. 

Personal Notices. See Biographical 
Sketches. 

Persons, Robert, (106, autograph) 107. 

Peters, Hugh, 197. 

Petition, the Armitage, 105. 

Petitions, old and quaint. See Deposi- 
tions, &c. 

Phenomena, celestial, &c. See NaturaJ 
Phenomena. 

Philip, King Louis, 138. 



20 



3o6 



Index. 



Phillips, George W., 85, 197 ; Mary, 28 ; 
Rev. Mr., 250; Wendell, 112; Wm. 
B., 80. 

Phinney, Col., 211. 

Phosphorescent glow on the sea, 76. 

Photography, 18, 277. 

Physicians' charges, 149. 

Pickering, Col. Timothy, 193. 

Pic-nic parties, 45, 278, 

Pictorial illustrations. See pp. vii and viii. 

Pierson, Rev. Abraham, 197. 

Pine Grove Cemetery. See Cemeteries. 

Pine Hill, 225, 251. 

Pine Hill reservoir, 56. 

Pines, Point of, 244. 

Pitcher, Mary, (Moll) 154, (i9g, with au- 
tograph) 277. 

Plantation bell, 175. 

Pieasanton, General, 75. 

Point of Pines, 244. 

Police Court and police business, 80, 271, 
278. 

Polk, President, in Lynn, 277. 

Pollard, Rev. F. J. W., 260. 

Polls, number of, 273. 

Pompey, (negro) 198. 

Ponds, 38, 39, 43, 61, 277, 278. 

Poole, Samuel, 232. 

Poor, provisions for the, 82. 

Pope, Hannah, 119. 

Population, 271. 

Poquanum, (Indian) 198, 259. 

Portraits. See page viii. 

Post-masters, list of, 265. 

Post-of&ce, 264, 276, 279. 

Potato bug, or Colorado beetle, 71. 

Potato rot, in 1770, 276. 

Potter, Nathaniel, 276; Robert, 162. 

Prairie travel, 182. 

P ranker, Edward, 20, 198. 

Pratt bequest, the, 199. 

Pratt, James, 199; Micajah C, 198; 
Sidney B., 199. 

Prescott, William H., 18, 239. 

Prescott's Walk, 239. 

Presidents of Common Council, list of, 284. 

Prices, excessive, unlawful, 112. 

Printers' and Publishers' association, 37. 

Prize fighting, 28, 61, 278. 

Professional charges of old physician, 149. 



Prognostications, wonderful, 94. 

Public affairs, meeting for discussion on, 

37- 

Public forest, free, 90, 254. 

Public Library, 82, 95, 199. 

Publishers' and Printers' association, 37 

Pumping engine at water works, 57. 

Purchis, Oliver, 200, (201, with auto- 
graph) ; Sarah, 200 ; Thomas, 201. 

Purinton, James, 28, 71. 



Quarrel between neighbors, 168. 
Quincy, President, 252. 
Quonopkonat, (Indian) 201. 



Rail-road matters, 40, 44, 48, 55, 56, 60, 
67, 68, 85, 93, 222, 277, 278, 238, 

Ramsdell, Abednego, 201; C. H., 80; 
John, (106, autograph) 107, 201 ; Na- 
than A., 80 ; Oliver, 80. 

Randolph, Secretary, 159, 276. 

Rats, immigration of, 263. 

Rattlesnakes, 22, 28, 76. 

Read, Dr. Philip, 276. 

Real estate, prices of, 36, 54. 

Rebellion, Shays's, 238. 

Records of Lynn, 229. 

Rednap, Joseph, 109. 

Reeves, Robert H., his tragic death, 34. 

Regattas, 37, 50. 

Religious matters, 239, 261. 

Religious societies, list of, 262. 

Representative, the first sent from Lynn, 

275- 
Reservoir, Pine Hill, 56. 
Resources and supplies, 246. 
Revere, Paul, 77. 
Revere, rail-road disaster at, 44. 
Revival, religious, 74. 
Rhodes, Amos, 154, 201; Henry, (106, 

autograph,) 107, 203. 
Rich, Abigail, 175. 
Richards, Richard, 203. 
Richardson, James N., 80; John, 239; 

Jonathan, 203 ; Thomas P., Mayor, 

72, 204, (205, with autograph) 292. 
Richmond, fall of, 17. 
Robbery of Aza A. Breed, 76. 



Index. 



307 



Robbins, Rev. Chandler, 154, 205; Dr. 

Peter G., 153, 154, 205 ; Rev. Samuel 

D., 154, 205. 
Robinson, Christopher, 129 ; Col. James, 

156, 205, 264, 265 ; Noah, 284. 
Roby, Rev. Joseph, 100, 205, 206. 
Rood, William H., 80. 
Roundy, Sarah, 47. 
Ruck, Elizabeth, 104; John, 104. 



Sadler memorial stone, 206. 

Sadler, Richard, 206. 

Sadler's Rock, 206. 

Saint John, Elizabeth, 244. 

Sanderson, George P., Mayor, 80, (207, 
with autograph) 294. 

Sandwich settled by Lynn people, 275. 

Sandyll, Thomas, 257. 

Saugus incorporated, 277. 

Saugus public water, 78. 

Savage, Charles L., 58. 

Saxton, Thomas, 36. 

School-master, an old time, 114. 

Schools and school-houses, 50, 54, 82, 
114, 266. 

Schooners, three-masted, 61. 

Sea-serpent, 69, 240, 263, 277. 

Seaver, Col. James W., 1S4. 

Secessionists, treatment of, 17, 18. 

Second Advent camp meeting, 24. 

Sermon, first in Waldo, Me., 250. 

Sermons, model, 209. 

Shakspeare, 146. 

Sharks, 19, 23 

Shaw, Dora, a Bohemian, 130. 

Shays's rebellion, 238. 

Shepard, Rev. Jeremiah, 35, 141, 164, 
207, 217, 259, 276 ; William, 80. 

Sheridan, General, 192. 

Sherman, General, 21. 

Shipton, Mother, her prophesies, 94. 

Shipwrecks, 36, 60, 276, 277, 278, 279. 

Shipyard, Hart's, 144. 

Shirt, theft of a, 232. 

Shoe and leather trade gathering, 51. 

Shoe, the monster, on wheels, 203. 

Shoemakers, Shoemaking, and Shoe Bu- 
siness, 20, 39, 52, 83, 128, 222, 228, 275, 



278. 



Shorey, John L., 80 ; Miles, 276. 

Shott, Peter, 149. 

Showers, remarkable. See Natural Phe- 
nomena. 

Siamese twins, 230. 

Silsbee, different spellings of the name, 
208 ; Henry, 207, 208, 209 ; Nathan- 
iel, 208. 

Skeletons exhumed, 46. 

Skinner, Joseph, 249. 

Skirmishing neighbors, 168. 

Skrellings, an ancient race, 10, 11. 

Slavery, abolishment of, 226. 

Slaves owned in Lynn, in 1776, 276. 

Sleeping in meeting, 112. 

Small pox, 48, 276. 

Smith, Fred, 77; Horace, 253; John 
H., 64, 

Snell, William, So. 

Snow storms, great. See Storms. 

Soldiers' monument, 59. 

Sparhawk, Rev. Nathaniel, 209. 

Sparrows, English, 58. 

Specie, transportation of, 232. 

Speculations in real estate, 54- 

Spelling matches, 66. 

Spider's bite, supposed death from, 84. 

Spinney, Benjamin b'., 93. 

Spontaneous combustion, 44. 

Sprague, Preserved, 149, 151. 

Stackpole, Lydia, 149. 

Stage ride, old fashion, 77. 

Stations, rail-road, 40, 56. 

Statistical items, relating to various peri- 
ods, 19, 20, 23, 25, 26, 35, 38, 39, 48, 
56, 57, 61, 66, 81, 82, 83, 87, 95, 96, 
222, 262, '65 '67, '68, '71, '72, '73. 

Steam boat travel, early, 223. 

Steam boiler explosions, 282. 

Steele, Rev. Daniel, 72. 

Stevens, Gen. A. F., 68. 

St. John, Elizabeth, 244. 

St. Patrick's day, celebration of, 62. 

St. Stephen's Church, and St. Stephen's 
Parish, 76, 86, 91, 93, 136, 259. 

Stickney, Jeremiah C, 32, 23> (209 with 
autograph) 265. 

Stocker, George W., 273. 

Stone, Sadler memorial, 206. 

Storer, Eben, 232. 



3o8 



Index. 



Storms, violent, 22, 23, 39, 46, 53, 60, 70, 

74, 75. 276, 277, 278, 282. 
Stowe, James, 207, 208. 
Streets of Lynn, 60, 271. 
Strike, shoemakers', 52. 
Sunday school statistics, of 1865, 16. 
Sun fish, 24. 

Surplus U. S. revenue, distribution of, 277. 
Swamp, Tomlins's 211. 
Swampscott, as a watering place, 54. 
Swampscott, incorporation of, 278. 
Swett, Col. Samuel, 210; Rev. William 

Gray, 140, 203, 209, 210. 
Switzer, James W., 80. 



Tarbox, James M., 75, 76; J. K., 44; 
Samuel, no. 

Tarring and feathering, 18, 43. 

Tavern sign-board inscription, 141. 

Taverns, old style, 103, 227. 

Taxation, 19, 272. 

Taylor, Bayard, 187; David, 45, 211; 
Capt. R. G., 161 ; Virginia, 161. 

Tea, historic, 246. 

Tebbetts, Ezra R., 278, 

Telegraph, introduction of, 278. 

Telephone introduced, 81. 

Temperature, curiosities of, 78, 282, 

Thacher, Rev. Thomas C., 211, 214, 259; 
Rev. Dr. Peter, 214. 

Thompson, George, 151. 

Thunder and lightning. See Lightning. 

Thurston, John A., 48. 

Titles, Indian land, 15. 

Titles, personal, 253. 

Toads and frogs, battle of, 43. 

Todd, Mary W., 124; Relief, 175. 

Tolman, John B., 270. 

Tomlins, Edward, (106, autograph) 107, 
211; Timothy, (106, autograph) 107, 
211. 

Tow'nsend, the name, 208 ; Andrew, 212; 
Charles H., 212; Daniel, 212; Tho- 
mas, (106, autograph) 107, 211, 212. 

Tracy, Cyrus M., 25, 79. 

Tragedies. See Murders. 

Tramps. 65. 

Transcript, newspaper, 25. 

Travel, 43, 222, 223, 252. 



Trawl fishing, 278. 

Treadwell, Rev. John, 100, 212, 259. 

Trees, remarkable, 224. 225, 239. 

Trenton Hose Company, visit of, 28. 

Trevett, Robert W., 33, 149, 152, 212. 

Trials, Police Court and Justice, 80, 271. 

Triplets, birth of, 62. 

True, Rev. Edward H., 260. 

Tubular wells, 86. 

Tudor, Frederic, 160, 212. 

Tufts, David, 212; Gardiner, 80, 212; 

Deacon Richard, 212. 
Turner, Capt. Nathaniel, 213, 275. 
Turnpike, Boston and Salem, 35, 276. 
Twins, the Siamese, 230. 
Two hundred and fiftieth anniversary, 79. 
Tyler, Andrew, 232. 

U. 

United States surplus revenue, distribu- 
tion of, 277. 

Universalist Convention, 69. 

Upham, Hon. Charles W., 218; U. S. 
senator, 214. 

Usher, E. P., 59; Hezekiah, 237 ; Leo- 
nard B., 265; Roland G., Mayor, 25, 
(213, with autograph) 238, 294. 

V. 

Vacations and vacation tours, 288. 
Vagrants, tramps, 65. 
Valuation and ta.xation, 272. 
Vassar, Rev. C. T., 26. 
Veal, Thomas, 275. 
Veazie, W. G., 79. 
Velocipedes and bicycles, 29. 
Vennar, William, a desperado, 47. 
Veteran parade. Infantry, 78. 
Vickings, the, 9. 
Victoria, Queen, 278. 
Vincent, George W., 80. 
Vinton, John, 213. 
Vital statistics of 1881, 273. 
Volunteer labor, 67, 263. 

W. 

Walden, Edwin, Mayor, (214, with auto- 
graph) 294. 
Waldo, General, 250. 
Wales, Prince of, in Lynn, 278. 



Index. 



309 



Walker, Richard, (106, autograph) 107, 
214. 

Wallis, George, 113. 

Ward, landlord, 227 ; Rev. Milton, 260. 

Washburn, Gov. Peter T., 214, 216 ; Reu- 
ben P., 214, 216. 

Washington, his rebuke of Gen. Lee, 
140; visits Lynn, 276. 

Water, and the city supply, 35, 39, 56, 57, 
60, 77. 

Waters, Rev. George, 260; Henry F.. 
189, 193, 208. 

Webber, James W., 249. 

Wells, tubular, 86. 

Wesley, John, 226; Samuel, 226, 227. 

Western life, early, 182. 

Whales, 19, 23, 276, 277. 

White, Capt. John, 270 ; William A., 260. 

Whitefield, Rev. George, 206, 276. 

Whiting, Col. John, 243 ; Rev. Joseph, 
259 ; Maj. Gen., (Confederate) 243 ; 
Rev. Samuel, 35, (106, autograph) 107, 
121, 217, 21S, 243, 244, 259; William, 
218, 243. 

Whitman, Walt, 130. 

Whiton, Rev. James M., 259. 

Whitten, officer, 48. 

Whittle, George D., 284. 

Widger, Capt. Thomas, 42, 218. 

Wild Flowers and Sea Shells, 287. 



Wildes, Rev. George D., 260. 

Wild geese, 57, 81. 

Wilkins, Bray, 218, 219. 

Will, difficulty concerning Mr. Axey's, 
109. 

Willard, John, a witchcraft victim, 218, 
229. 

Williams, Col., 217; Eleazer, the sup- 
posed French dauphin, 137, 138, 139; 
Rev. John, 139; Joseph, 276. 

Willis, Thomas, 219. 

Witchcraft, 218, 219, 276. 

Women, home for aged, 62, 73. 

Won Chin Foo, Chinese lecturer, 64. 

Wood, John, (106, autograph) 107, 220; 
William, 220, 275. 

Woods, Rev. Mr., 23. 

Woodward, Thomas, famous awl-maker, 
238. 

World's Exposition, 281. 

Wormstead, John B., 63, 220. 

Wormuld, Joseph, prize-fighter, 28. 

Wrestling match, fatal, 18. 

Y. 

Yacht Club, 37, 50. 

Yawata, (Indian) 220. 

Yellow day, 89. 

Young, Brigham, Mormon prophet, 67. 

Young Men's Christian Association, 36, 88. 




WITT'S ROCK. 
(Now called Lover's Leap.) 



310 



Index. 



INDEX TO PICTORIAL ADDENDA. 



Addenda, Pictorial, 311. 

Bachelor, Rev. Stephen, 312. 

Churches and ministers, 311,312, 313,314. 

Cobbet, Rev. Thomas, 311. 

Cooke, Rev. Parsons, 314. 

Dwellings, style of, 318,319, 320, 321. 

Flagg, Dr. John, 319. 

Forest Place, (Stickney's Hill,) 322, 323. 

Gambrel-roof houses, 319. 

Gates, Lawyer, his office, 314. 

Gray, Judge Horace, 320; William, 320. 

Lee, Jesse, 314. 

Lynn, views in, 323, 325, 327. 

Lynnmere, (Mineral spring precinct,) 325. 

Meeting Houses. See Churches. 



Methodism, cradle of, 315. 

Mudge, Enoch R., 314, 321. 

Old Tunnel meeting-house, 312. 

Peters, Hugh, 311. 

Pictorial Addenda, 311. 

Picturesque Lynn, 322, 323, 325, 327. 

Public buildings, 315. 

Rail-road stations, 316. 

Rebecca Nurse house, 31S. 

Shoemakers' shop, unique, 313. 

Shoe-manufactories and shops, 316, 3 1 7. 

Town House, the old, 315. 

Views in Lynn, 323, 325, 327. 

Williams, Roger, 320. 

Witch house, 320. 




OLD TIMK SlIOE?.IAKIii;S AT \VOi;K. 



S.V Aii^e ^16.] 



PICTORIAL ADDENDA. 



A FEW closing pages may, without doubt to the acceptance 
of the reader, be devoted to a limited number of pictorial illus- 
trations, such as cannot fail, in a manner clearer than words, to 
elucidate certain matters pertaining to our history, which it is 
well not to overlook. It is interesting to compare one period 
with another ; and not only interesting but highly useful ; for 
by such means we are enabled to discern what progress has 
been made — upward or downward. We need no Shakspeare or 
Hogarth to demonstrate that " Progress " may be pictorially 
represented. The intelligent reader will not be at a loss to 
perceive our purpose in the character and arrangement of the 
engravings. Most of the subjects have at least been alluded to 
in the foregoing pages ; and each cut will be accompanied by 
such remarks or catch-lines as may seem necessary for a full 
understanding. 



This graphic little illustra- 
tion was in fact drawn for the 
first meeting-house in Boston ; 
but it can hardly fail to answer 
as well for the first in Lynn — 
that in which the venerated 
Whiting so long ministered, 
and that, too, in which the 
stirring voice of Cobbet so 
frequently resounded. The fiery Hugh Peters, also, though 
minister of the church in the neighboring settlement of Salem, 
no doubt often appeared within those unadorned walls, and by 
his rugged eloquence and undaunted zeal in confronting every 
approach of tyranny towards these shores, did much to inflame 

(311) 




THE FIRST MEETING-HOUSE 



312 



Pictorial Addenda. 



the patriotism of the little flock of toilers who gathered there ; 
little dreaming that that generation would not pass away ere his 
own severed head would be mounted on London bridge as a 
ghastly warning to all who dared to labor for the subordination 
of regal claims to human rights. We do not know the precise 
date at which this humble house was reared. The first minister, 
Rev. Stephen Bachelor, came in 1632 ; but meetings had been 
somewhere held before his arrival. The forlorn little struc- 
ture stood in a hollow, on the east side of Shepard street, near 
the present Summer street crossing ; and for protection against 
the wintry blasts was placed partly under ground. Even dwel- 
lings were at first sometimes so placed, for the same reason. 

The famous edifice so long known by the expressive though 
rather inelegant sobriquet of "Old Tunnel," succeeded this 
primitive structure. It stood on the latitudinal centre of the 
bleak, unfenced Common, about opposite the entrance of the 
present Whiting street, and its graceful proportions are here 
faithfully delineated. 




OLD TUNNEL MEETING-HOUSE. 1682 — TS27. 



Pictorial Addenda. 



31. 



The Old Tunnel was built in 1682, and within its walls the 
ardent, almost ferocious patriot, Shepard, ministered for nearly 
forty years. There, too. Henchman, Treadwell, Parsons, Thacher, 
Hurd, and Rockwood, exercised their gifts. About it the military 
were wont to assemble, and the effect of the unrestrained flow 
of " strong water," at the booths erected against the very walls, 
was apparent in bloody noses and torn garments. After the 
removal of the house, the unique belfry was transformed into a 
cozy little shoemakers' shop, and remained a picturesque object, 
near High Rock, till destroyed by fire, on the 25th of March, 1849. 

In 1837, the house of worship shown in the following engrav- 
ing, was erected on South Common street, corner of Vine. 




FIRST PARISH MEETINr,-H )Ubi:. 1837 — 1S70. 



314 Pictorial Addenda. 

This was the house in which the redoubtable Dr. Parsons 
Cooke for about a quarter of a century exercised his high-keyed 
elocution in fervid warning to his own flock, and his keen 
power of vituperation in illustrating the blemishes in other Chris- 
tian bodies. It was entirely destroyed by fire on the evening 
of Christmas day, 1870. The site was soon occupied by the 
much more stately brick edifice which is now the spiritual 
anchorage of this ancient parish. And all will agree that if the 
spiritual growth of this our elder worshiping body has been 
commensurate with the architectural progress, its heavenward 
advancement has not been inconsiderable. 

The foregoing, in connection with the others referred to, are 
sufficient to give a pretty good idea of the improvement in eccle- 
siastical architecture here. There are now several very fine 
and costly churches in Lynn — St. Stephen's Memorial Church, 
a picture of which may be found on a leaf preceding the title- 
page being the most costly and in its features and appoint- 
ments, perhaps the most perfect and beautiful. It was erected 
by the late Enoch Redington Mudge at an expense of about 
$250,000. By turning to page 260 the reader will find a view 
of old St. Stephen's, the first Protestant Episcopal Church ever 
built here. 

Methodism took root in Lynn at an early period of its propa- 
gation, and has continued to flourish, in what appears to be a 
genial soil. The first service was held by Rev. Jesse Lee, in 
December, 1790. It was commenced in the house of Joseph 
Johnson, which stood on the north-east side of Market street, a 
few rods from Essex, but for lack of room was adjourned to a 
neighboring barn. This Johnson house was the same that many 
of our elder people will remember as that in which " Old Gates," 
as he was called, had his law office for some time, and in which 
Hilton and Newcomb subsequently kept their furniture store. 

The first Methodist society was organized in February, 1791 — 
about two months after Mr. Lee's coming ; and in about four 
months after the organization, they erected a house of worship, 
which is said to have been the first of the order in Massachu- 
setts. This was succeeded, in 18 13, by the one which now 
makes a part of Lee Hall building, on Park square. The fine 
brick structure on the other side of the same square, is the So- 



Pictorial Addenda. 



315 



ciety's present place of worship. The " Cradle of Methodism," 
as the old Johnson house has been called, is here depicted. 




OLD JOHNSON HOUSE, MARKET STREET, LYNN. 

The "Cradle of Methodism." 



The buildings erected in Lynn, for municipal uses, till within 
a few years, were of a character almost deserving the epithet 
bestowed by some of our amiable neighbors — shabby. But we 
have now some of the finest and most costly in the state. Our 
present City Hall is the admiration of every citizen — excepting, 
perhaps, a few jejune tax-payers — and so are our school and 
engine houses. The City Hall appears on a page before the title, 
and here we place the old Town House, as in blushing contrast. 




OLD KJWN HoCSr., LYNX. 

]!uih in 1S14 — Destroyed by fire in 1864. 



3i6 



Pictorial Addenda. 



Next we present an engraving of the first rail-road depot in 
Lynn ; and a poor little one it was, as will be seen. It was 
erected by the Eastern Rail-road Company as soon as they were 
ready for travel, in 1838, and stood on the north-west side of the 
track, occupying as much of the site of the present brick and 
iron station, in Central Square, as its diminutive proportions 
required. Half a dozen trains or so of small cars, not much 
larger than old-fashion stage-coaches, and like them opening 
only at the sides, passed up and down daily ; and the freight 
transportation was but a fraction of what it now is. After ten 
years' service it was in 1848 succeeded by the more capacious 
and convenient but hardly more tasteful brick station, of which 
a picture may be seen on page 40 ; and this latter, in 1872, gave 
place to the well-appointed station that now adorns the Square. 




FIRST RAIL-KUAD STATION IN LYNN. 

Central Square, 1838. 



For a hundred and fifty years shoe-manufacturing has been the 
leading mechanical industry of Lynn, and till within a few years, 
the work was done by hand ; the buildings required were small 
and very common in their appointments ; but when ponderous 
machinery was introduced substantial and capacious structures 
began to appear. While the work was done by hand, the shoes 
were cut out in small buildings occupied by the " bosses," and 
thence taken by the "jours" to their own little shops, made 
up and returned. These shops were to be seen in all quarters, 
for they rather affected positions whence the incomings and 
outgoings of neighbors could be observed ; and the sprightly 
music of the lapstone and hammer was well-nigh ceaseless. 
In the picture of Market street, which precedes the title- 



Pictorial Addenda. 



317 



page of this volume, several which adorned that thorough- 
fare are seen. But hardly any of these interesting historical 
dots now remain. The great brick factories loom up triumph- 
antly and the hoarse voice of the steam-driven machinery pro- 
claims invention's conquest. The two following are fair speci- 
mens of our modern manulactories. 




MODERN SHOE-MANUFACTORY, LYNN. 
Exchantje Street Block. 




MODERN SHOE-MANUFACTORY, LYNN. 
Sweetser Building, corner of Washington and Oxford Streets. 



3i8 



Pictorial Addet^da. 



Allusions have been made in former pages to the style of dwel- 
lings common in earlier times. Of course the taste, means, and 
ambition of individuals had a controlling influence in given cases ; 
but yet there were certain characteristics marking the ordinary 
erections. In some instances the habitations, of the poorer 
classes especially, were placed partially under ground, for shelter 
from the cold ; while others, more desirous of the cheering sun- 
light, dotted the clearings and enlivened the acclivities ; but in 
most cases they were rude and unadorned ; not indeed more 
elegant than the one here represented. 




AN EARLY DWELLING-HuUSE. 



A little later on, we find the style of building adopted by many 
of the well-to-do folk like that represented by the following cut 
of the well-known Rebecca Nurse house. 




BEBECCA NUKSB'S UOUSB. 



Pictorial Addenda. 



319 



In various parts of Lynn, now dilapidated specimens of the 
foregoing style are to be seen, and many have disappeared within 
the recollection of the writer. In our view of Market street, 
preceding the title-page, one or two may be observed. The 
Nurse house is famous in our county annals, and has a deeply 
touching history. Mrs. Nurse was a woman of many virtues 
and much beloved by her neighbors ; yet she fell a victim to the 
witchcraft infatuation, and was executed for the supposed crime, 
meeting her ignominious death like a true Christian heroine. 

The gambrel-roof house soon appeared, though it is hard 
to see what special recommendation it had. Perhaps it was 
thought picturesque ; and it was somewhat so, when amid sur- 
roundings like those represented in the engraving here given, 
which was drawn from an ancient house in Norfolk county. 




AN ANCIENT GAMBREL-ROOF HOUSE. 



A neat example of this style may be seen on Marion street, 
in the historic Dr. Flagg or William Gray house. It was there 
that Dr. Flagg, a learned man as well as skillful physician and 
ardent revolutionary patriot lived ; and there, too, Lieutenant 



320 



Pictorial Addenda. 



Governor Gray, famed in his day as the most wealthy man in 
New England, was born. He was grandfather of Judge Horace 
Gray, at present an associate justice on the bench of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, and late chief justice of the Supreme 
Court of Massachusetts. Another and rougher example of this 
style of building is the " Uncle Jed " house, as it was called 
sixty or seventy years ago — on Boston street, corner of Kirt- 
land. Our Market street view also exhibits a specimen. 

As has been intimated, there was, in early times, here and 
there a residence widely differing from the generality, in costli- 
ness and elegance. One of the most notable, of whatever degree, 
in this vicinity, is the " old witch house," so called, still stand- 
ing in Essex street, Salem, at the corner of North. There was, 
as builders say, " a good deal of work in it ; " a fact made evident 
by the picture here given. 




OLD WITCH HOUSE. 



This is also sometimes called the Roger Williams house, and 
has an uncommonly interesting history, having been the resi- 
dence, as early as 1636, of the persecuted divine just named — 
Roger Williams — who for his invading religious opinions and 
progressive political principles was compelled, during the dark 
days of winter, to flee for rest to the savage but yet more 
hospitable Narragansett country, beyond the colonial jurisdiction, 
where he founded the plantation that finally became the state 
of Rhode Island. The name " witch house," arose from the 
circumstance that beneath its roof some of the witchcraft exam- 
inations, in 1692, are alleged to have taken place. 

But it is not expedient to travel much into places beyond our 
own borders for illustrative examples. 



Pictorial Addenda. 



321 



For a period reaching back far beyond the time to which any 
man's memory extends, the cheap, unadorned cottage, or plain, 
one-story dwelHng, has been common in Lynn, with those of 
limited means. And since that poor man's godsend, the street 
rail-road, has been extended to the out-lying neighborhoods, such 
have sprung up in increased numbers. It is a grand thing for a 
man to own his home, be it ever so humble. It makes him a 
better citizen — more fixed in his habits, more contented, and 
more ambitious to maintain a creditable position. An example 
of this kind of habitation may be seen on page 166. But Lynn 
has homes of all grades, and is not deficient in the sumptuous 
class concomitant to wealth and gentility. 




ELMWOOD. 

Country Residence of the late Hon. E. R. Mudge. 

The above is a picture of the beautiful summer home of the 
late eminent merchant and highly respected citizen, Hon. E. R. 
Mudge, and that in which he died, with such startling suddenness, 
on the first day of October, 1881. There are residences in Lynn 

21 



322 Pictorial Addenda. 

of probably greater cost, but none, it is believed, that indicate 
more refined taste or are more attractive in surroundings. 
But our illustrated " annex" must not exceed due limits. 

The rapidity with which the vacant territory of Lynn is being 
occupied, warns us that few years will elapse before most of the 
beauty and romance of her surroundings will be extinguished. 
There are competent artists among us who would be glad to 
apply their skill to the preservation of scenes which to us of this 
day are sources of so much enjoyment, and which by those of 
future generations would be viewed with ten-fold delight. But 
artists, as a rule, are not overburdened with this world's goods, 
and are seldom able to labor without the cheering hope of some 
pecuniary reward. And it may well be lamented that so few 
of those who would fain be reckoned among the wealthy and 
cultured have little taste for rich adornments of the character 
here alluded to, or any thought of employing a small amount 
of their substance for the gratification of those who in future 
years may occupy this goodly heritage. 

On the three following leaves are re-produced — for they appear 
in our 1865 edition — illustrations which preserve at least a 
glimpse of what has been. They are from faithful sketches 
made for the writer, in 1864. 

"Forest Place" has already been shorn of its most attractive 
features — groves and shady walks have disappeared, and high- 
ways and by-ways, with ambitious habitations, intruded. See 
page 33. And even the Point of Pines — recognizable by the 
house and flag-staff in the distance — has yielded to the march 
of improvement, and become an alluring resort. See page 244. 

" Lynnmere" retains many of her old-time charms ; and when 
shorn of her natural beauties her interesting history will survive. 

The view represented by the other picture, and our last, has 
undergone but comparatively little change. The point from 
which it was taken being a sort of rocky fastness has withstood 
the invading march of the destroyer. But the vacant lands 
in front are already penetrated by streets ; house-lots are staked 
out and dwellings appearing. The rear lands, however, remain 
almost unchanged ; and old ocean still perfects the view — old 
ocean, ever changing, ever grand, in sunshine and in storm. 



SUPPLEMENT. 



ANNALS. 
1882. 

The winter of 1881 and '82 was rather remarkable for the 
quantity of snow, and the long time the earth remained cov- 
ered. A storm began on the afternoon of January 31, during 
which some eighteen inches fell. And on the next Sunday, 
Feb. 5, a snow storm occurred that was not for many years 
before exceeded in violence. The drifts in some places were 
for a time insurmountable ; and services at several of the 
principal churches were omitted. 

On the night of Feb. 15, a building on Munroe street, 
owned by Charles G. Clark, together with one or two others, 
was burned, causing a loss of some $20,000. 

The Grand Army Coliseum, on Summer street, was dedi- 
cated March 15, with appropriate ceremonies. Its seating 
capacity is much greater than any other place of assembly 
hitherto erected here. 

On the morning of the 15th of March, just before the time 
for w^orkmen to assemble, a terrific steam boiler explosion 
took place in the rear of the Goodwin last factory, in Spring 
street. The engineer was killed, and several others badly 
wounded. One or two adjacent buildings were much damaged,, 
and a piece of the boiler, weighing about 1,500 pounds, was 
thrown two hundred feet up into the air, and fell in Newhall 
street, seven hundred feet distant. 

A fire occurred on the morning of April 22, at Houghton, 
Godfrey & Dean's paper warehouse. Central avenue, de- 
stroying property to the amount of $3,000. 

Electric lights made their appearance here, in the spring. 

At midnight, May 12, according to the weather reports, the 
thermometer, in L3mn and vicinity, reached a lower degree 
than in any other part of the United States ; yet it was not so 
low as to be particularly noticeable. 

Memorial Day, May 30, was observed as usual ; address 
by Comrade James M. Tanner, of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

(329) Sup. I. 



330 ANNALS OF LYNN 1882. 

Glen Lewis was consecrated, May 30. 

Barnum's " greatest show on earth" visited Lynn, July 22. 
Some half a score of elephants appeared in the street parade. 
The giant elephant Jumbo and the nursing baby elephant 
were both members of the caravan. Some 25,000 persons 
attended the exhibition, and the amount of money received 
for admission reached nearly $11,000. The show consisted 
of a large collecton of animals, equestrian, acrobatic, and 
other circus and semi-dramatic performances. It was, no 
doubt, the grandest and most costly show ever in Lynn. 

An explosion of a part of the underground equipment of 
the Citizens' Steam Heating Company, at the corner of Wash- 
ington and Munroe streets, took place, July 27, injuring the 
street somewhat, and throwing up stones and gravel to the 
danger and fright of persons in the vicinity. And subse- 
quently other explosions took place inducing an appeal to the 
city authorities for protection. 

Nickerson's oil-clothing factory, in Swampscott, was burned 
August 4. Miss Emma Stone, employed in the establishment, 
lost her life, and the loss of property amounted to about 
$9,000. 

An extraordinary drought prevailed during the latter part 
of the summer. Most of the crops about Lynn were abso- 
lutely ruined, the unripe fruit dropped from the trees, and 
much of the shrubbery and many of the trees had the appear- 
ance of having been exposed to fire blasts. Yet the springs 
and wells did not indicate any very marked deficiency of 
moisture somewhat below the surface. We had an uncom- 
monly long succession of very warm days, with westerly 
winds and clear skies. And the peculiar effect on vegetation 
was, no doubt, attributable rather to the burning sun than the 
lack of moisture. The spring was backward by full two 
weeks, and the weather was on the whole anomalous, most 
of the year. 

The Ocean House, in Swampscott, a summer hotel of con- 
siderable note, was destroyed by fire on the evening of Sep- 
tember 6. It was a large wooden building, six stories in 
front and five in the rear. The loss was about $65,000. 

In October, the fare to or from Boston was reduced to five 
cents on all the trains of the Narrow-gauge Rail-road, and 
on a part of those of the Eastern. 

Mayor Lovering was, on the 7th of November, elected a 
member of the U.S. Congress — the second L3'nn man ever 
chosen for that honorable position. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1883. 



331 



The morning sky for several weeks in October and November 
was adorned by a splendid comet which rose two or three hours 
before the sun, in the south-east. Avery good representation 
of it, as seen from High Rock, is here given. The steeple of 
the Central Church, in Silsbee street, is seen on the right of the 
picture, and Phillips's Point, Swampscott, on the left Astrono- 
mers had wonderful stories to tell of this comet — its incon- 
ceivable speed and partial disruption as if by some collision. 




Comet of 1882. 

18 83. 
^ Electric works established in Lynn. They rapidly developed 
into a very large business, the factory buildings occupying a 
good part of Centre and Federal streets. Lynn capitalists 
invested largely. A visible impulse was soon felt in real estate 
movements, and all the westerly part of the city, even to the 
woody highlands, was presently booming, to use a current 
expression of the time. The company was chartered in Connec- 
ticut, but soon became practically a Lynn enterprise, the plant 
being brought hither. Professor Elihu Thomson, an experi- 
enced electrician, was prominent in the business, and by perse- 
vering studies concerning the nature and application of electricity 
was able to add much to the substantial character and success 
of the business. Something more will be said of these works, 
in the proper place, further on. 

The Sweetser building, corner of Central avenue and Oxford 
street, was burned Jan. 26. Loss, $81,000. 



332 ANNALS OF LYNN 1884. 

The Lynn Hospital, incorporated in 1880, was opened for the 
reception of patients, March 12. Facts concerning this benefi- 
cent institution appear elsewhere in these pages. 

Col. Gardiner Tufts publishes, in the Lynn Transcript, during 
this year, a series of articles on the " Old Choirs of Lynn," em- 
bodying many interesting facts concerning the history of music 
here, anecdotes of early musicians, and well-timed suggestions. 

Fales Henry Newhall, D. D., a minister of the Methodist 
denomination, of more than ordinary ability and scholarship, died 
at the Asylum for the Insane at Worcester, April 6. He was 
born in Saugus, June 19, 1827, graduated at the Wesleyan Uni- 
versity, with the 1846 class, soon prepared for the ministry, and 
held prominent appointments, till overtaken by mental disorder 
from which he never entirely recovered. 

The semi-centennial anniversary of the First Universalist 
Society was celebrated in the Nahant street church, April 29. 
A free banquet was served on the following evening. 

The street railway to Peabody was opened for travel. May 15. 

Died in Lynn, May 17, Mrs. Lydia E. Pinkham, aged 64. 
She was known throughout the country and to some extent 
throughout the civilized world, as proprietor of a popular patent 
medicine. Her portrait adorned numerous publications in con- 
nection with advertisements of her specific. She was a woman 
of intelligence and excellent character. 

May 30. The Memorial Day address, delivered in the Coli- 
seum, was by George H. Patch, of Framingham. 

The Soldiers' Monument, Swampscott, was dedicated June 16. 

The Boscobel, probably the best appointed hotel ever estab- 
lished in Lynn up to this time, was opened in October. It was 
a part of the fine brick structure near the west end of the Com- 
mon, known as the Arcade. But it was not successful in the 
intended line, and in four or five years ceased to rank as a hotel. 
The name was from Shakspeare. 

1884. 

John W. Skinner, for many years prominent in musical circles, 
died very suddenly, Jan. 4, aged 73. He rendered efficient 
service in church choirs, before the introduction of organs, by 
skill on the double-bass viol, trombone and other instruments. 

A Grand Army fair closed, March 19. 29,550 tickets were sold. 

Theophilus N. Breed died March 21, aged j8. He was for 
many years an active business man, chiefly in the line of hard 
ware and shoemakers' tools. He was perseveringly inclined to 
making "improvements," sometimes much to his pecuniary 
detriment. His name will long survive in the picturesque and 
useful lakelet known as Breed's Pond, which he formed by 
building a dam across the valley at Oak street. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1885. 333 

The annual session of the New England Methodist Confer- 
ence began in the First Methodist Church, April 2. 

A Lasters' fair closed March 25. 30,272 tickets were sold. 

Miss Maria Monds died at the Home for Aged Women, 
April 4, aged 81. She was a native of London, Eng., but 
came to Lynn in 1836, and was the first teacher on the piano 
here, was an accomplished organist and at different times did 
duty in two or three of our churches. She also taught draw- 
ing and painting, and on the whole did much to advance those 
fine arts in Lynn. At the time she came there were but three 
pianos in the town. 

John B. Tolman gives to the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, in trust, an estate on Market street, valued at $30,000, 
the income to be expended for the suppression of the sale of 
intoxicating liquors. The trust was accepted, April 26. 

May 30, Memorial Day. The address was by W.A.Simmons. 

The new organization known as the Salvation Army 
appeared in our streets, June 4, marching to the music of tam- 
bourines and other instruments. This new order of religious en- 
thusiasts, zealous as they were, made but few converts in Lynn. 

Lightning struck in Chatham street, June 5, killing a lad 
of 12 years, named John Tyler, and considerably injuring 
two of his companions. 

The city was divided into voting precincts in June. 

The street railway to Marblehead was opened June 25. 

Government commenced dredging Lynn harbor this summer. 

Died, Oct, 23, at the great age of 99 years, Francis Johnson, 
a native of Ireland, but for many years a resident of Lynn. 

Home for Inebriates, New Ocean street, established, Oct. 27. 

The ladies open a grand fair for the benefit of Lynn Hospital, 
Dec. 2. 

1885. 

James M. Sargent died, Jan. 5. He was born in Haverhill, 
Jan. 20, 1 8 10, and came to Lynn in 1829. Here he soon ac- 
quired a knowledge of shoemaking and for many years was a 
member of the craft. He held various offices of public trust 
and in all of them acquitted himself with marked fidelity. He 
was a member of the First Universalist Society, from its founda- 
tion, in 1833 ; was elected clerk at the time of the organization, 
and for more than fifty years, till the time of his death, continued 
in the office. 

The Lynn National Bank was organized this year. 

Several destructive fires occurred in the early part of this year. 
Jan. II, by a fire in Henry A. Pevear's building, Washington 
street, there was a loss amounting to $3,337. By the burning of 



334 ANNALS OK LYNX 1885. 

Liician Newhall's wooden building, on Central avenue, Feb. 17, 
there was a loss of $56,600. By a fire in C. B. Tebbetts's brick 
building on Willow street, Feb. 17, the loss was $3,760. 

March 20. Lynn Associated Charities organized. 

Rev, Dr. Pullman, as minister of the First Universalist Church, 
occupied the pulpit for the first time, April 12. 

Col. Carroll D. Wright delivered the Memorial Day Address. 

Trinity (Methodist) Church, Tower Hill, dedicated June 4. 
Church of the Incarnation (Episcopal) formally organized, June 
9. St. Joseph's (Roman Catholic) Church consecrated, June 21. 

Church bells tolled, July 23, in observance of the death of 
President Grant, and a special meeting of the City Council was 
held, at which resolutions of respect were passed. On the 8th 
of August commemorative services were held in the Coliseum, 
business being generally suspended and insignia of mourning 
displayed in many places. 

Hon. John Batchelder died, Aug. 6, aged 80. He was born 
in Topsfield, but came to Lynn when about twenty-five years 
of age, and took the position of teacher of the fifth ward gram- 
mar school, which position he held till 1854. He was then 
elected to the State Senate, and by re-elections remained in 
that body for two other terms. He also held positions in our 
municipal government, and in every place performed the duties 
with promptness and fidelity. In 1857 he was again in harness 
as a teacher; but in 1869 he bade a final adieu to the profession, 
being then appointed postmaster. The latter office he held till 
1877. The incipient moulding of many a worthy character may 
justly be attributed to him. 

Died in London, Eng., Aug 17, Minot Tirrell, aged 55. He 
was for many years a well-known resident of Lynn, though not 
a native. To his enterprise and wealth the westerly section 
of the town especially was greatly indebted for substantial im- 
provements. The first building of the electric works, the Bos- 
cobel, the Mildred Range, and a large number of other structures 
are examples of his liberal expenditure and enterprise. Indeed 
he gave an impetus to the business of our western section, that 
cannot fail to be long felt. He studied law and was admitted 
as a regular practitioner, but did not entirely or for any long 
time apply himself to the duties of a profession that was not 
probably congenial. He had generous and kindly traits, and 
considerable literary taste, but unfortunately possessed a temper 
that was at times almost uncontrollable, a circumstance that 
detracted from his social popularity. His remains were em- 
balmed and reached Lynn, Sept. 8. 

The large brick building, owned by Lucius Beebe and Son, 
Western avenue, corner of Federal street, occupied as a glove-kid 
and morocco factory, was burned Sept. 3. Loss, $75»500. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1886. 335 

Corner stone of the Church of the Incarnation laid, Sept. 25, 
Bishop Paddock dehvering an appropriate address. 

A heavy thunder storm, Oct. 3, flooded several business places 
in and near Munroe street, and delayed railroad trains. 

Lynn Shoe and Leather Association organized, Oct. 9. 

Horse car line through Washington street opened, Nov. 30. 

1 8 8 G . 

Died in Lynnfield, Jan. 17, Rev. Jacob Hood, aged 94. He 
was a school teacher in early life, of a thoughtful, serious turn 
of mind and always much respected. He belonged to the old 
Hood family of Lynn and Nahant. 

Benjamin A. Ward, a well-known citizen, was, on the night 
of Feb. I, attacked by three highwaymen, who severely assaulted 
him and robbed him of eighty dollars and a gold watch. He 
was on his way home from his office in Central square, and the 
attack was made on Chestnut street. One of the robbers, named 
Timmins, was soon arrested, and in due course of law sentenced 
to the state prison for fifteen years, where, in about two years, he 
died. The two others were convicted in New York of prior 
offences and sent to Sing-Sing prison, each for fifteen years. 

An unusual overflow of the water courses took place in and 
about Lynn during February, caused by the falling of abundant 
rains on the frozen ground. Meadows were changed to lakes 
and in some localities basements were abandoned and boats called 
into use. The Sluice pond gate was opened, February 13, to 
save the dam. 

The Lynn Daily Item and the Daily Bee, newspapers that 
had before been published at one cent per copy, raised the price 
to two cents, March i. 

Mechanics' Exchange formally opened, April i. 

Grand Army building, Andrew street, dedicated, April 21. 

St. Stephen's chimes rang for the first time, April 25, Easter 
day. This was the first set of bells Lynn ever had. 

Hon. Josiah C. Bennett gives to the Lynn Hospital the entire 
amount of his year's salary as Senator — $652. 

Rev. George A. Crawford delivered the Memorial Day address, 
in the Coliseum, May 31. 

There was a rowing regatta in Lynn harbor, June 19. 

Lynn contributed $2,060 for relief of the sufferers by the 
destructive earthquake at Charleston, S. C, Aug. 31. And St. 
Stephen's Church sent a separate donation of ^'j'j towards repair- 
ing the shattered tower of the venerable St. Michael's. 

On the 25th of September Capt. Martin V. B. Stone of Swamp- 
scott received an ovation in consideration of his triumph in the 
race for the America's prize cup between the yacht Mayflower 
under his command, and the English yacht Galatea, under 



33^ ANNALS OF LYNN 1887. 

command of Lieut. Henn. A gold watch, bearing an engraved 
representation of the yacht, was presented. 

Nov. 22, the da}'^ on which ex-President Arthur was buried, 
marks of respect were shown in Lynn by the closing of public 
offices, raising flags at half-mast, and the execution of a dirge 
on St. Stephen's bells. 

The religious Society of the New Jerusalem (Swedenborgian) 
was formed this year. The French Catholic Church was also 
organized. 

1887. 

On Thursday evening, Jan. 13, Washington Irving Bishop 
gave an exhibition of his power of " mind reading," in Music 
Hall, to an intelligent though rather small audience. A some- 
what pretentious circular had heralded his coming, giving ac- 
counts of his marvelous success before sovereigns and nobles 
in Europe. But it did not appear that his feats were more 
astonishing than those of some others of humbler pretension 
who had from time to time appeared here as illustrators of 
*' mental science." 

A successful fair was held by Post 5 of the Grand Army, 
commencing Feb. 15. The net proceeds amounted to $8,623.48. 

On the 25th of February, President Cleveland sent to the U. 
S. Senate a message vetoing the bill passed by Congress appro- 
priating $ico,ooo for the erection of a public building in Lynn, 
chiefly for postofifice accommodation. The President's reasons 
were generally viewed with candor though considerable disap- 
pointment was felt. 

On the 28th of Feb. the enthusiastic revivalist, " Sam Small," 
commenced a series of meetings in the First Methodist Church. 
They were well attended, and closed March 6. Honest seekers 
after good, and others from idle curiosity were there. 

Henry A. Breed, a well-known citizen, died April 15, aged 86. 
He was a descendant from the early Lynn settler, Allen Breed, 
and a son of Thomas A. Breed, for many years onward from 
18 1 3, landlord of Lynn Hotel, which, under his management, 
attained an enviable reputation. Henry A. commenced his 
active business life about 18 19, did a great deal in the building 
line, and was zealous in forwarding improvements of almost 
every kind. Being of a sanguine and somewhat credulous turn, 
and withal attracted by projects of a speculative character, he had 
serious business ups and downs ; the finality being of the latter 
sort. But he always maintained the respect and good-will of his 
fellow citizens by his genial manners, readiness to aid the unfor- 
tunate, and other good qualities. His business prostrations 
were undoubtedly sometimes attributable to over-confidence in 
his own ability to " read " those with whom he dealt ; but more 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1887. 337 

often in the ability of those others, not half as honest as he, to 
" read " him. He was one of the founders of the Second Con- 
gregational (Unitarian) Society, and was a devoted member till 
his death. He was for many years a member of Mount Carmel 
Lodge of Freemasons, and likewise an accredited member of the 
fraternity of Odd Fellows. 

The Memorial Day address was delivered by Rev. Henry E. 
Mott, of Newburyport, May 30. 

Hon. James N. Buffum died June 12. He was for many 
years a marked character among us ; bright, busy, of positive 
opinions, readiness of expression, great perseverance and withal 
of kindly sympathies and benevolent instincts. He was born in 
North Berwick, Me., May i6, 1807, and was what is usually called 
a self-made man. And it would be doing violence to the general 
sentiment of the community to intimate that he was not well 
made. He married, April 20, 1831, a daughter of Dr. John 
Lummus, and by her had three daughters, two of whom survive 
him. He was twice Mayor — 1869 and 1872 ; and likewise 
served a term in the Legislature. 

The Robert E. Lee Camp of Confederate Veterans, of Rich- 
mond, Va., visited Post 5 of the Grand Army, Lynn, June 18. A 
banquet was held in a capacious tent on the Common, and the 
most fraternal feeling was manifested among those who had 
met as antagonists on the battle field. It was an occasion of 
much more than ordinary interest. Col. Allen G. Shepherd 
acted as Chief Marshal. A delegation of Post 5, 160 in number, 
left Lynn, July i, on a return visit to the Confederate Veterans, 
and after an absence of eight days reached home, on the whole 
well pleased with their excursion. 

On the 8th of July, the old mill on Saugus river, at the Boston 
street crossing, was burned. This was a famdus mill, for gene- 
rations, and did faithful service as a grist, snuff, and spice mill. 
More especially did its product in the shape of Childs's chocolate 
become an admired article the world over. 

On the 3d of August the Mayors of several Massachusetts cities 
visited Lynn by invitation of Mayor Hart. The Mayors of Bos- 
ton, Brockton, Chelsea, Fitchburg, Gloucester, Haverhill, Law- 
rence, Lowell, Newburyport, Northampton, Somerville, Waltham 
and Worcester came. The conclusion of the day's entertainment 
was a drive to Nahant, and a banquet at the Bass Point House. 

Died, Aug. 7, at his home in Summer street, Hon. Edward S. 
Davis, aged 79. He was a native of Lynn, and a descendant 
of Rev. Stephen Bachelor, the first minister. There was a 
marked difference between Mr. Buffum, just spoken of, and Mr. 
Davis, the one being bold, aggressive and sometimes even defi- 
ant ; while the other was quiet and unassuming, possessing 
indeed those amiable characteristics that are often mistaken for 

Sup. 2. 



338 ANNALS OF LYNN 1888. 

timidity. But each had the respect of his fellow-citizens in a 
large degree, and each in his own sphere did much that was highly- 
appreciated. Mr. Davis had a discriminating literary taste and 
accumulated a large library. He was considerably in public 
life ; was four years President of the Common Council, and two 
years Mayor. He likewise for a term represented the town in 
the Legislature. In religious sentiment he was long and firmly 
attached to the Episcopal Church, and probably did more than 
any other to plant the Church in the once rather uncongenial 
soil of Lynn. The resolutions of respect passed by the various 
bodies, literary, benevolent and religious, with which he was 
connected, fully attested to the high esteem in which he was held. 
Mr. Davis was happy in his domestic relations. On the 26th 
of March, 1835, he was united in marriage with Elvira, daughter 
of Capt. Nathaniel Newhall, and she survives him. They had 
no children. 

The newly-established " Labor Day " was first celebrated here, 
September 5. 

By a fire on Lamper's wharf, Sept. 1 1, nineteen horses perished. 

A notable ceremony took place in St. Mary's (Roman Catho- 
lic) Church, Oct. 18, namely, the investment of Rev. Patrick 
Strain with the title and insignia of Monsignor. He had been 
a faithful and laborious minister of the Church here, for nearly 
forty years, having commenced in January, 185 1. His labors 
had been wonderfully successful and well deserving the honor 
conferred. An approved writer, in giving an account of the 
ceremony, said : " At the present time, in the very townships 
where Mgr. Strain labored for years without a coadjutor ten hard 
worked priests administer to the wants of the faithful. And 
now this priest of 65 autumns and 37 years of relentless struggle, 
begins to reap the golden harvest of his arduous labors. He is 
made a Permanent Rector, by order of the late Council of Balti- 
more, with the approbation of his venerable Archbishop. Again 
we find him raised to the dignity of Missionary Apostolic of the 
Holy See, and to-day he has received officially the purple of a 
Roman prelate with the title of Very Reverend Monsignor, the 
first resident priest of New England thus honored." 

The French Catholic Church — St. Jean Baptiste — on Frank- 
lin street, was consecrated Dec. 4. The edifice cost ;^26,500. 

1888. 

The Camera Club was formed early this year. They soon 
began to exhibit marked progress in the fascinating art of pho- 
tography, and their exhibitions were largely attended by highly 
gratified audiences. 

The factory of Thomas Green and Company, Summer street, 
was burned May 15. Loss, $21,000. 



ANNALS OF LYNN lOOO. 339 

Died, in East Walpole, Mass., May 22, Rev. Edwin Thompson, 
aged 78. He was a native of Lynn, and well-known, from early 
life, as an ardent advocate of temperance and an inflexible oppo- 
nent of slavery. He was intelligent, affable in manners, candid 
in discussion, and impressed every one with a conviction of his 
entire sincerity. His parents belonged to the Society of Friends, 
but he swerved from the faith of his fathers, and was one of the 
first and most efficient workers in the foundation of the First 
Universalist Church, and became a minister of the order. His 
zealous advocacy of reformatory principles led to association 
with many of the leading philanthropists of the time, and the 
expressions of deep regard from such men as Wendell Phillips 
and the poet Whittier, were sufficiently indicative of the high 
place he held in the respect of the community. 

Gen. Devens was orator on Memorial Day. 572 soldiers' 
graves were decorated. 

John T. Moulton and Isaac O. Guild, two well-known citizens, 
erected this year, in the old burying ground, a stone to mark the 
grave of " Moll Pitcher," the renowned fortune teller. She died 
in 181 3, and her grave had remained unmarked and almost 
unknown for seventy-five years. They ascertained the burial 
spot by one who was present at her funeral. 

The Lynn Belt Line Street Railway Company was organized 
August 22. 

The new armory of the military companies I and D, on 
Franklin street, was informally opened, on the evening of Aug. 
24. The grand dedication ball took place Oct. 26. 

The Lynn Theatre, Summer street, was opened Sept. 6, with 
the play " Lights of London." 

The Highland Circuit Street Railway was opened Sept 4. 
Electricity was applied as propelling power, Nov. 19. 

George Hussey Chase died at his residence, Newhall street, 
Sept. 5, aged 62. His natural abilities were above the average, 
and receiving a good education his mind became rapidly stored 
with varied and available information. He became an accom- 
plished public speaker, and his stirring addresses were replete 
with good common sense and well-rounded periods. Indeed 
he was for many years known as " the orator of Lynn." By 
President Lincoln he was appointed postmaster, and held the 
office eight years. For years he was a participant in the man- 
agement of our municipal affairs ; was a member of the Legisla- 
ture ; and in 1880 was appointed deputy collector of customs, in 
which position he remained till his death. In social life he was 
attractive ; and in his latter years, having visited other lands, 
was able to give descriptions that were keenly relished by those 
who had an opportunity to listen to his graphic details and 
shrewd deductions. 



340 ANNALS OF LYNN — 

St. Luke's (Methodist) Church was dedicated October 28. 

Hon. WilHam F. Johnson died at Nahant, Nov, 24. He 
was born on Nahant, then a part of Lynn, July 30, 1819, and 
was a son of the peninsular patriarch, Caleb Johnson, who 
was also born there and lived to about the age of ninety. 
The early education of Mr. Johnson was somewhat limited, 
so far as book instruction was concerned, but his quick appre- 
hension and taste for reading, his penetrating examination 
of current subjects, and patient inquiry into the wherefore of 
things, soon placed him among the most intelligent. For the 
wear and tear of mercantile life he soon seemed to discover 
that he was not well adapted, and hence, as soon as circum- 
stances permitted, accepted more quiet and congenial employ- 
ment. For many years he was Secretary of the Lynn Mutual 
Fire Insurance Company, and during his official period that 
institution lost nothing of its high reputation. But his daily 
duties at the desk did not prevent his cordial participation in 
the benevolent, reformatory and social movements of the day. 
The Hospital and the Home for Aged Women, especially, 
had his sympathy, his labors, and his contributions. In munici- 
pal affairs Mr. Johnson bore a conspicuous part for man}" 
years, always doing faithful service. He held the office of 
Mayor in 1858, fulhlling the duties with credit and ability. 
He was genial in manners, a faithful friend and the enemy 
of none ; and one of the attractive few who are welcome 
every where. In religious affiliation he was for some time a 
member of the Baptist connection, but in middle life became 
a member of the Episcopal church, and remained steadfast in 
that communion to the end of his life. For a number of years 
he was a warden of St. Stephen's, and on the organization 
of the Church of the Incarnation, was elected to the same 
office in that body. He did much to promote the growth of 
his beloved church in Lynn. Mr. Johnson was thrice mar- 
ried, and left a widow and four children. His funeral took 
place on the afternoon of Nov. 27, from the Church of the 
Incarnation. 

Lennox's brick factory. Market street, with other buildings, 
was burned, Dec. 22. Loss, $136,000. 

J. W. Lewis & Co. of Philadelphia, publish their History 
of Essex County, 2129 pages, large quarto. The Lynn 
chapters occupy 127 pages. The first volume contains some 
thirty fine portraits of business and professional citizens, ac- 
companied by biographical sketches. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1889. 34I 

1889. 

John W. Berry was appointed Judge of Lynn Police Court, 
Jan. 23, succeeding RoUin E. Harmon who had resigned to 
take the office of Judge of Probate for Essex County. 

Philip Pitts, a police officer of Saugus, died in Lynn Hos- 
pital, Jan. 26. He was on duty in Cliftondale on the night of 
Jan. 23, when he was shot by a burglar, the wound proving 
fatal. 

On the evening of Jan. 30, the planing mill near the south- 
erly end of Commercial street was burned, with one or two 
smaller buildings. Loss about $25,000. 

Josiah F. Kimball died in Boston, Feb. 3, aged 68. He 
was a native of Ipswich, but came to Lynn in early life and 
learned the printing business in the Freeman office, which 
business he followed many years, as printer, publisher, and 
editor. Few men were better known or more highly respected. 
He was careful that any paper issued by him should be what 
is known as a "clean paper" — free from sensationalism, 
unkind personalities or erroneous statements of any kind. 
His literary taste was far above mediocrity, and he wrote 
many poems, largely of a humorous character, that were 
widely circulated and deservedly praised. He held various 
public offices ; served in the Legislature ; and for several 
years held a position in the Boston Custom House. He was 
nurtured in the old New England orthodox faith, but in man- 
hood became a devoted member of the Episcopal Church. 
His funeral took place from St. Stephen's, which had long 
been his spiritual home. His first wife was a daughter of 
County Treasurer Wade ; and his second, who survived him, 
was a lady from Portsmouth, N.H. He had no issue. 

The Light Infantry and Wooldredge Guards left Lynn for 
Washington, March 2, to take part in the ceremonies of the 
inauguration of President Harrison, and returned, March 7, much 
pleased by their trip and reception. 

Died in Tyson, Vt., March 2, Lewis Josselyn, aged '^t^. Mr. 
Josselyn was a prominent figure in Lynn for a number of years. 
Editors are usually conspicuous members of the community ; 
especially such editors as Mr. Josselyn — so alert, so ubiquitous. 
He was editor, proprietor and publisher of the " Lynn Bay 
State," a large and handsome weekly sheet, of pronounced Dem- 
ocratic principles. He was a vigorous writer and occupied a 
prominent place in the editorial fraternity of New England. 
Few persons connected with the newspaper press had a more 
just conception of the duties and responsibilities of an editor ; 
and the spirit of fairness that characterised the trenchant ema- 



342 ANNALS OF LYNN 1889. 

nations from his pen was worthy of imitation. He made an 
attempt, in connection with his son, to estabHsh a daily " Bay 
State," but the golden day evidently had not arrived when 
every town, village and hamlet could rejoice in its daily service 
of news from every quarter of the globe, seasoned, in too many 
instances, with neighborhood gossip and social scandal — and so 
the attempt was given over. Mr. Josselyn was a native of Pem- 
broke, Plymouth county. During his career he held various offi- 
ces ; was at one time Clerk of the House of Representatives, and 
held positions in the Boston and Salem Custom Houses. He was 
what was known as a war democrat during the civil war, and 
fought vigorously with pen and tongue in the Union cause. The 
most daring partisan did not venture to call him a "copper head." 

Hon. Edwin Walden died, March 12, aged 70, He was born 
here and educated in the public schools of Ward 6, of which 
Ward he was a native. For many years he was connected 
with the shoe business ; but in mature life was more especially 
known for his excellent management in public affairs. Though 
at times exhibiting strong party feeling, he always acted from 
settled principle and w^ell-considered convictions. One so 
qualified, with such utilitarian views and forecast, could not 
fail of being closely identified with public affairs. In munici- 
pal matters, after serving in both branches of the Council, he 
found himself, in 1870, in the Mayor's chair, where he re- 
mained for two terms, doing the duties fearlessly and wdth 
the unfeigned applause of the most considerate and unpreju- 
diced. But perhaps he was best known by his persevering 
and judicious labors as one of the moving spirits in the at- 
tainment of our now generous supply of pure water. The 
series of plans which have so favorably resulted are in a large 
degree attributable to his foresight, sagacity and perseverance. 
And it seems most fitting that the last-formed and most beau- 
tiful lakelet — Walden pond — should bear his name. He 
served in several State offices, with increasing reputation for 
devotion to duty and for promptness and vigor of action ; was 
a Representative and a Senator, and a commissioner in two or 
three important State projects. As President of the Boston, 
Rev^'ere Beach and Lynn Railroad, his services were apparent 
in the unvarying success of the corporation, notwithstanding 
the grave doubts and surmises that attended its inauguration. 
Mrs. Walden and five children survived the husband and 
father. 

General Joshua L. Chamberlain delivered the Memorial 
Day address. May 30. 

Lynn contributed something rising $5,000 for the sufferers 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1889. 343 

by the terrible disaster at Johnstown, Pa. , that occurred May 3 1 , 
by the breaking of the dam of the great reservoir 450 feet 
above the town and some 12 miles distant, at the upper end 
of the valley. The dam held a body of water covering 750 
acres and of an average depth of 30 feet. From 4,000 to 
5,000 lives appear to have been lost, and 2, 500 houses destroyed. 
Estimates as to the loss of lives however, varied, some plac- 
ing the number higher than 5,000. The place was substan- 
tially destroyed. 

Died in Lynn, June 28, Maria Mitchell, for many years 
professor of astronomy in Vassar College, aged 70. She 
was known throughout the scientific world for her attainments, 
especially in astronomy. She was a native of Nantucket, 
and inherited from her father a love for scientific pursuits and 
power of application. 

A sudden tempest arose about noon, July 23d, with vivid 
lightning and heavy thunder. Damage was done in some 
parts of the city by the heavy rainfall, and the lightning 
struck in several places. One of the electric cars was stopped 
by the melting of a wire. 

The annual parade of the Essex Count}^ Odd Fellows took 
place in Lynn, Sept. 24. The weather wasfine, and about 1,200 
members marched in line. Many buildings were decorated. 

A notable military parade took place in Lynn, Oct. 3d. 
The Fifth, Eighth and Ninth Regiments of Infantry, the First 
and Second Battalions of Artillery, the Second Battalion of 
Cavalry, Signal and Ambulance Corps, appeared and made 
an extended march through a number of our principal streets 
with several bands of music. The day was beautiful, and 
there was a large gathering of spectators. A barricade was 
thrown across Market street, near Liberty, and a feigned mob 
assembled to intercept the march of the troops. Four lines 
of skirmishers approached the barricade, and a gatling gun 
being brought to bear, the mob dispersed and the victors, 
clearing away the debris, marched on triumphantly. Evi- 
dently General Peach, the commander of the victorious forces, 
had a good conception of the manner in which a mob should 
be met. 

The Walnut and Washington streets electric line of cars 
from the Myrtle street stable to Central square was opened 
October 3. 

The U.S. General Convention of Universalists was held in 
Lynn, Oct. 22, and continued four days. More than a thou- 
sand delegates and friends attended. 



344 ANNALS OF LYNN 1889. 

American flags were raised on several of the public school 
buildings during November — on the Burrill, Nov. 4; on the 
Ingalls, Nov. 9; on the Shepard, Nov. 12. On the 15th, 
Post 5 of the Grand Army presented a flag to the Classical 
High School. By such means it was thought the youth 
would be more thoroughly imbued with patriotic sentiments. 

At the State election, Nov. 5, our citizens for the first time 
had an opportunity to vote under what has been called the 
Australian system, a system which seems substantially to have 
been evolved by the genius of the Australians, and which 
enables the voter to ballot with the utmost privacy. It had 
marked success and was highly praised for its convenience, 
its secrecy, and its avoidance of confusion and excitement at 
the polls. To Elihu B. Hayes, a Lynn Representative in the 
Legislature, much of the honor of introducing the system 
was attributed ; indeed he was called by his fellow legislators 
the father of the system in Massachusetts. 

James R. Newhall was tendered a reception, at the City 
Hall, on Christmas, that being the day on which he completed 
his four score years. The Mayor presided. 

A somewhat singular disease, under the French name 
la griff e, prevailed here, and indeed over nearly the whole 
world, during the latter part of the year. It seemed to oper- 
ate differently in different constitutions. In some cases there 
was a loss of appetite, and a tired, languid feeling. In other 
cases it suddenly seized with severe pains in the head or back, 
with slight nausea. Very few escaped its attack in some way 
and to some extent. In many instances it proved to be the pre- 
cursor of other diseases and not unfrequently terminated fatally. 

The Great Fire. The greatest calamity that ever over- 
took Lynn in her whole history occurred on the 26th of No- 
vember, of this year, 1889 ; that is, so far as loss of property 
was involved, though she was singularly fortunate in escaping 
loss of life or serious personal injury. We allude to what 
will hereafter be known as the Great Fire. 

It was about noon, of a sunny day, that the fire broke 
out in the large wooden building on Almont street known 
as Mower's block. There was a pretty high wind, and in 
an exceedingly short space of time several of the adjacent 
buildings were in flames. It soon became apparent that our 
own fire department, single handed, would be powerless to con- 
trol the conflagration ; and therefore telegraphic despatches, 
asking aid, were hastily forwarded to Boston, Chelsea, Salem, 
Gloucester, Newburyport, and a number of other places. 




Central S(^)1'akk, Lynn — Bcfoir f/n- great Fire' of Xcn^. 26, 1889. 
[Every building represented in the cut was destroyed.] 




Mount Vernon Street, Lynn — Before the great Fire of A\n\ 26, 1889. 
[The entire length of this fine street was burned.] 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1889. 



345 



The despatches were responded to with the utmost alacrity, 
and the assistance thus promptly rendered added much to the 
ardor of our own firemen, as well as in itself being of great 
value. Within an hour or two several of the finest four or 
five-story brick business buildings were destroyed, together 
with many of inferior kind ; and still the flames raged. Four 
banks, namely, the First National, the Central National, the 
National Security, and the Lynn Institution for Savings, were 
soon out of doors ; so likewise were the three daily news- 
papers — the Bee, the Item, and the Press. 

The area of ground burned over, including streets and 
squares, was thirty-one acres, and it was in the most central 
business part of the city. The total loss, according to the 
Chief Engineer's report, was $4,959,989.08, though the State 
Commissioner's report made the loss about $2,000 less. The 
insurance was stated at $4,133,516.67. 

During the fire very commendable order was maintained, 
for the authorities, as a safeguard, promptly called out the 
military companies I and D of Lynn, and to these was added 
company H of Salem. A squad of twenty-five of the Bos- 
ton police also appeared for duty. 

The number of buildings destroyed was 334, some of them 
massive brick business structures, some wooden factories and 
some wooden dwellings. The various streets suffered in the 
loss of buildings as follows : 



Almont street 11 

Amity street 16 

Beach street 48 

Broad street 58 

Central square 17 

Exchange street 24 

Farrar street 11 

Mt. Vernon street 4 



Munroe street ...... 4 

Sagamore street 25 

Silsbee street 6 

Spring street 18 

Suffolk street 18 

Suffolk street place .... 8 

Union street 45 

Washington street .... 21 



Our active and efficient Mayor, Hon. Asa T. Newhall, was 
unwearied in his endeavors to mitigate the sufferings of those 
most severely affected personally by the calamity ; and all 
others of his official coadjutors worked with a will for the 
common good. The result was that immediate wants were 
speedily supplied. 

There was a good supply of water, but it appeared that 
some of the transmission pipes were not sufficiently large for 
such an unforeseen emergency ; a fact that gave rise to the 
apprehension that there was a deficiency. Some of the suf- 
fering business men were on the alert even while the confla- 
gration was pursuing its fiery course, to secure new quarters. 



346 ANNALS OF LYNN 1889. 

that their business might be as little interrupted as possible. 
And it was wonderful with what composure they met the 
disaster and with what energy they set about repairing their 
damaged fortunes. Some even claimed that the fire would 
prove of positive benefit, by sweeping away a number of 
dangerous old wooden structures whose places would soon 
be occupied by those of modern style, safer and more con- 
venient. 

After the fire, from various causes, chiefly, perhaps because 
land was cheaper, some manufacturers began to plan for 
locating in sections more remote from Central square ; in East 
and West Lynn, especially, railroad facilities being far better 
than they were at the time when business began to centre 
about the square. 

Lynn always contributed liberally to relieve the suffer- 
ings of others by fire or flood — the fire at Marblehead and 
the flood at Johnstown, for instance. And when the great 
calamity overtook her, she in her turn received the sympathy 
and contributions of others. The bread that she had cast 
upon the waters, when she had it to spare, floated back in 
her time of need. 

Lynn Woods. By referring to date 1881 of the Annals 
something may be found regarding the incipient movements 
in the laudable enterprise of forming a Free Public Park, 
embracing as many acres as possible of the romantic and 
eminently appropriate territory that lies along our northern 
border. The shady glens, rocky heights, towering trees, 
wild shrubbery, vagrant streams and tranquil ponds, all con- 
spire by their varied charms and historic connections to ren- 
der it most fitting for such a purpose. By a legislative act of 
1882, cities and towns are enabled to take lands for public 
parks ; and under that act Lynn has proceeded to appoint 
Park Commissioners and do such other things as are neces- 
sary to carry out what is evidently the ardent desire of the 
citizens — to possess a public ground that shall be w^orthy of 
the opportunity now presented, and enduring evidence of the 
taste, liberality and discriminating forethought of the people 
of this our day. Four beautiful ponds add their charms to 
the grounds, already secured, namely. Breed's, Birch, Wal- 
den and Glen Lewis. These measure in the aggregate three 
hundred and twelve acres. It is easy to see of what inesti- 
mable value the Park will be to future generations by keeping 
the great water-shed from which our supply comes free from 
contaminations that necessarily appertain to dense settlements. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189O. 



347 



The names of the first Board of Park Commissioners are : 
Philip A. Chase, (Chairman) ; Aaron F. Smith, C. H. Pink- 
ham, Frank W. Jones, Benjamin F. Spinney. 

Many of our people, it is probable, do not fully realize the 
value of our ponds for sanitary purposes as well as for pictur- 
esque beaut}^ Nor is it probable that a just conception of 
their number and extent is usually entertained. The princi- 
pal ones, covering five hundred and nine acres and a half, 
are as follows : 



Birch pond, 84 acres. 

Breed's pond, .... 64 " 

Cedar pond, 43 " 

Flax pond, 75 " 

Floating Bridge pond, 17 " 
Glen Lewis pond, . . 36 " 



Gold Fish pond. 
Holder's pond, 
Lily pond, . . . 
Sluice pond, . . 
Walden pond, . 



I 1-2 acres. 



7 

4 

50 

1 28 



There assuredly is a growing desire in the community for 
the preservation of natural scener}' ; and already associations 
have been formed in various places with a laudable purpose 
of giving intelligent direction to that desire. Lynn may well 
feel that in her Woods she is not only protecting and preserv- 
ing most superb natural scenery, but is at the same time ad- 
ding to her sanitary safeguards, and preparing a delightful 
field for the healthful enjoyment of old and young, rich and 
poor. 

1890. 

The members of the Lynn bar gave a banquet to James R. 
Newhall, Jan. 2, he having completed, on the previous Christ- 
mas day, his four score years, and being the oldest member 
of the bar, by years. 

Zachariah Graves died Jan. 15, aged 70. He had been a 
member of the Common Council, a County Commissioner for 
nine years, and twice a Representative in the State Legisla- 
ture. He was always trustworthy and conscientious. 

January 17, the Lvnn printers, as usual, celebrated the an- 
niversary of Franklin's birth by a banquet, gustatory and 
intellectual. 

The new building of the Camera Club was dedicated Jan. 23. 

On Jan. 27 an explosion and consequent fire took place in 
a cement factory, on Summer street, causing damage to the 
amount of $3,000. 

The modest little Primitive Methodist chapel, on Flint street, 
was dedicated Feb. 2. 

Died, Feb. 10, Oliver Ramsdell, aged 74. He was an 



348 ANNALS OF LYNN 189O. 

active and useful citizen residing in Glenmere, in which pre- 
cinct he was born ; was a prominent Methodist and did much 
for the society in his neighborhood ; was a good deal in pub- 
lic life especially in the early days of Lynn under the City 
Charter, during which time his good judgment and efficient 
action availed much. He was a member of the first two 
Common Councils. 

About the middle of February the tides ran very high, in- 
somuch that parts of old Beach street were submerged. 

The first meeting in viev/ of the establishment of a home 
for aged men was held, March 13. 

A dead whale, about 60 feet in length, was cast upon the 
shore near Sliding Rock, April 26. And the next day another, 
somewhat larger, was cast upon the S wampscott shore. They 
soon began to emit offensive odors, and were speedily removed 
to a rendering establishment. Multitudes gathered for a look 
at the huge denizens of the deep. 

The value of new buildings erected in Lynn during the 
year ending May i was $1,078,975. 

A supposed Indian skeleton was exhumed at Atlantic Ter- 
race, May 23. 

May 30, Memorial Day. The weather was fine and the 
military parade quite imposing. Other appropriate exercises 
took place during the day and evening. Hon. Myron P. 
Walker was orator. 

While Myron Smith, of Lynn, was driving on the Peabody 
road, June 11, during a heavy shower his horse was struck 
by lightning and instantly killed. 

The first complete circuit by a Belt Line car was made on 
the evening of July 3. A number of city officials and busi- 
ness men were by invitation passengers. 

Independence Day was celebrated with rather more than 
usual " pomp and circumstance." There was a long proces- 
sion, with city officials, various societies in regalia and a fine 
military escort. But perhaps the most striking feature was 
the tradesmen's display, so full was it of the insignia of the 
various crafts. 

The price of ice, which has now become a necessity rather 
than a luxury, was this summer much higher than usual ; at- 
tributable, no doubt to the fact that the mild weather of the 
preceding winter produced a much smaller crop than usual. 

A reception was given to the new rector of St. Stephen's 
Church, Rev. James H. Van Buren, July 14. 

About five o'clock on the afternoon of July 25, a short but 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189O. 349 

violent cyclone visited a limited tract in and near Robinson 
street. An unfinished dwelling house into which a number 
of school children had rushed for shelter was demolished and 
a girl, aged 13, killed. 

A rattlesnake four and a half feet in length was killed on 
Lynnfield street, July 31, thus indicating that those reptiles, 
so much dreaded by our ancestors, are not yet exterminated. 

Between nine and ten o'clock on the morning of Aug. 2, a 
fire commenced on the premises occupied by G. F. Bartol & 
Co., and others, on Munroe street, and destroyed property to 
the amount of some $11,000. An explosion of gas was sup- 
posed to have been the cause. James E. Tarbox, assistant 
engineer, lost his life by suffocation. 

On the 1 2th of August there was a great parade in Boston 
of " Boys in Blue," G.A.R. veterans of the civil w^ar. Some 
40,000 marched in line. The veterans from Lynn were con- 
spicuous by their number, and roundly applauded for their 
excellent discipline. After their return home they elicited 
much praise and many thanks for their hospitality to visiting 
troops. Post 5 kept " open house," entertaining visitors from 
Washington, D.C., Virginia, Philadelphia, Albany and Mis- 
souri. 

A great strike of morocco w^orkers in August. 

Died, Aug. 20, Darius Barry aged 77. He was a native 
of Haverhill, but came to Lynn in 1837. He was a morocco 
manufacturer, and did considerable business. Several of the 
larger manufacturers in the line, of later years, began service 
under him. He was a man of great independence of thought 
and freedom of expression, read much and well digested what 
he read. He had a poetic vein and occasionally contributed 
verses that did not fail to attract attention. And he had an 
abundance of mother wit, which sometimes exhibited itself 
in stinging sarcasm. He had, too, a wholesome contempt for 
those whose selfishness infringed on the rights of others. And 
this trait w^as curioush^ illustrated in a relation that found its 
way into the newspapers some years since, though I believe 
another name was in some instances substituted for his. It 
was of this tenor, though not always given exactly in these 
words : He entered a railroad car in Boston to take passage 
for Lynn. The car was quite full. But on one seat sat a 
man with a valise by his side, which Mr. Barry proceeded to 
remove preparatory to sitting down in its place. " But," said 
the man, " that seat is already taken ; the valise was left there 
by a gentleman who just stepped out, but will be back before 



350 ANNALS OF LYNN 189O. 

we start." "Very well," said Mr. B. whose suspicions were 
awake, " I will take the seat and give it up when the claim- 
ant comes ; and I will take good care of the valise, too, in 
the mean time." The train moved from the station and the 
gentleman did not return. " What a pity," said Mr. B., when 
they were well on the way, " that the gentleman lost his pas- 
sage ; but he shall not lose his valise, for I will see that it is 
put into safe custody so that he can recover it." " You need 
take no trouble," said the other, " I know the man and will 
take charge of it." " My dear sir," replied Mr. B., " you 
ought not to expect that. We are strangers, and I do n't know 
what your purpose is." But the valise is mine, let me tell 
you," vociferated the other, growing a little excited ; " there 
is no other man to claim it ; and I want you to give it up 
without further parley." "But," says Mr. B., "do you ex- 
pect me to believe that? You said it belonged to some one 
who had just stepped out of the car ; and how do I know but 
you want to purloin it. I can 't consent to be a participator, 
if that is your game." The result was that the valise was 
given in charge of an employee to take back to Boston for 
deposit among the uncalled for luggage ; and the poor man, 
who -undoubtedly was the owner, had to go back to the city 
to recover it. Whether Mr. B.'s lesson had any good effect 
on his future conduct is not known. Mr. Eugene Barry, son 
of Darius, became a large and successful manufacturer in 
the line so long pursued by his father. And he, too, contrib- 
uted to our local literature many choice poems, some of which 
had a circulation far beyond our own bounds. 

The new Police Station, on Sutton street, was occupied for 
the first time, Aug. 26. The cost of the building was about 
$43,000. 

A supposed Indian grave was discovered at Mt. Gilead, in 
Lynn Woods, Aug. 29. 

Labor Day, Sept. i, was appropriately celebrated. The 
weather being favorable, the procession was unusually large, 
numbering some 4,000, composed chiefly of various trade 
organizations. There was a meeting on the Common, at 
which stirring speeches were made in the interest of labor. 
And a mid-day entertainment was provided for the children. 

The name of old Beach street was changed to Washington, 
Sept. 8. 

Benjamin Sweetser, a native and life-long resident of Lynn, 
aged 82, was killed by a rail-road train at the Market street 
crossing, Sept. 18. 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189O. 35 I 

Rev. Samuel B. Stewart, minister of the Unitarian Society, 
was given an evening reception in the church parlor, Oct. 6, 
it being the conclusion of the 25th year of his pastorate. 
There was a large attendance, many from other religious 
bodies taking the opportunity to show their regard for one so 
much esteemed. 

There was a large gathering in Music Hall on Sunday 
evening, Oct. 12, to hear a discourse on the position and 
claims of labor and laboring people, by National Master 
Workman Powderly. 

The corner stone of the new High School building. High- 
land Square, was laid Oct. 22, Mayor Asa T. Newhall deliv- 
ering an appropriate address. 

Died, Oct. 22, Mrs. Lydia Rhodes, widow of Amos Rhodes, 
a lady of culture and estimable traits. Her benevolence was 
strikingly apparent in her liberal legacies to humane and ed- 
ucational institutions. Perhaps her most notable gift was that 
of $20,000 for the erection of a chapel in Pine Grove Ceme- 
tery, to be called the Rhodes Memorial Chapel, in memory of 
her husband. 

On Sunday morning, Oct. 26, the fly wheel of the Lynn 
Gas and Electric Light power station, Pleasant street, ex- 
ploded, alarming the neighborhood and doing considerable 
damage to the building and other property. 

Very high tides prevailed during the latter part of October, 
overflowing the marshes and at times impeding railroad trains. 

Died at the Home for Aged Couples, Brooklyn, N.Y., 
Rev. Joseph Blaney Breed, aged 83. He was a younger 
brother of Mayor Andrews Breed, of Henry A. Breed, for 
many years one of the most enterprising business men here, 
and of Daniel N. Breed, also long an active business man 
here, but an early emigrant to California. For a short time 
before he reached his majority Joseph Blaney acted as land- 
lord of old Lynn Hotel, then a very popular house. He was 
in his early years a zealous Unitarian, and did a great deal 
for the support of the Lynn Society in its infancy. But he 
changed his sentiments, and while still a young man, joined 
the Baptist denomination, and in that connection passed the 
remainder of his life. When he became a Baptist he gave 
up all thought of a business life and zealously applied him- 
self to study for the ministry. In due time he was ordained, 
and had settlements, during his many years of clerical service, 
in several places. Though he may not have been especially 
brilliant in the pulpit, he was greatly esteemed for his many 



352 ANNALS OF LYNN 189O. 

virtues, his zeal in every good cause, for his genial manners, and 
for his benevolent acts which were only limited by his means. 

The new Loretz steam pumping engine, at the Walnut street 
station, was ready for use, Dec. 19. Its cost, with the con- 
necting apparatus, was $50,000. 

The total loss by fires in Lynn, during 1890, was $48,987.35. 

As this year, 1890, completes forty years since the adop- 
tion of our City Charter, it may not be inappropriate to make 
a few comparisons illustrative of our progress in different 
departments during that period. 

Population in 1S50 14^257 

Population in 1890 55)727 

Valuation. 

1850 — Real Estate, $3,160,515 

Personal Estate, $1,674,328 

$4,834,843 

1890 — Real Estate, $29,390,332 

Personal Estate $11,340,046 

$40,730,378 

Rate of Taxation. 

1850 — On every $1,000 $9.00 

1S90 — On every $1,000 $i5-oo 

Voters. 

1850 — Number of polls, 3-251 

1890 — Number of polls, 17,003 

Appropriations and Receipts. 

1850 $45,000.00 

1890 $1,745,299-59 

Expenditures. 

1850 $36,704.19 

1890 $1,508,947.92 

Banks. 

1850 — Lynn Mechanics, capital, $150,000 

Laighton, capital $100,000 

Total capital $250,000 

Also Lynn Institution for Savings. 

1890 — First National, capital $500,000 

Central National, capital $200,000 

National City, capital $200,000 

National Security, capital $100,000 

Lynn National, capital $100,000 

Total capital $2,100,000 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189O, 353 

Also two Savings Banks : the Lynn Institution for Savings 
and Lynn Five Cents Savings Bank. 

And besides these there v^^ere the Lynn Safe Deposit and 
Trust Company, with a capital of $100,000 ; and the Security 
Safe Deposit and Trust Company, with a capital of $200,000. 

Religious Societies. 

The number of religious societies in Lynn, in 1850, was 
17, including that at Swampscott. The houses of worship 
were all of wood, and most of them hardly above what would 
now be called shabby. 

The number of religious societies is now (1890) 36. Within 
a few years, marked progress has been made in the architec- 
ture of our houses of worship, so that Lynn now has several 
edifices of stone and brick that will compare favorably with 
any in the Commonwealth out of Boston. 

Whether the religious tone of our community has been 
elevated or depressed during these forty j^ears, is a problem. 
But it is generally conceded that the comparative attendance 
on public worship is somewhat less, in these latter days. The 
very general closing of the churches on the afternoon of the 
Lord's day, has opened the way for meetings in the public 
halls and other places for the discussion of all sorts of secu- 
lar topics, thus diverting minds from religious subjects, and 
perhaps loosening the faith of many. Others, who are averse 
to seeking edification within dooi's, are inclined to spend the 
vacant hours abroad, in the woo^s, the fields or on the beaches. 

Lawyers. 

The number of lawyers in Lynn in 1850, was 5. In 1890, 
we have 40, which certainly indicates a great increase in bus- 
iness or in a love for litigation. 

Physicians. 

The number of physicians in Lynn, in 1850, was 17. In 
1890 we have 80. This can hardly be taken as indicating a 
decline in the healthfulness of the place, for such sanitar}^ 
improvements and appliances have been made during the 
forty years as would naturally tend to lessen febrile and pul- 
monary diseases, the two classes most to be feared hereabout. 

The great progress made in the facilities for street travel ; 
in the matters of drainage, street pavements, sidewalk con- 
struction, street lighting, and in many other like directions, 

st<p. 3. 



354 ANNA1>S OF LYNN 189I . 

will at once occur to the mind. But above all, the water- 
works stand pre-eminent in value and usefulness. 

A wonderful advance, too, has been made in the architec- 
tural style and costliness of our buildings, public and private, 
business and residential, so that it may be said, the whole 
aspect of the place has become changed. 

Our schools and the various means for intellectual improve- 
ment and diversion have kept pace with the general onward 
march. 

For a simple simile let us illustrate by the progress of arti- 
ficial lighting. In 1850 we were fast emerging from the tal- 
low-dip and uncleanly whale-oil lamp, into the light of cam- 
phene and other burning fluids, more or less endangering 
from explosion. Then came kerosene, in a few years to be 
to a large extent supplanted by coal gas. Then comes the 
blazing light of electricity, which has already begun to illumine 
our streets, many of our business places and homes. Yes, 
and it is working its way with masterly rapidity, as a motive 
power, that will give rest to many a weary heart, and before 
which even our old and faithful servant, steam, seems already 
drawing to a wheezy end. The extensive electric works here 
in Lynn, which are spoken of somewhat at large elsewhere, 
already indicate the development of unlimited capabilities in 
the subtile agent, and presage effects hitherto unattained and 
unimagined. What next it will accomplish, it would be dar- 
ing to predict — perhaps the flashing forth of intelligence 
from other worlds. 

1891. 

During the early part of this year, business generally, and 
the shoe business in particular, was unusually dull. This 
was attributable in a great degree to the labor troubles that 
had long prevailed. Both employers and employed now be- 
came convinced that concession was needed on both sides ; 
and when the conviction was earnestly acted on affairs began 
to mend. 

The new City Government was organized Jan. 5 ; E. Knowl- 
ton Fogg, Mayor. 

The 70th birthday of John W. Hutchinson, one of the 
musical " band of brothers" known throughout the country, 
and to some extent in Europe, as the Hutchinson family, was 
celebrated at his High Rock home, Jan. 5. The day was not 
very pleasant without, but within, the large gathering of 
friends made everything cheerful and enjoyable. Some came 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189I. 355 

from distant homes, anxious to pay their respects to one who 
had so long added to the enjoyment of others, by his genial 
temperament, his sweet songs, and philanthropic acts. He 
was an early and zealous advocate for the abolition of slavery, 
as were his brothers ; and likewise ardent as a temperance 
reformer. Their songs and persistent efforts, in divers ways, 
undoubtedly did much to advance the reforms alluded to. 

The fine summer residence of Nathaniel Brewer, on Ocean 
street, was destroyed by fire, Jan. 7, the loss on house and 
contents reaching $31,000. 

The Lynn Board of Trade held its first annual meeting in 
the Common Council room, Jan. 14, and completed the or- 
ganization by the choice of Albert L. Rohrer, president, John 
B. Newhall, secretar}^, and James E. Jenkins, treasurer. It 
numbered among its active members some of our stanchest 
and most sagacious business men, and soon became a power- 
ful aid to the business of the city, and its welfare in various 
departments. 

Bog Meadow, so called, in the eastern section of the town, 
was formally taken possession of by the Park Commissioners, 
under a recent enabling legislative act, for park purposes, 
Jan. 16. 

Died, Jan. 18, Edward K. Weston, aged 47, long a lead- 
ing music teacher in various departments of the art. He 
was organist and choir master of St. Stephen's Church for a 
number of years, and acquitted himself in a manner most 
satisfactory, not only by his skill upon the instrument, but 
likewise by his facility m the control, as well as teaching, of 
the large boy choir of that church. He had previously served 
as organist in the First Universalist and one or two other Lynn 
churches. His manners were pleasing, and all his ways tended 
to inspire confidence in those with whom he became associated. 

A fire occurred, Jan. 22, caused by an overheated boiler, 
in a wooden building on Bowser street, occupied by Charles 
E. Blake & Co. as a shoe factory. The loss on building and 
contents was $5,100. 

The Manufacturers' National Bank, being the sixth bank 
of discount in Lynn, was organized Feb. 3, and opened for 
business June 22, with a capital of $200,000. 

The First Methodist Society held a centennial celebration of 
the establishment of Methodism in Lynn, Feb. 20. 

Died, March 22, Stephen H. Gardiner, aged 90. He was a 
well-known citizen, and during the many years of his resi- 
dence here was universally known as " Captain " Gardiner. 



356 ANNALS OF LYNN 189I. 

He was a native of Sag Harbor, Long Island, and probabl}^ 
a descendant from one of the old Lynn emigrants to that 
vicinity, as his middle name was Halsey, and Thomas Halsey 
was one of the emigrants settling at Southampton. Captain 
Gardiner was a master mariner, came to Lynn in or about 
1835, and sailed as commander of one of the Lynn Whalers 
mentioned under date 1832. He quit the vocation of mariner, 
however, many years ago, and engaged in other business. 
He invented one or two highly useful nautical appliances and 
obtained letters patent. He was a man of commanding figure, 
genial manners and friendly sympathies. 

The great strike of morocco workers, which began in 
August, 1890, was declared " off," April 9. 

A fire occurred, April 17, in the Pevear Block, Munroe 
street, caused by electric wires, and resulting in loss to the 
amount of about $7,000. 

Monsignor Strain, so long a faithful minister in the Roman 
Catholic Church in Lynn, receives, April 30, at St. Mary's 
Church, the insignia of Domestic Prelate — a member of 
the household — of His Holiness Leo XHL A solemn high 
mass with a select Boston choir added much to the solem- 
nity. Monsignor Strain left Lynn soon after on a visit to 
Rome. 

The recent introduction of military exercises in our common 
schools adds a new, interesting and perhaps useful feature to 
youthful accomplishments. There was quite a martial gath- 
ering here in Lynn, and a competitive drill, of what is known 
as the Second Massachusetts School Regiment, on May 9, 
Companies being present from Andover, Brookline, Chelsea, 
Gloucester, Lowell, Maiden, Medford, Reading, Wakefield 
and Woburn. There was a great gathering of parents and 
friends, male and female, old and young, to greet the youth- 
ful soldier boys — " at least one girl visitor to each boy sol- 
dier," as a local paper said. The rivalry at the drill was 
quite spirited. Governor Russell and members of his staff 
were present. In the drill, Maiden came in first of the win- 
ners. 

A mass meeting was held at the First Universalist Church, 
May 20, to consider measures for the prevention of the rap- 
idly increasing disregard of the Lord's Day. 

A prize fight took place before the Lynn Athletic Club, 
May 25, at which one of the participants received such " pun- 
ishment" as caused his death. 

A choir festival was held in St. Stephen's Church, May 27, 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189I. 357 

in which fourteen surpliced choirs of young men and boys 
participated. The choristers numbered about four hundred. 

Memorial Day (May 30) observed as usual. The address 
was by Hon. F. T. Greenhalge of Lowell. 

During the year ending June i, there were erected in Lynn 
465 buildings, of the aggregate value of $2,092,100. Some 
of them were superior brick, stone and iron structures. 

The Lynn Boys' Club, an institution of a few years' stand- 
ing, of great merit, intended for the training of youth, in all 
good wa3^s, had June i, according to the Superintendent's 
annual report, an enrolled membership of 631. 

Hon. Harmon Hall, of Saugus, died June 30, aged 73. 
He was a native of Portland, Me., but came hither when 
quite young, and from a childhood of comparative penury 
worked his way to a manhood of competence and considera- 
tion, filling positions of usefulness and trust. Among the 
offices which he held were those of Town Clerk and Select- 
man of Saugus, Representative and Senator in the State 
Legislature, Governor's Counsellor, and Prison Commissioner. 
He was likewise for a number of years President of the Sau- 
gus Mutual Fire Insurance Company. He was a member of 
various organizations ; a Freemason and an Odd Fellow. In 
person Mr. Hall was prepossessing, and in manners genial. 

Independence Day was duly celebrated. The preparations 
were elaborate and successfully carried out, the procession 
especially being unusually fine. 

The winter of 1890-91 yielded a good crop of ice, inso- 
much that the price, which had greatly increased during the 
preceding summer, receded to about its usual figure. 

A fire occurred, July 5, in a wooden dwelling on Tudor 
street, owned and occupied by Charles E. Peabody, caused 
by a defective flue, that resulted in a loss amounting to $6,700. 

A destructive fire occurred, July 17, on Union street, near 
the Central railroad station, in the Blake, Strout and Currier 
brick blocks. Loss, $172,000. The cause of the fire was 
unknown. 

The corner stone of the new West Lynn Odd Fellows' build- 
ing. North Common street, was laid July 30. 

Died, Aug. 15, at his residence on Green street, John B. 
Tolman, aged 84 ; a citizen widely known and worthily ex- 
tolled for his benevolent and timely public gifts. He was 
born in Barre, Worcester county, but in boyhood went to 
Dedham, where he learned the printer's trade. In 1830 he 
came to Lynn, where his first employment was on the old Lynn 



358 ANNALS OP' LYNN 189I. 

Record. And he continued in the printing business, by in- 
dustry and frugahty hiying the foundation for the fortune 
which he finally secured and so judiciously disposed of. He 
was an ardent advocate for the reforms of the day ; and es- 
pecially zealous in the temperance cause, in furtherance of 
which he gave a trust fund of some $30,000. To establish 
charitable institutions, by direct gift while living, and by will, 
he gave the further aggregate sum of $20,000. Mr. Tolman 
and his wife lived happily together far into old age. In 188 1 
they celebrated their " golden wedding." And death did not 
long part them, for she died at the age of 86, within ten days 
of his decease. 

Died, Sept. i, Timothy Lakeman, long known as the " Old 
Lamplighter," aged 79. He was a faithful official in the 
city lighting, department for about thirty years, was intelligent 
and keenly observant of passing events ; was affable in man- 
ners, had a good common school education, and was full of 
reminiscences of old time events and people. Though not a 
political aspirant, he was quite remarkable for his knowledge 
of current political affairs and the characteristics of public 
men, and was a prompter, if not a guide, for many an active 
and ambitious partisan. 

The weather on Labor Day, Sept. 7, was so unfavorable 
that the out-door proceedings were less satisfactory than usual. 
In Lasters' Hall, Andrew street, a meeting was held, at which 
Mayor Fogg made an address, and other brief speeches were 
made. 

Mrs. Harrison, wife of President Harrison, and other mem- 
bers of the white house family made a short visit to Lynn, 
Sept. 23, and had a reception at the house of Mrs. C. A. 
Coffin, Nahant street. A drive about town and the vicinity, to 
Swampscott and Nahant, concluded their visit. 

Died, very suddenly, Sept. 28, at his home, Linwood street, 
Cyrus M. Tracy, aged 67. He was a native of Norwich, 
Ct., came to Lynn while very young and began his education 
in our public schools. He possessed a literary turn, and 
while laboring day by day found means to gratify his taste and 
store his mind. He loved good books, and their teachings 
found congenial soil in his heart and mind, sinking deeply 
and bearing excellent fruit. He early acquired a felicitous 
use of the pen, and in almost every department of literature 
became conspicuous, in a local sense at least. His writings 
in poetry, history, and on the passing events of life, attracted 
marked attention. As the editor of a weekly paper he was 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 89 1. 359 

extensively and favorably known. Nothing like a full col- 
lection of his writings has yet appeared. He was a true 
lover of nature and delighted to rove among her varied and 
beautiful works ; to him a day in the woods was worth many 
days of what most of us call the pleasures of social life. It 
is not overstraining even to call him the father of our late 
splendid acquisition known as Lynn Woods. His little book 
entitled " Essex Flora " will be studied long after the fragrant 
beauties it classifies have been driven far away by the aggres- 
sive hand of "improvement." "Mr. Tracy," say the Park 
Commissioners in their report for 1891, "was a versatile, 
many-sided man. His call, his inner inspiration, was to teach 
the people of Lynn that they had in the Woods ' an asylum 
of inexhaustible pleasure.' Of all the work he accomplished 
in his useful life he would undoubtedly desire to be remem- 
bered for this. . . . That to-day the whole magnificent 
domain is the people's is due to the momentum which he gave. 
The children of Lynn, in all generations, will cherish and 
revere the memory of Cyrus M. Tracy for the marvelous 
gift to which his seer's vision guided them." He delivered 
the poem at the dedication of the City Hall, Nov. 30, 1867, 
and the oration at the celebration of the 250th anniversary of 
the settlement of the town, June 17, 1879. Notwithstanding 
all his early disabilities, his physical imperfection and the 
discouragement of stinted means, Mr. Tracy kept on his ris- 
ing way with unwavering courage, till guiding purpose and 
laudable ambition began to yield their ripening fruit. He 
was one of the founders of the Houghton Horticultural Soci- 
ety, and never tired in his efforts to enhance the usefulness 
of that and kindred organizations. The death of Mr. Tracy 
was startlingly sudden. He was abroad as usual on the 
evening of the 27th, and on the morning of the 28th was dead 
and cold upon his bed. 

John Wooldredge, whose death took place at the age of 68, 
in San Francisco, Cal., on the 7th of October, was long a 
conspicuous resident of Lynn, though Marblehead was his 
native place. He came in 1847 and here passed most of his 
business life. He was a prominent shoe manufacturer, and 
amassed a large property ; was interested in municipal affairs, 
and in the development of all promising resources. He 
served in the City Government as an Alderman, and was for 
some time President of the First National Bank. In railroad 
affairs he became widely known, and was for a time Presi- 
dent of the Eastern Railroad. His large and fine estate at 



360 ANNALS OF LYNN 189I. 

the corner of Ocean and Nahant streets, overlooking the 
peninsula, the beaches and a large extent of the bay, must 
have been the source of much enjoyment to him. But it has 
now become the site of several less spacious but beautifully 
appointed residential estates ; thus affording pleasure to in- 
creased numbers of nature's votaries. 

The neat Scandinavian Church, on Pleasant street, was 
dedicated on the nth of October. Its cost was $7,000. 

On Sunday, Oct. 25, the weather was clear throughout the 
United States. No signal station reported a drop of rain. 
No other such occurrence reported for eighteen years. 

Died, in Warnerville, Concord, Mass., Nov. 23, Gardiner 
Tufts, aged 63. Death found him at his post of duty as Su- 
perintendent of the State Reformatory, which position he had 
faithfully filled for some years. He was a son of Richard 
Tufts, for a long time a deacon of the First Congregational 
Church, well known as a rigid moralist and temperance ad- 
vocate, and a grandson of David Tufts, spoken of elsewhere 
as the first regular Lynn expressman. He was engaged in 
mechanical employments during his earlier years, but before 
middle life had conceived an ambition for a different and 
wider field of action. Among his first public appointments 
was that of Assistant Postmaster of the House of Represen- 
tatives at Washington, a position which gave him an insight 
into public affairs and an acquaintance with public men 
that proved of great benefit in after years. Soon after the 
breaking out of the Civil War he was appointed Military 
Agent of Massachusetts at Washington, and in that capacity 
received unstinted approbation from those in authority over 
him, and the affectionate regard of the many to whom in the 
exercise of his office he administered ; long after the war 
he continued to receive loving testimonials from the sufferers 
and their dependents, whom he had done so much to relieve. 
He was a friendly advocate for every worthy soldier, and a 
faithful counsellor for the less deserving. His constant efforts 
in behalf of the soldiers of our dear old Commonwealth are 
still fresh in the memory of thousands. It need not be said 
that he was universally esteemed in his native place, in 
whose prosperity he ever retained an affectionate interest, 
nor that he was called to fill various local offices of trust and 
responsibility. He was a member of the Common Council, 
an Alderman, and a Representative in the State Legislature. 
Colonel Tufts — for he held that military title by brevet — 
was a great lover of music, and an adept in its practice, at 
least as a vocalist. He was also well skilled in the use of 



ANNALS OF LYNN 189I. 361 

the pen, often enriching our local papers with reminiscences 
and disquisitions. Many of his papers were much more de- 
serving of preservation than some that we day by day see 
between handsome book covers. He was a steadfast friend 
of Cyrus M. Tracy, spoken of under this date, and who 
passed away but about two months before him. They were 
fellow-workers for a time, in early life, at the tool factory of 
Theophilus N. Breed, on Oak street. His death was sudden 
and peaceful ; peaceful, for he who had so faithfully done 
his duty here could have no fear regarding his final accept- 
ance. 

A banquet was held in Lasters' Hall on Thanksgiving 
Day, Nov. 26, by our French citizens. 

A fire occurred in the large wooden building, corner of 
Market and Andrew streets, belonging to T. E. Parker and 
heirs of James N. Buffum, Nov. 28. Loss on building and 
stocks, about $105,000. 

Died, in Brookline, Mass., Dec. 25, Rev. Charles C. 
Shackford, aged 76. He was minister of the Unitarian So- 
ciety in Lynn for nineteen years, commencing in 1846 ; was 
scholarly and vigorous, and took great interest in all enter- 
prises for the promotion of intelligence among every class. 
For the efficiency and advancement of our public schools he 
was unwearied in his etibrts. The Public Library received 
his fostering care, and he also did much by introducing lectures 
of the higher order. For some years he owned the chief 
part of the beautiful suburban precinct now know as Lynn- 
hurst, and resided there, spending much time and money in 
improving the grounds and planting a great variety of choice 
fruit trees — trees which have already been largely uprooted 
through the demands for building sites. After leaving Lynn, 
Mr. Shackford became a professor in Cornell University, 
where he diligently labored for a nvimber of years, the recip- 
ient of many encomiums for his capability and efficiency. 
He delivered the address at the consecration of Pine Grove 
Cemetery, July 24, 1850. It was at the ordination of Mr. 
Shackford, in South Boston, that Theodore Parker preached 
the sermon which for the first time brought into strong light his 
peculiar views, creating a sensation even before the congre- 
gation that listened to it dispersed, and long agitating the 
theological world — a sermon of which the Rev. Mr. Swett, 
then minister of the Unitarian Church here, said in his 
pulpit, " If that is Unitarianism I am not a Unitarian." 

The total loss by tire, in Lynn, during 1891, was 
$352,119.06. 



362 ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 

1892. 

The new City Government was organized, Jan, 4, Elihu B. 
Hayes, Mayor, 

Died, Jan. 14, Aza A. Breed, aged 72, a native and life- 
long resident of Lynn. He was a lineal descendant from 
Allen Breed, who came here among the first settlers, in 1630. 
Mr. Breed was an enterprising and esteemed citizen. He 
served in both branches of the City Council, and exercised 
much influence by his good judgment and prompt action. 
There was, however, one flighty episode in his life ; and that 
was when, on the 4th of July, 1878, he made a balloon ascen- 
sion from City Hall Square, in company with City Marshal, 
Charles C. Fry, C. Frederick Smith, a newspaper reporter, 
and the aeronaut. But it was a depressing episode when, 
early in the afternoon of Oct. 5, 1878, he was attacked by 
two ruffians in Belcher Lane, Boston, and robbed of $8,000. 
The money belonged to the Central National Bank, of Lynn, 
and was in his custody as a public messenger. The robbers 
escaped with their plunder; but the bank, having full confi- 
dence in the honesty of Mr. Breed, and sympathy for his 
misfortune and personal injury, readily bore the larger part 
of the loss. He was a trustee of the Lyim Five Cents Sav- 
ings Bank, a director of the Lynn and Boston Street Rail- 
road, and held other offices, in which care and fidelity were 
prime requisites. 

James Warren Newhall, an accomplished writer of prose 
and poetry, died, Jan. 22, aged 65. Mr. Newhall was long 
and favorably known, especially for his poetic contributions, 
which in a great measure had reference to passing events 
and local affairs. His lines furnished for festive and patriotic 
occasions were always greeted with applause, and now 
that he has gone from among us, it may surely be said that 
could his writings be gathered up, they would form a volume 
that would afford enjoyment to generations yet to come. He 
had a humorous vein that induced many a healthful smile, and 
one of tenderness that bore sympathy and consolation. He 
was for some years editor of one of our weekly newspapers, 
and in that capacity acquitted himself as one who well under- 
stood the duties and responsibilities of such a position. Ph3'si- 
call3^ he was a cripple from his birth, and as years multiplied, 
found it more and more difficult to appear in the streets ; but 
his spirits retained their buoyancy, insomuch that his presence 
was soujiht for on all sorts of festive occasions. He had no 
complaints to make about his hard fate, and had no moody 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 363 

or sulky hours. Possibly had it not been for his infirmities, 
we should never have had such estimable fruits of his genius, 
for it is often seen that the mind of the physical invalid, by 
its indisposition and inability to grapple with the cares and 
perplexities of active life, turns to higher and more ennobling 
pursuits. One of his longest poems was that delivered at the 
celebration of the 250th anniversary of the founding of the 
First Church of Lynn, June 8, 1882. It was happily con- 
ceived, well delivered, and much enjoyed by the refined 
congregation who listened to it. 

On Wednesday evening, Feb. 3, the recently formed Board 
of Trade held their first regular banquet, about 175 partaking. 
It was a notable gathering and augured well for the future 
good of the business interests of Lynn. Earnest and well- 
considered addresses on various industrial topics were made, 
and it seemed as if the useful organization was fast getting 
into good working order, as it was full of promise for the 
stimulation of trade and aiding all healthful municipal inter- 
ests. 

The Thomson-Houston and Edison General Electric com- 
panies were consolidated, Feb. 5. 

The double track on the Saugus Branch of the Boston and 
Maine Railroad, completed. 

St. Luke's Methodist Church, Oakwood avenue, was dedi- 
cated Feb. 14. 

A fire occurred in Riley's block, Market street, Feb. 20, 
occasioning a loss of some $8,500. 

Died, Feb. 25, Henry L. Chase, aged 66. He was a native 
of Leominster, but came to Lynn in 1868 as principal of the 
Whiting Grammar School. He was a good teacher, and 
besides his service in that capacity did much to enkindle a 
taste for science and kindred pursuits. He loved to associate 
with ramblers in the hidden nooks of nature's domain, and 
to discuss with scholars topics of progressive education. He 
was a devoted member of the Unitarian Society, and a touching 
service was held over his remains in their house of worship. 

A severe and long-continued storm commenced March i, 
doing considerable damage along the Ocean street shore and 
in other exposed places. Lamper's tide mill, near the foot 
of Pleasant street, was wrecked. 

Elijah D. Howard was found dead in his room, March 12. 
He was a machinist, having his place of business on Munroe 
street, and for twenty years had made his home in a room on 
Whittier street. He had the reputation of being in rather 
moderate circumstances, though not in absolute penury. Much 



364 ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 

to the surprise of his neighbors there was found in his room 
after his decease, in gold coin, mortgages, notes and other 
evidences of wealth, the amount of some $35,000. 

Charles J. Van Depoele, an expert electrician holding a 
position at the Thomson-Houston works, died at his home on 
Essex street, March 18, aged 46. He was a native of Bel- 
gium. From early life he was fond of experimenting with 
electricity, and soon attained a wonderful insight into its power 
and capabilities. He came to this country in 1871, and was 
soon active in the establishment of electric plants in various 
places, largely at the West and in Canada. It is claimed that 
to him belongs the honor of being a pioneer in the electric 
street railway held. A solemn high mass was held over his 
remains at St. Mary's church, at which some 3,000 persons 
attended, 2,500 being from the Thomson-Houston works, 
which suspended labor on the occasion. 

St. Patrick's Day, March 17, was duly celebrated by Irish- 
American citizens. 

A fire in Sleeper's hardware store, Munroe street, March 20, 
did damage to the amount of $6,000. 

The corner stone of the new Central Church edifice. Broad 
street, was laid March 21. 

The new Club House of the Oxford Club, on Washington 
Square, was opened and a great fair for the benefit of the 
Club commenced, April 6, and continued four days. This 
fine building is furnished with every appliance necessary and 
convenient for those who take pleasure in such organizations, 
which, though of slow growth in this country, have now be- 
come a marked feature. Lynn at the present time numbers 
among her club members a considerable portion of our most 
prominent and representative citizens, and the associations 
without doubt as now conducted, are doing a good work in 
softening the asperities and frictions of common life, and aid- 
ing the development of resources most applicable to the needs 
of this our day. Time may even develop in some members 
the stalwart characteristics of old English club life. 

The West Lynn Lodge of Odd Fellows dedicate their new 
quarters on North Common street, April 27. 

Arbor Day, April 30, was noticed among other ways, by 
the assembling in the woods of representatives of the Hough- 
ton Horticultural Society, who planted, near Mt. Gilead, 
three trees, one to the memory of each of our three recently 
departed local lights: — Henry L. Chase, James Warren 
Newhall and Cyrus M. Tracy. There was a prayer, an 
address, and the reading of an original poem, all earnest and 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1 892. 365 

sympathetic. The trees previously selected, were, for Mr. 
Chase, a Norway maple, for Mr. Newhall, a cut-leaf birch, 
and for Mr. Tracy, a purple-leafed English sycamore. It 
was a touching and merited tribute. 

On Saturday morning, April 30 — the next day. May i, 
being Sunday — the Associated Charities, an excellent or- 
ganization whose purposes are indicated by its name, spread 
a substantial May breakfast in the Armory building, Franklin 
street. The number of partakers was between 1500 and 
2000. Various other entertainments and diversions occupied 
a considerable portion of the after part of the day. It was a 
successful and enjoyable May-day celebration. The receipts 
realized for carrying on this work by the Associated Charities 
amounted to $678.27 for the day. 

The first place for Jewish worship in Lynn, a hall in Clapp's 
block. Market street, corner of Munroe, was dedicated on 
Sunday, May i. The exercises were in accordance with the 
solemn Jewish ritual. 

Quite a " mad dog scare " took place in Lynn and vicinity 
about the middle of May. A small fox hound, belonging to 
George Franker of Saugus, rushed furiously about the streets, 
manifesting every appearance of madness. He was finally 
despatched by Cit}^ Marshal Wells, but not before having 
bitten, as was stated, not less than eleven persons and forty 
dogs. That he was really mad, for sometime remained in 
doubt. A professor of Harvard College, after critically ex- 
amining the brain of the dog gave the opinion that he was not 
mad. But the final death of two of the persons bitten, with 
unmistakable marks of hydrophobia, led to the conclusion 
that the examination of the dog's brain was not reliable. 

A fire occurred. May 20, in J. Otis Marshall's wood-turning 
establishment, Marshall's wharf. It was soon under control 
but not extinguished till property to the amount of $17,464 
was destroyed. 

May 30, Memorial Day, was observed much as usual, 709 
soldiers' graves being decorated. The address was delivered 
in the evening, by Gen. John L. Swift. 

Died, at Nantucket, June 16, William Foster Mitchell, 
aged 67. He will long be favorably remembered as a City 
Missionary in Lynn for a number of years. And a large 
portion of his life both before and after his residence here 
was spent in similarly benevolent work. Especially did he 
labor during the Civil War, and subsequently, for the better- 
ing of the condition of the emancipated slaves and other 
colored people. He was born in Nantucket, and was a son 



366 ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 

of William Mitchell, an accomplished scientist, well known 
among scholars, especially those clustering around Harvard 
College. Professor Maria Mitchell, the well-known proficient 
in astronomical science, was a sister of his. 

The new and stately High School building, on Highland 
square, was dedicated on Friday evening, June 17, with ap- 
propriate ceremonies. Members of the School Committee, 
the Mayor and other City officials made brief addresses, and 
the musical renderings gave zest to the exercises. Presi- 
dent Eliot of Harvard College, was the prominent orator. 
There was a very large attendance of interested townspeople, 
and every thing passed off with promptness and decorum. 
The cost of land and building was $295,000. 

July 2, Cora Beckwith succeeds in the extraordinary feat 
of swimming from Egg Rock to Lynn Beach, landing nearly 
opposite the foot of old Beach street. 

Died, July 27, Abraham C Moody, aged 65. He took 
great interest in the fire department, was chief engineer for 
seventeen years, during which time the most appalling con- 
flagration with which he was destined to grapple was the 
great fire of Nov. 26, 1889. He was a native of Newburj'- 
port but came to Lynn while a boy, and here worked at the 
morocco business, which proved to be the chief occupation of 
his whole life. He possessed much decision of character, 
was trustworthy and reliable. 

August 17 will be remembered in the history of Lynn 
as the day on which the great gathering under the auspices 
of the Boston Boot and Shoe Club, took place. It was an 
occasion that called together leading men of the boot and 
shoe trade from all parts of the country, the Lynn Board of 
Trade acting the part of host. The day was pleasant, and 
the early morning trains brought numbers of eager, expect- 
ant and hopeful participants ; for it was the first of a series 
of annual trade gatherings which the club proposed to hold. 
Governor Russell arrived at about ten o'clock, and held a 
reception in the eligible rooms of the Board of Trade, on 
Exchange street. An hour was spent by His Excellency in 
shaking hands and exchanging brief greetings with the mul- 
titude of those eager to pay their respects. Then the mem- 
bers of the club and guests were driven to the grounds of 
Francis W. Breed, on Ocean street, where a generous en- 
tertainment was spread. After freelv partaking, the party 
re-entered the carriages and were driven to various points, 
chiefly those of historic interest or scenic grandeur, with 
both of which, fortunately, Lynn abounds. Thus the hours 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 367 

were occupied till the meridian was passed ; and then the 
drive to " Lynn Woods," our newly-acquired sylvan domain, 
was commenced. An extended ride along the shady ways, 
with now and then a momentary pause to visit some wild 
glen, legendary shrine or commanding height, brought them 
to the vicinity of Mount Gilead. And there, on a spacious 
forest opening, carpeted by leaves and moss, they found 
ample preparations for a now highly appreciable banquet, 
for the ride had been \ovg- and the hour was late. The rustic 
seats along the tables were soon occupied by a hungry com- 
pany of more than three hundred. In due time the appetites 
were appeased ; and then began the intellectual exercises. 
The speeches were, of course, chiefly on topics connected 
with the shoe and leather interests, but not exclusively so, 
and elicited most heart}^ applause. The president of the 
club, F. G. Nazro, was the first speaker, then Mayor Hayes, 
of L#ynn, expressed warm words of welcome to the visitors : 
next came our enterprising townsman, Francis W. Breed, a 
member of the World's Fair Commission and President of 
the New England Shoe and Leather Association ; then spoke 
Gen. Augustus P. Martin, of Boston. Hon. Henry Cabot 
Lodge, of Nahant, a member of Congress, followed ; then 
Isaac H. Bailey, of New York. Isaac B. Potter, of New 
York, read a paper on roadways and kindred topics. The 
last speaker was Charles Eliot, of Cambridge, son of the 
president of Harvard College ; his speech, too, had refer- 
ence to public grounds and reservations. Congressman J. 
H. Walker, of Worcester, not being able to be present, for- 
warded a letter of regret, which was read at the table. The 
day will be long remembered as the one especially on which 
good old L3mn was honored by unstinted encomiums on her 
thrift, her beautiful scenery, her hospitality ; and as a day on 
which she, in her turn, honored her visitors by a rich display 
of her resources and her opportunities. It was an occasion 
that enhanced the reputation of Lynn wherever she was 
known ; and which rendered her name familiar in many a 
place where it had not before been heard. Undoubtedly the 
main purpose of the gathering was to magnify and extend 
the fame of the shoe and leather trade of New England, and 
its success in that direction can hardly be questioned. Inci- 
dentally it did much other good work. 

James E. Bessom, Aug. 30, performed the surprising feat 
of walking backwards from Lynn to Bass Point, Nahant, and 
returning in two hours and twenty-seven minutes. 

Labor Day, Sept. 5, was celebrated by a parade and ad- 



368 ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 

dresses. The weather proved favorahle and the working 
people had a gala time. 

Died, Sept. 9, of Bright's disease, Abel Bates, aged 68. 
He was a soldier in the Civil War, and at the battle of Spott- 
sylvania lost his right arm. He returned to Lynn, on being 
mustered out, and in 1865 was elected City Messenger, which 
office he held till the time of his death — twenty-seven years. 
He discharged his duties faithfully, and was unassuming and 
courteous to all. 

The Knights of Pythias, of Essex County, had a grand 
parade in Lynn, Sept. 15. 

A large number of members of Post 5, Grand Army, left 
Lynn, Sept. 17, for Washington, to join in the great National 
Encampment there. 

The Board of Aldermen, Sept. 20, voted to accept the 
bequest of $2500 made by William Shute for an electric 
fountain. 

Charles S. Ingalls conveyed the ownership of Mount 
Spicketto the city, Sept. 20. 

The North Shore Traction Company was incorporated at 
Camden, N.J., with a capital of $6,000,000, Sept. 21. The 
" Lynn and Boston " and " Belt Line " systems of street rail- 
roads, together with other lines in neighboring places, soon 
became the property of this absorbing company. 

The Steamer Watertown, a packet plying between Lynn 
and Boston, was burned, off Point Shirley, Sept. 28. She 
was a wooden propeller, and had done a successful business 
in the passenger and freight line during the season. 

The Lynn Naval Company of fifty members was mustered 
in at the Armor}', Franklin street, Oct. i, the oath of allegi- 
ance to Massachusetts and to the United States being taken. 

" Gipsey " Smith, a celebrated English evangelist, com- 
menced a series of revival meetings in Lynn, Oct. 16, chiefly 
in the First Methodist Church. He claimed to be, and no 
doubt was, a genuine gipsey. His discourses were fluent, 
pointed, and attracted many hearers. 

Died, at his residence on Mall street, Oct. 17, John T. 
Moulton, aged 54. His death was very sudden, and sent a 
thrill through the community not commonly experienced, for 
he was a man extensively known and as extensively re- 
spected. He was one of our largest manufacturers in the 
morocco line, his towering manufactory being on Marion 
street, almost on the site where his ancestors had for two 
centuries or more carried on business in one way or another 
connected with the production of leather. His father had 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 369 

for many 3'ears conducted a successful business on the same 
spot. To his naturally intellectual quickness was added a 
good education, for he graduated from our High School in 
1855, well prepared to enter college. He was skilled in the 
use of the pen and produced many pieces, both in prose and 
poetry, well worthy of preservation. But his great, and as 
may be said, chief inclination, was to historical and antiqua- 
rian studies. There he seemed to feel most at home, and 
there his patience in research and reliability in statement 
were conspicuous. He always took great pains to make no 
statement that he did not feel assured was the exact truth — 
a most commendable habit in any writer on historical topics, 
but one far too uncommon. It was Mr. Moulton, who in 
connection with Isaac O. Guild, in 1888, caused to be erected 
in our Old Burying Ground a commemorative stone at the 
grave of the celebrated fortune teller, Moll Pitcher, who 
died in 1813 ; a simple stone, which has already become 
a shrine at which many a young knee has bent, as is 
shown by the depression of the sod. A strong love of liter- 
ature, of one kind and another, seems to have run in the 
family of Mr. Moulton, a love that cropped out now in prose 
and then in poetry. His father took unbounded pleasure in 
poring over old English tomes, as well as pursuing matters 
of local history, though he wrote little or nothing for publi- 
cation in endurable form. Dr. Joseph Mansfield, of the fam- 
ily on the maternal side, a graduate of Harvard College in 
1801, and who the year before took the prize of eighty dol- 
lars for a poem delivered in the College Chapel, being the 
best metrical production offered in the judgment of the 
faculty, left poems enough to fill a volume, which it is yet 
hoped may one day appear in a form where others than those 
of the family may enjoy the perusal. Then there was Solo- 
mon Moulton, an uncle of John T., who early developed more 
than ordinary poetic genius and aptness at versification. 
Mr. Lewis spoke highly of his productions ; but he died at 
the age of 19, and what he would have accomplished had his 
life been spared, can only be conjectured. Judging, how- 
ever, from what he actually did, there was reason for great ex- 
pectation. Mr. Moulton was not an aspirant for public office, 
nor by any means what is called a politician, but he filled 
several offices of trust with marked fidelity. During one or 
two of the last years of his life he was subjected to sore trials 
by the labor troubles that prevailed over most of the indus- 
trial world. There was a protracted " strike" at his factory, 
and occasional threats of violence, but he exercised a 

Sup. 4 



370 ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 

manly forbearance while firmly maintaining his rights, and 
finally succeeded in re-establishing the harmony always so 
dear to him. 

Oct. 21, it being Columbus Day — the four hundredth an- 
niversary, according to new style, of the discovery of Amer- 
ica by Christopher Columbus — business was generally 
suspended in accordance with the recommendation of the 
President of the United States and the Governor of the 
State. It was generally observed here as a holiday, though 
there was no very marked demonstration. At the schools 
patriotic addresses were made and patriotic songs sung. 
Veterans of the Grand Army were out in numbers, in some 
instances giving a military aspect to the proceedings, but 
on the whole, it being an anniversary of such a peculiar 
nature and so new in its apparent requirements, many seemed 
at a loss to determine what proceedings were most appropriate. 

Egan & Bolger's shoe factory on Eastern avenue was 
burned, Oct. 25, involving a loss of $19,500. 

A large convention of Associated Charities was held in 
Lynn, Oct. 25. Numbers from other places were present, 
and vigorous discussions were held touching the benefit, pur- 
pose and success of the organization. 

The registration in Lynn closed Oct. 29. Of the 12,498 
on the list, 10,790 voted at the election Nov. 8 — a remark- 
ably large percentage. 

Capt. William Phillips died Nov. 16, aged 93. He was 
born on the border district formerly known as the Marble- 
head farms, came to Lynn proper in early life and was long 
engaged in some branch of the shoe trade. His title of cap- 
tain came from his having command of a company in the old 
Lynn militia regiment. 

Nov. 21, there was presented to the City of Lynn, by 
John E. Hudson, a relic of singular interest. It was an iron 
pot of about the capacity of one quart, stated to have been 
the first piece of iron casting made in America. The 
presentation took place at the City Hall in presence of a 
number of leading citizens, and Mayor Ha3'es responded in 
a fitting speech. Two or three others made brief addresses, 
chiefly of an historical character. The inscription on the 
tablet provided for the relic embodies a succinct history, 
which is as follows: ^'' The first casting made in America. 
Sangus Iron Works., 16^2. Presented to the City of Lynn 
by John E. Hudson, a descendant of Thomas Uudsoti, the 
owner of the site of the Iron Works, to zvhom the first cast- 
ing jvas given. This case -presented by citizens of Lynn, 



ANNALS OF LYNN 1892. 37 I 

i8g2.''' The existence of this casting has long been known, 
and the question is sometimes asked how it is proved to have 
been the first casting. Probably nothing can be known be- 
yond the statement of Mr. Lewis, in the History of Lynn, 
under date 1642. 

The City Council vote, Nov. 29, $12,000 for a Marine 
Park; $8,000 more to be raised by subscription. 

St. Mary's Church was broken into on Monday evening, 
Dec. 26, bv thieves who stole valuable gold and silver ves- 
sels. 

The Lynn and Boston Street Railroad commence running 
their cars to Boston by electricity, Dec. 26. 

The fine house of worship of the Central Congregational 
Society, on Broad street, was dedicated on the evening of 
Dec. 29. There was a large attendance and the exercises 
were impressive, the sermon being by Rev. Alexander 
McKenzie, D.D. This is the third edifice that the Society 
has reared since its organization in 1850. The first was 
entirel}^ consumed by fire on the morning of Sept. 9, 1866 ; 
and the second, which was erected soon after, was destroyed 
in the great conflagration of Nov. 26, 1889. The first was 
of wood, the second of brick, and the present is of stone. 

The total loss by fire in Lynn, during 1892, was $80,669.10. 



372 HISTORY OF LYNN. 



Industries of Lynn. 



The leading business of Lynn continues to be, as it has 
been for almost a hundred and fifty years, the Manitfacture 
of Ladies' Shoes. And though the manufacturers lost largely 
by the great fire, it does not seem that there has been much 
diminution in the volume of trade, though it is carried on in 
some instances in different localities. But little need be said 
here in addition to what has been given elsewhere on these 
pages. There are 179 factories, with an aggregate capital of 
$4,550,000; average number of persons employed, 12,000; 
value of annual product, if 21,300,000 ; gross profit, $4,000,- 
000; average yearly earnings of each employe, $465. Of 
course it is not claimed that these estimates are entirely un- 
erring in every instance, but they are as reliable as diligent 
inquiries and care could make them. 

Next in historical importance is the Leather Manufacture 
— chiefly that which comes under the general names of mo- 
rocco and leather. It is probable that at no former period 
has this branch of industry been more active or profitable. 
The number of factories may be stated at 30 ; capital invest- 
ed, $950,000; value of product, $2,450,000; stock used, 
$1,687,000; number employed, 800. 

The recently established Tho^nson-Houston Electi'ic Works., 
which are briefly spoken of under date 1883, bid fair to over- 
shadow all the other industries of Lynn. They have attained 
huge proportions in a marvelously short time, the business 
having increased in five years from about $400,000 per annum 
to $12,000,000. At the present time, May, 1890, there are 
employed at the works here 2,500 persons; which number, 
by including those elsewhere engaged in the service of the 
Company, would be raised to more than 4,000. The amount 
of capital, including invested surplus, is about $9,000,000. 
The floor space now occupied by the Lynn factories is 281,586 
square feet. The product of the Company is electrical ma- 
chiner}^ of all kinds, and is of course for the greater part 
disposed of in the United States ; bvit there is a constant and 



HISTORY OF LYNN. 373 

increasing demand for their apparatus in all parts of the 
civilized world. 

Of the various other industries of Lynn so much has been 
said elsewhere that nothing need be added in this connection. 

So large a portion of the population of Lynn consists of 
working people, that it would be remarkable if there were not 
combinations of various orders formed in the hope of bettering 
the condition of those who are dependent for a livelihood upon 
the labor of their hands. We have had a large share of what 
are popularly known as labor troubles, but at the present time 
we seem measurably, though by no means entireh^ free from 
difficulties of this kind. Such lessons however have been 
learned that the more considerate on both sides — employers 
and employed — see that forbearance and concession are very 
needful. It is said that the poor are always discontented. 
But are the rich ever contented? The whole civilized world 
is now agitated by labor throes ; a condition that perhaps fol- 
lows from the increasing intelligence of all classes, truer con- 
ceptions of individual capabilities, power, and natural rights. 
The result of this unrest will surely be the essential modifi- 
cation of some of the unnatural features of the present artifi- 
cial condition of society. But these so called labor troubles 
are not the only elements that are working important changes 
in the texture of society. Among others is the marked change 
in the relative position of woman. We now find the fairer 
sex in about all the professions and relations that a few years 
ago were considered to appertain only to men. And it is a 
fact of rainbow promise. Especially is her healthful influence 
perceptible in the ever broadening field of literature. There, 
she is scattering seeds that will not fail to produce most whole- 
some fruit. But may we not indulge the hope that she will 
not soon be found on the turbulent borders of the political 
arena, panting to join in the feverish conflicts there ? Perma- 
nent reforms must come, but need not be expected in whirl- 
wind rush, such as characterized some of the vain attempts 
in years gone by, bul by such peaceful gradations as nature 
herself exemplifies. 



374 HISTORY OF LYNN. 



Benevolent Institutions, etc. 

Lynn has a full share of organizations, benev^olent, social, 
literary and recreative. But few, however, can even be named 
here ; nor is it necessary that they should be, as our annual 
Directories give all the information that in most cases would 
be desired, their names usuall}^ indicating their fields of labor. 
But one or two merit special notice. 

Lynn Hospital. Allusion to the history of this institution 
may be found on page 270. At the close of 1889, the finances 
appeared in a satisfactory condition. The receipts for the 
3^ear from incomes, bequests, and donations, were $13,311.58, 
and the expenses $10,749.29. The average number of pa- 
tients for the year was 21, and the expense for each patient 
for board, medicine, and attendance, was $511.87 per annum. 
The medical cases were in number 558, and the surgical, 703 ; 
diseases of the eye, ear, and skin, 136. The Hospital fund, 
June, 1890, has reached about $85,000. Of that, $26,000 
have been invested in land and buildings, and $2,500 in fur- 
nishings ; leaving over $56,000 invested in securities, the 
income of which is devoted to running expenses. The annual 
expense of maintenance is now about $10,000. And the 
income from investments being about $3,000, some $7,000 
have to be raised each year. The working men, in all de- 
partments of trade, have year by year liberally contributed. 
And indeed all classes have shown their appreciation of the 
value of the institution in the true way, by pecuniary aid. 
The Oxford Club, until its rooms were destroyed by the fire, 
raised each year, from $900, the amount of its first annual 
contribution, to $3,600, the result of its last entertainment. 
And there have been several opportune donations from sym- 
pathizing individuals, as well as bequests. The annual church 
collections have each year for several years amounted to $1 ,000. 
The late collections in response to the renewed appeals of the 
managers, when no single subscription above $10 was asked, 
resulted in nearly $6,000. The managers regard the Hospital 
as eminently an institution for the people, and the people, on 




Lynn Hospital. 1888. 

The above is a correct representation of one of the most excellent of our more recently 
established institutions — the hospital. The buildings are not costly, but are picturesquely 
situated on historic ground, on Boston street, between Franklin and Washington streets. 




HoMK FOR Aged Women. 

This is another of our praiseworthy institutions. The building is at the west end of the 
Common, on the north side, and was originally, in 1832, built for and occupied by the unfor- 
tunate Nahant Bank, which failed in 1836. An ancient dwelling gave place to the structure. 



HISTORY OF LYNN. 375 

their part, cordially do what they can for its support. And 
all of us can give it our prayers, if we have nothing else to 
give. That its affairs have been skilfully and prudently 
managed, and with a single eye to the good of all concerned, 
there is no doubt ; and by increased means its usefulness 
will be correspondingly increased. As will be observed, the 
means are still quite limited. The President is William F. 
Morgan, and the Treasurer, David H. Sweetser. 

Lynn Associated Charities. This is another of Lynn's 
most commendable organizations, wiiich has, in an unosten- 
tatious way, accomplished much good. Especially w^ould its 
promptness and energy in supplying the immediate wants of 
sufferers at the trying time of the great tire, entitle it to grate- 
ful recognition. It was organized in 1885, as mentioned under 
that date, and has continued to increase in usefulness and 
public favor. Its President is William F. Morgan. 

The Home for Aged Women is another institution that has 
had the careful attention of some of our best people, and the 
funds that have been secured have enabled the directors to 
conduct the affairs of that pleasant abode in the most satis- 
factory manner. The establishment of a home for aged men 
has for a long time been under consideration in many benevo- 
lent minds ; and it is ardently hoped that the time is not far 
distant when so desirable an object will be accomplished. 
And then a home for aged couples would be a noble addition 
to our beneficent institutions. Who of our wealth}' worthies 
will spare of their abundance the little that will at first be 
needed for such objects as these, and thus have assurance that 
their names will be pronounced with blessings by future gen- 
erations? 

The ancient institution of Free-Masonry has long had a foot- 
hold in Lynn. Mount Carmel Lodge was constituted in 1805, 
and with the exception of the singular Anti-Masonic episode 
that exerted its influence along from 1830 to 1840, has held a 
very respectable position. There are now four bodies here, 
with an aggregate membership of about 650. 

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows have some twelve 



376 



HISTORY OF LYNN. 



lodges in Lynn, with a correspondingly large membership, 
and are a power among our provident organizations. 

It is needless to add that Lynn, with its large proportion of 
working people, is well supplied with associations designed 
to provide for the contingencies of sickness or otherwise forced 
idleness ; indeed for mutual aid in every approved way. And 
all such things show a prevalent good-will and fraternal feel- 
ing. May it ever continue ! 



Autographs of Mayors. 

By turning to pages 292, 293, and 294 the reader will find 
fac-similes of the signatures of all the Mayors of Lynn, down 
to Mr. Lovering — 1882. And the following embraces all 
the succeeding ones down — 1893. 




1883 and 1834, William L. Baikd. 




"I ^ (^<z€ctco^^<^ 



1885, John R. Baldwin. 




1886 and 1887, George D. Hart. 



HISTORY OF LYNX. 



377 





-7. 

1888, George C. Higgins 




CA^J-Qy- J/T 




1889 and 1890, Asa T. Newhall. 



CjP*^ -/T^.-i--zr7-c>-^^^^2rv-w "Zy^Oi 



1891, E. Knowltox Fogg. 



1S92 and 1893, Eliih" B. Hayes. 



Closixg Words. 

Considering that the writer has ah'eady passed the age of 
four-score vears, it is hardly probable that he will again take 
up the thread of the histor}^ of Lynn, his native place : though 
it is not an inspiring belief that the pleasant employment that 
for so many years has occupied hours that, to say the least, 
might have been devoted to some worse purpose, is to be for- 
ever abandoned. In this whirligig world, however, there is a 
possibility that in accordance with the custom of our dramatic 
friends there may be other last appearances. He claims to 
have a pretty good knowledge of the goings-on in Lynn for 



378 HISTORY OF LYNN. 

the last seventy years, and to have contributed something to 
elucidate her history from its beginning. With his own hands 
he has set the types for these historical volumes even down 
to the page now under the reader's eye. But this is the place 
for a few modest words of retirement rather than for amplifi- 
cation. If, however, any one is eccentric enough to desire a 
glimpse at the chief landmarks in the life of one so little 
known to fame, he may find in the History of Essex County, 
published in 1888, by J. W. Lewis & Co., of Philadelphia, 
an autobiographical sketch. And for that history he prepared 
the sketches of Lynn, Lynnfield, and Swampscott. Were it 
not doing violence to his native modesty he would also add 
that the Centennial Memorial of Lynn and the account of the 
proceedings on her 250th anniversary, both published by 
order of the City Council, were prepared by him. 

Since the writer undertook the recording of Lynn's general 
history, several others have employed their pens in various 
departments. David N. Johnson, in 1880 published a volume 
entitled " Sketches of Lynn, or the Changes of Fifty Years," 
a work of very good appearance, and containing many pleas- 
ant and graphic descriptions and faithful biographical deline- 
ations. It was deservedly received with favor. Then there 
came, also in 1880, "Lynn Pictures, by James Jeffrey, with 
designs and engravings by the Author," an unpretentious but 
companionable little volume. " Lynn and Surroundings, by 
Clarence W. Hobbs," profusely illustrated, appeared in 1888, 
and was well received by a large circle of readers. Many 
other writers have appeared here from time to time, whose 
valuable works do not come within the present line of notice. 



As the main body of this work has been carried along from the beginning iu the form of Annals, 
the Supplement is continued in the same style. It contains the events of eleven years— 1882 to i8g3. 

The Annals from i62q to 1865 are found in History of Lynn, Vol. i. The present volume 
takes up the Annals on page 17, with the year 1865, and on page q6 closes with 1881. Pages 32g to 371 
record the Annals of 1882 to i8q3. By the Indexes, the contents of each page may be easily found. 
On page 2q5 the contents of all the pages preceding are noted. On page 310 is an Index to the Pictorial 
addenda following. On page 37Q at the close of this Supplement is its Index. Of course, Vol. I has an 
Index of its own. Editors. 



I N D E X — (/^ Suppletnenl. ) 



Aged Couples, Home for, 351. 

Aged Men, Home for, 348. 

Aged Women, Home for, 333, 375. 

Aijpropriations, etc., 352. 

Arbor Day, 3(i4. 

Armory, Franklin St., dedicated, 339. 

Arthm-, President, burial of, 336. 

Associated Charities, 334, 365, 370, 

372, 375. 
Australian system of voting, 344. 
Autographs of Mayors, 376, 377. 

Bachiler, Rev. Stephen, 337. 
Backward walking, 367. 
Baird, Wm. L., mayor (autograph) 376. 
Baldwin, John R., mayor (autograph), 

376. 
Balloon ascension, 362. 
Banks, 333, 345, 352, 353. 
Banquet, French, 361. 
Banquet, Lynn printers, 347. 
Banquet, J. R. Newhall, 347. 
Barnum's Great Show, 330. 
Barry, Darius, 349. 
Bartol & Co., G. F., fire, 349. 
Batchelder, John, 334. 
Bates, Abel, 368. 
Beach Street, changed, 350. 
Beckwith, Cora, 366. 
Beebe & Sons, Lucius, fire, 334. 
Belt Line Street R.R., 339, 348. 
Benevolent institutions, 374. 
Bennett, Josiah C, donation, 335. 
Berry, John W., appointed judge, 341. 
Bessom, James E., 367. 
Biographical and Personal Notices. 
Arthur, Chester A., ex-President, 
burial of, 336. 

Bachiler, Rev. Stephen, 337. 

Bailey, Isaac C, 367. 

Barry, Darius, 349. 

Batchelder, John, 334. 

Bates, Abel, 368. 

Beckwith, Cora, 366. 

Bennett, Josiah C, donation, 335. 

Bessom, James E., 367. 

Bishop, W. Irving, mind reader, 336. 

Breed, Aza A., 362. 

Breed, Francis W., 366. 



Biog. and Personal Notices. — Cont. 
Breed, Henry A., 336. 
Breed, Rev. Joseph Blaney, 351. 
Breed, Theophilus N., 332, 361. 
Breed, Thomas A., 336. 
Bubier, S. M., mayor, portrait, 124. 
Buffum, James N., 337. 

Chamberlain, Gen. Joshua L., 342. 
Chase, George Hussey, 339. 
Chase, Henry L., 363, 364. 
Cleveland, President, veto, 336. 
Coffin, Mrs. C. A., 358. 
Crawford, George A,, 335. 

Davis, Edward S., 335. 
Devens, Gen., 339. 

Eliot, President, 366. 
Eliot, Charles, 367. 

Fogg, E. Knowlton, mayor, 354. 

(autograph) 377. 
Fry, Charles C, 362. 

Gardiner, Stephen H., 355. 
Grant, U.S., President, death of, 

334. 
Graves, Zachariah, 347. 
Greenhalge, Hon. F. T., 357. 
Guild, Isaac O., 339. 

Hall, Harmon, 357. 
Harmon, Rollin E., 341. 
Harrison, Mrs. President, 358. 
Hart, Geo. D., mayor, 337. 

(autograph), 376. 
Hayes, Elihu B., mayor, 344, .362. 

(avitograph), 377. 
Hood, Jacob, 335. 
Howard, Elijah D., 363. 
Hudson, John E., 370. 
Hutchinson, John W., 354. 

Ingalls, Charles S., 368. 

Johnson, Wm. F., 340. 
•Josselyn, Lewis, 341. 

Kimball, Josiah F., 341. 

Lakeman, Timothy, 358. 
Lovering, H. B., mayor, 330. 
Lummus, Dr. John, 337. 



38o 



HISTORY OF LYNN, 



Biog. and Personal Notices. — Cont. 
Martin, Gen. Augustns P., 367. 
McKenzie, Rev. Alexander, 371. 
Mitchell, Maria, 343, 366. 
Mitchell, William, 366. 
Mitchell, William Foster, 365. 
Monds, Maria, 333. 
Moody, Abraham C, 366. 
Morgan, Wm. F., 375(2). 
Mott, Henry E., 337. 
Moulton, John T., 339, •iHS. 
Moulton, Solomon, 369. 

Nazro, F. G., 367. 

Newhall, Asa T., mayor, 345. 

(autograph), 377. 
Newhall, Rev. Fales H., 332. 
Newhall, James R., 344, 347. 
Newhall, James Warren, 362, 364. 

Patch, Geo. H., 332. 

Peach, Gen., 343. 

Phillips, Capt. Wm., 370. 

Pinkham, Lydia E., 332. 

Pitcher, Moll, 339. 

Potter, Isaac B., 367. 

Pullman, D.D., Rev. J. M., 334. 

Ramsdell, Oliver, 347. 
Rhodes, Mrs. Lydia, 351. 
Rohrer, Albert L., 355. 

Sargent, James M., 333. 
Shackford, Rev. C. C, 361. 
Shepherd, Allen G., 337. 
Simmons, W. A., 333. 
Skinner, John W., 332. 
Smith, C. Frederick, 362. 
Smith, Gipsey, 368. 
Smith, Myron, 348. 
Stewart, Rev. S. B., 351. 
Stone, Capt. M.V.B., 335. 
Strain, Monsignor, 338, 356. 
Sweetser, Benjamin, 350. 
Sweetser, David H., 375. 
Swift, Gen. John L., 365. 

Tanner, James M., 329. 
Thompson, Rev. Edwin, 339. 
Thomson, Elihu, 331. 
Tirrell, Jr., Minot, 334. 
Tolman, John B., 333, 357. 
Tracy, Cyrus M., 358, 364. 
Tufts, Col. Gardiner, 332, 360. 
Tufts, David, 360 
Tufts, Richard, 360. 

Van Biuen, Rev. James H., 348. 
Van Depoele, Charles J., 364. 

Walden, Edwin, mayor, 342. 
Walker, Myron P., 348. 



Biog. and Personal Notices. — Cont. 

Ward, Benjamin A., 335. 
Weston, Edward K., 355. 
Wooldredge, John, 359. 
Wright, Carroll D., 334. 

Birch pond, 347. 

Bishop, W. Irving, mind reader, 336. 

Blake & Co., C. E., fire, 355. 

Board of Trade, 355, 363, 366. 

Bog Meadow, 355. 

Boot and Shoe Club, Boston, 366. 

Boscobel hotel, 332, 334. 

Boys' Club, 357. 

Breed, Allen, 362. Aza A., 362. 

Daniel N., 351. F. W., 366, 367. 

Henry A., 336. Joseph Blaney, 

351. Theophilus N., 332, 361. 

Thomas A., 336. 
Breed's pond, 333, 346, 347. 
Brewer, Nathaniel, fire, 355. 
Bvrffum, James N., 337. 
Buildings, new, 348. 357. 
Burglary, 341. 

Camera Club, 338, 347. 

Cedar pond, 347. 

Cemetery, Pine Grove, 351. 

Centennial, First M.E. church, 355. 

Central Cong'l Society, 364, 371. 

Chamberlain, Gen., 342. 

Charter, City, 352. 

Chase, George Hussey, 339. 

Chase, Henry L., 363, 364. 

Cheap railroad trains, 330. 

Chimes, St. Stephen's, 335. 

Choir Festival, 357. 

Choirs, musical, 332. 

Churches, 332, 333(2), 334(4), 335 (2), 

336(3), 338(2), 340, 343, 347, 

348, 355, 356, 360, 363, 364, 365, 

368, 371 (2). 
City Messenger, 368. 
Clark, Charles G., fire, 329. 
Cleveland. President, veto, 336. 
Cliftondale, 341. 
Closing words, 377. 
Club, Boys', 357. 
Coflin, Mrs. C. A., 358. 
Coliseum, Grand Army. 329. 
Columbus Day, 370. 
Comet of '82, 331. 
Confederate Veterans' visit to Lynn, 

337. 
Congress of U.S., 330. 
Contributions for sufferers, 335, 34(5. 
Crawford, George A., 335. 
Cyclone, 349. 

Daily i>apers, price of raised, 335. 
Davis, Edward S., 335. 



HISTORY OF LYNX. 



381 



Deaths accidental, singular or violent, 

329, 330, 333, 349, 350. 
Dedications, 329, 334, 335, 339, 347, 

371. 
Deveus, Gen., 339. 
Dredging of Lynn Harbor, 333. 
Droughts, 330. 

Electric cars, 371. 
Electric companies, 363. 
Electric foimtain, .368. 
Electric lights introduced, 329. 
Electric works, 331, 345. 
Eliot, President, 366. 
Essex County, History of, 340. 
Essex Flora, 359. 
Expenditiu'es, 352. 
Explosions, 347, 351. 
Explosions, steam, 329, 330. 

Fairs. Grand Army, 332, 336. La- 
dies', for hospital, 333. Lasters', 
333. 

Fire, the great, 344. 

Fires, 329 (2), 330(2), 331, 333, 334 (3), 
337, 338 (2), 340, 341, .344, 349. 
355(2), 356, 3.57(2), 361, 363,364, 
365, 3(i8, 370. 

Fire loss, '90, '91, .352, 361. 

Flags on school houses, 343. 

Flax pond, 347. 

Floating bridge pond, 347. 

Fogg, E. Knowlton, mayor, 354, 377. 

Free Masonry, 375. 

French Catholic church, 336, 338. 

French banquet, 361. 

Fry, Chas. C, 362. 

Gardiner, Stephen H., 355. 

Gas and electric light station, 351. 

Gilead, Mt., 350. 

Gipsey Smith, 368. 

Glen Lewis consecrated, 330. 

Glen Lewis pond, 347. 

Goldfish pond, 347. 

G.A.E., 329, 332, 335. 336, 337, 349 

and 368. 
Grant, President, death of, noticed, 

334. 
Grave, Indian, 350. 
Graves, Zachariah, 347. 
Green & Co., Thomas, fire, 338. 
Greenhalge, Hon. F. T., 357. 
Guild, Isaac O., .339, 369. 

Hall, Hon. Harmon, 357. 
Harmon, Rollin E., ,341. 
Harrison, Mrs. President, 358. 
Hart, Geo. D., mayor, 337, (autograph) 
376. 



Hayes, Elihu B., mayor, 344, 362, 

(autograph), 377. 
Haverhill, 333. 

Henn, Lieut., of yacht Galatea, .336. 
Higgins, Geo. C, mayor (autograph), 

376. 
Highland Circuit Street R.R., 339. 
High School, 351, 366. 
Hobbs, Clarence W., 378. 
Holder's pond, 347. 
Home for Aged Couples, 351. 
Home for Aged Men, 348. 
Home for Aged Women, 333, 375. 
Home for Inebriates, 333. 
Hood, .Jacob, 335. 
Horses biu-ned, 338. 
Hospital, 332, 333, 335, 373, 374. 
Hospital fund, 374. 
Houghton, Godfrey & Dean's fire, 329. 
Houghton Horticultm-al Society, 359. 
Howard, Elijah D., 363. 
Hudson, .John E., 370. 
Hutchinson, John W., 355. 

Ice, 348, 357. 

Incarnation, Chvu'ch of, 334, 335. 
Independence Day, 348, 357. 
Indian grave, 3.50. 
Indian skeleton, 348. 
Industries of Lynn, 372. 
Inebriates' home, 333. 
Ingalls, Chas. S., 368. 

.Jeffrey, .James, 378. 
•Jewish chmx-h, 365. 
Johnson, Caleb, 340. David X., .350. 

Francis, 333. AVilliam F., 340. 
Johnstown flood, Lynn's contribution, 

342. 
Josselyn, Lewis, 341. 
Jumbo, elephant, 330. 

Kettle, Iron, 370. 
Kimball, Josiah F., 341. 
Knights of Pythias, 368. 

Labor day, 338, 350, 358, 367. 

Labor troubles, 373. 

Ladies' shoes, manufacture of, 372. 

La grippe, 344. 

Lakeman, Timothy, 3.58. 

Lamper's wharf, fire, 338. 

Lasters' fair, 333. 

Lawyers, 1890, 353. 

Leather manufacture, 372. 

Lennox, P., fire, 340. 

Lewis & Co.. J. W., 340. 

Light Infantry & Wooldredge Cadets 

visit AYashington, 341. 
Lighting, progress of, 354. 
Lightning, 333, 343, 348. 



382 



HISTORY OF LYNN. 



Lily pond, 347. 

Lincoln, President, 339. 

Lodge, Hon. Henry Cabot, 3(56. 

Lord's day, 356. 

Loretz steam pumping engine, 352. 

Loss by fire, 371. 

Lovering, Congressman, 330. 

Lummus, Dr. .John, 337. 

Lynn Bay State, 341. 

Lynn it Boston Street R.R., 371. 

Lynn and Surroundings, Hobbs, 378. 

Lynnfield, 335. 

Lynnhurst, 361. 

Lynn hospital, 332, 333, 335, 373, 374. 

Lynn Pictures, Jeffrey's book, 378. 

Lynn AVoods, 346. 

Mad dog, 365. 

Mansfield, Dr. Joseph, 369. 

Manufacturers bank, 355. 

Marblehead Street R.R., 333. 

Marine park, 370. 

Marshall, J. O., fire, 365. 

May breakfast, 365. 

Mayflower and (lalatea race, 335. 

Mayors of Massachusetts visit Lynn, 

337. 
Mechanics exchange, 335. 
Memorial day orators, 329, 332, 333, 

334, 335, 337, 339, 340, 348, 357, 

365. 
Methodist church. First, 333, 336, 355, 

368. 
Methodist Conference, 333. 
Military parade, 343. 
Military school drill, 356. 
Mind reading. 336. 
Missionary, City, 365. 
Mitchell, Prof. Maria, 343, 366. 
Mitchell, William, 366. 
Mitchell, William Foster, 365. 
Monds, Maria, 333. 
Moody, Abraham C, 366. 
Morgan, William F., 375 (2). 
Morocco manufacture, 372. 
Mott, Henry E., 337. 
Moulton, John T., 339, 368, 369. 
Moulton, Solomon, 369. 
Mt. Spicket, 368. 

Nahant, 335. 

jSTantucket, 343. 

Natural phenomena, 329 (2), 330, 331, 

333 (2), 335, 343, 348 (2), 349, 351, 

360, 363. 
Naval Battalion, Lynn, 368. 
New .Terusalem (Swedenborgian) ch., 

336. 
Newhall, Asa T., mayor, (autograph), 

345, 377. Rev. Fales H., 332. 



Newhall, James R., 344. James R* 
banquet, 347. James Warren, 362' 
364. Lucian, fire, 334. Nathaniel, 
338. 

Newspapers, 335, .341 (2), ,345, 358. 

North Shore Traction Co., 368. 

Odd Fellows, -343, 376. 

Odd J^ellows,West Lynn, 357, 364. 

Organizations, 333, 343, 357, 3.50, 

364 (2), 368, 373, 375, 376. 
Oxford Club, 364, 373. 

Parades, .343, .349. 

Parker, Theodore, 361. 

Park, Lynn Forest, 347. 

Patch, Geo. H., 332. 

Peabody, Charles E., fire, 357. 

Peabody Street Railway, 332. 

Peach, Gen., 343. 

Pevear block, fire, 333, 356. 

Phenomena, celestial, .331. 

Phillips, Capt. Wm., 370. 

Physicians, 353. 

Pine Grove Cemetery. 351. 

Pinkham, Lydia E., 332. 

Pitcher, Moll, 339, 369. 

Pitts, Philip, shot by burglar, 341. 

Police station, new, 350. 

Ponds, names of and areas, 347. 

Population, 352. 

Post 5, Grand Army visit Richmond, 

337. 
Powderly, National Master Workman, 

351. 
Prelate, Domestic, 356. 
Primitive Methodist, 347. 
Printers' banquet, Ijynn, 347. 
Prize fight, death, 356. 
Pullman, D.D., Rev. J. M., 334. 
Pumping station, 352. 

Railways, street, 332, 333, 335, 339(2), 

.343, .348, 368, 371 (2). 
Ramsdell, Oliver, 347. 
Rattlesnake, 349. 
Record, Lynn, 358. 
Registration, 370. 
Religious societies, 1890, 3-53. 
Revival meetings, 336. 
Rhodes, Mrs. Lydia, 351. 
Rhodes Memorial Chapel, 351. 
Robbery, 335, 362. 
Rowing regatta, 335. 
Russell, Governor, 366. 

Safe Deposit and Trust companies, 

353. 
Salvation Army, 333. 
Sargent, James M., 333. 
Saugus, 332, 337. 



HISTORY OF LYNN. 



383 



Saugus Branch R.R., 363. 

Saugus iron works, 870. 

Saugus Mutual Fire Ins. Co.. o.5T. 

Scandinavian churcli, 360. 

Sliaclvford, Rev. C. C.,361. 

Sliepherd, Allen G., 337. 

Shoe and Leather Association, 335. 

Shoe business, 372. 

Shute, William, 368. 

Simmons, W. A., 333. 

Sketches of Lynn, Johnson's, 378. 

Skeleton, Indian, 348. 

Skinner, John W., 332. 

Sluice pond, 347. 

Small, Sam, revivalist, 336. 

Smith, C. Frederick, 362. 

Smith, Myron, 348. 

Snow storms, violent, 320. 

Soldiers' monument, Swampscott, 332. 

Steam boiler explosions, 329. 

Steam Heating Co., Citizens, 330. 

Steamboat burned, 368. 

Stewart, Rev. Samuel B., reception, 

35L 
Stone, Capt. M. V. B., 335. 
Storm, severe, 363. 
St. Joseph's church consecrated, 334. 
St. Luke's M.E. church, 340, 363. 
St. Mary's R. Catholic, 338, 371. 
St. Patrick's day, 364. 
St. Stephen's church, 335, 348, 356. 
Strain, Monsignor, 338, 356. 
Strike, morocco workers', 349, 356. 
Swampscott, 330, 331, 332, 335. 
Swedenborgian chui'ch, 336. 
Sweetser building, fire, 331. 
Sweetser, David IL, 375. 
Sweetser, Benjamin, killed. 350. 
Swett, Rev. Mr., 361. 
Swift, Gen. John L.,365. 
Swimming feat, 366. 

Tanner, James M., 329. 
Tarbox, James E., 349. 
Taxation, Rate of, 352. 
Tebbetts, C. B., fire, 334. 
Temperature, curiosities of, 329. 
Theatre, Lynn, opened, 339. 



Thieves, St. Mary's church, 371. 
Thompson, Rev. Edwin, 339. 
Thomson, Elihu, 331. 
Thomson-Houston electric works, 372 
Thunder storm, 335. 
Tides, high, 348, 351. 
Tirrell, Jr., Minot, 334. 
Tolman, John B., 333, 357. 
Tracy, Cyrus M., 358, 364. 
Trinity chm-ch, Tower Hill, 334. 
Tufts, Daniel, 360. 
Tufts, Col. Gardiner, 332, 360. 
Tufts, Richard, 360. 

Universalist, First, 333, 334. 
Universalist general convention, 343. 
Universalist semi-centennial, 332. 

Valuation, 352. 

Van Bureu, Rev. James H., reception, 

348. 
VanDepoele, Charles J., 364. 
Veto of bill for public building, 336. 
Voters, 352. 

Voting, Australian system of, 344. 
Voting precincts established, 333. 

AValden, Edwin, mayor, 342. 

Walden pond. 347. 

Walker, Myron P., 348. 

Walnut & Washington street cars, 343. 

Ward, Benjamin A. , 335. 

Water, overflow of, 335. 

AVatertown, steamboat, 368. 

Weather, 360. 

AVeston, Edward K., 355. 

Whale, dead, 348. 

Whiting grammer school, 363. 

Woman's influence, 373. 

Woods, Lynn, 347, 367. 

Wooldredge, John, 359. 

Wright, Carroll D., 334. 

Yacht race, Mayflower and (ialatea, 

335. 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

333. 



1629 1893 

LYNN 

HER COMPLETE HISTORY. 



In answer to inquiries concerning the History of Lynn, and 
the other works of Hon. James R. Newhall, the undersigned 
announce that 

The volume by Alonzo Lewis and James R. Newhall, con- 
taining a full HISTORY OF LYNN, from the first settlement, 
in 1629, to the close of 1864, 8vo., 620 pages, price $2.25; and 
the volume entitled " LIN, or Notable People and Notable 
Things in the Early History of Lynn, the Third Plantation 
OF Massachusetts Colony," — the same that in earlier editions bore 
the title of " LIN, or Jewels of the Third Plantation," Svo., 
500 pages, price $1.50; are now in print, and can be promptly 
received by application at the places named. 

The volume bringing the History down from 1864 to 1890 
has been out of print, but a new edition is now issued, and this 
will bring the History to 1893. 350 to 400 pages, 8vo., price $1.75. 

The above give the continuous History of Lynn in its various 
departments, and give the means to all interested to become acquaint- 
ed with its History, from 1629 to 1893. 



These, with two new books, afford an excellent opportunity to secure as 
a whole the complete works of Hon. James R. Newhall, the Historian of 
Lynn. These books are unique in their character, being compiled from 
the personal observations of the author, and contain a connected History 
of our City, including its traditions and legends. 

They are noteworthy as a reflex of the times from the standpoint of 
a long life, are useful as ready reference and for genealogical and other tables 
of information, while the quaintness of the author's style, combined with 
the spice of personal experience, make them an interesting contribution 
to literature, and a valuable addition to a library. 

Israel Augustus Newhall. 
Howard Mudge Newhall. 



KE^yy^ BOOKS 



The following-named works have recently been issued. The new books 
are the last works of Hon. James R. Newhall's life, and were in prep- 
aration for publication at the time of his decease, October 24, 1893. 

In order to supply the continual demand for the older works, new 
editions of these are also issued. 

YE GREAT AND GENERAL COURTE IN COLLONIE TiMES. 

Legislative Dawn. Harsh and Humorous Doings. 
This volume is somewhat in the style of "LIN," but takes a broader 
range as to personal topics. New. 500 pages. Price $1.75. 

HISTORY OF LYNN. Vol. I. 

Fourth edition, including the original Alonzo Lewis History, 1629 to 
1864. Illustrated. 620 pages. Price, Cloth, $2.25. 

HISTORY OF LYNN. Vol, H. 

Completed to 1893. Illustrated. About 400 pages. Price, Cloth, $1.75. 
Former editions having been completed as far as 1883-1890 only. 

LIN; or^ Jewels of the Third Plantation. 

Legendary and romantic side of our history, possessing a strong fas- 
cination to any reader, wherever he may open it. Third edition. 500 pages. 
Price, Cloth, $1.50. 

Of this book George William Curtis said, "It more nearly resem- 
bles in its style the Sketch Book of Washington Irving than any book 
ever published." 

THE LEGACY OF AN OCTOGENARIAN. 

This volume contains : — 

I. Recollections, Observations and Experiences of the Author, dur- 
ing the last seventy-five years of his life. 

II. Notes of Travel in Europe and the East. 
III. Biographical Notices. 

In this volume appear numerous Biographical Sketches, Reminiscen- 
ces and Notes of Personal Experience; Descriptions of Persons and Things 
seen in Foreign Lands, with incidental observations. New. 448 pages. 
Price, Cloth, $1.75. 

These volumes give a complete history of Lynn, from its first settle- 
ment to 1893, both legendary and real, and contain much matter of interest 
in the legends and early lore of New England, in which the life of the 
Author was passed. 

The books have full indexes, which add greatly to their value. 

Price of the Five Volumes, $8.00. 

Volumes can be obtained by subscribing to Israel Augustus New- 
hall, 112 Market Street; Howard Mudge Newhall, Central Square; 
Miss J. M. Buhier, 92 Johnson Street, or the publi.shers, The Nichols 
Press, 113 Market Street, Lynn.